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Information About Cancer

Cancer 

DEFINITION:-

NEO-New

PLASIA – Growth (Growth of new tissues)

An abnormal growth of tissues which may benign or malignant.Show 102550100 entriesSearch:

Speed of growthSlowlyRapidly
Mode of growthThey do not infiltrate to surrounding tissues.They do it.
CapsuleIt insides in capsule.t have no capsule.
CellDifferentiate to cells.Poorly differentiate.
ReccurrenceIt will not come back after surgicalIt may come back.
PrognosisGood prognosis if surgical removed.Depends on cell and spread of disease.
MetastasisNever occur.Commonly occur.

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CANCER:- Cancer is the term which is use for described to wide variety of malignant disease.

  • Cancer is a disease process that begins when an abnormal cell is transformed by the genetic mutation of cellular DNA.

METASTATIS:- When cancer cells transfers from one place to another by the help of blood or lymph to breakdown from its original place, and starts growth itself. This is known as metastatis.

AETIOLOGY/CAUSES:- 

Cancer have no specific causes but some causes are:

1. Viruses

  • Human papilloma virus.
  • Herpes virus.

2. Chemical Agents

  • Cigarette smoking
  • Air pollutants etc.
  • A Vinyl chloride which is used in plastic surgery.

3. Physical Agents

  • X-rays
  • Sunlight
  • Radiations
  • Radioactive isotopes
  • Ultraviolet

4. Hormones:– Some hormones leads to develops cancer, e.g., Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is administer in pregnancy, it may cause vaginal carcinoma in female child.

5. Genetic Predisposition: If in a family, anybody have retinoblastoma or breast cancer then there is more chance of getting cancer to sister daughter of that lady.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CANCER CELLS
  • Never, a cancer cells divide or multiply in normal manner.
  • Cancer cells are usually large in size and also nucleus is large in size.
  • Cells are different in size and shape.
  • They makes space and take nutrition from host and donot give anything return.
  • They are very adaptable to continue of growth and compress to normal cells.
  • Metastatis is normal there.

SIGNS/SYMPTOMS

Keys of EARLY SIGNS

CAUTION-UP

  • C – Change in bowel and bladder habits
  • A – A sore that does not heal
  • U – Unusual bleeding or discharge
  • T – Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
  • I –  Indigestion dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing)
  • O – Obvious change – wart and mole
  • N –  Nagging cough or hoarseness
  • U – Unexplained weight loss
  • P – Pernicious anaemia

Other Symptoms

Manifestations are related to system affected and degree of distruption. Some symptoms are:

  • Anaemia
  • Weight loss
  • Anorexia
  • Weakness
  • Dysphagia
  • Blockage
  • Pain
  • Excess adrenal steroid production.

DIAGNOSTIC METHODS

  1. Physical examination
  2. History collection
  3. Imaging studies

4. Cytologic examination (pap smear)

5. Carcino embryonic antigen (CEA)

6. Breast self examination

7. Xerography

8. Proctoscopic and sigmoidoscopy examination

9. Barium enema

10. Radio isotopes study.

Stages of Tumour

T-Primary tumour

N-Regional lymphonode

M-Metastatis

To-No evidence of primary tumour

No-No regional lymph node cannot be assist

N,- Metastasis (Tumour on axillary lymph) N₂-N, fixed to another structure and node

N-N₂ involve with mammary glands

M-No distant metastasis

TMN-Tumour malignant, palpable lymphnode.

Cancer

PREVENTION AND CONTROL 

Prevention is mainly two types:

1. Primary

2. Secondary

1. Primary Prevention

(a) Smoking: 80% chance of lung cancer.

(b) Nutrition:

  • Take high fat diet have increase chances of breast cancer, colon etc.
  • High fibre diet reduces the risk of colon cancer.
  • Vit. A and C, can reduce chances of larynx, oesophagus and lung cancer.
  • Alcohol, cigarette smoking, tobacco chewing are increase risk of larynx, throat, oesophagus cancer.

(c) Sunlight

(d) Hormonal Therapy: Use of estrogen therapy for treating symptoms menopause, it may increase risk factor of endometrial cancer. of

(e) Radiation

  • X-rays
  • Exposure of industrial agents.

2. Secondary Prevention

(a) Colorectal Test:-There are three tests of colon and rectal are important for early diagno

After 40 years, rectal examination is necessary by physician in one year. Stool examination in one year after 50 years. After 50 years, proctosigmoidoscopy is necessary in 3-5 years.

(b) Pap Test

TREATMENT OF CANCERS

  1. Surgery
  2. Radiotherapy
  3. Chemotherapy
  4. Hormonal therapy
  5. Immune therapy
  6. Bone marrow therapy.

1. Surgery

(a) Preventive Surgery: Removal of benign tumour.

(b) Diagnostic Surgery: Take a sample of tissues for diagnostic findings

(e) Curative Surgery: Removal of malignant tumours before metastatis

(d) Palliative Surgery: It is done when cancer is out of control. This only done for controlling signs and symptoms like pain.

2. Radiotherapy:

Under this therapy, radioactive isotopes beams of radiati may be directed at a diseased part from a distance or radioactive material the form of needles, wires or pellets may be implanted in the body. Many for of cancer are destroyed by radiotherapy.

3. Goals of radiation therapy

  • For damage cell reproduction.
  • For shrink to large tumours before surgery.
  • Relieve pain.

4. Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy agents destroys malignant tumour cell without destroying norm cells .

5. Hormonal Therapy: Estrogen and progesterone.

6. Immune Therapy (see in management of Breast Cancer)

7. Bone Marrow Transplant

NURSING MANAGEMENT

Pre-Operative Care

  • Providing education and preparation for surgery.
  • Reducing fear and anxiety and improving coping ability.
  • Promoting decision making ability.
  • Provide psychological support.

Post-Operative Care

  • Relieving pain and discomfort.
  • Promoting positive body image.
  • Promoting positive adjustment and coping.
  • Improving sexual functions.
  • Monitor and manage potential complications.
  • Provide home and community based care.