Key points for physical pharmaceutics
1) Kraft point: Temperature at which solubility of surfactant equal to CMC.
2) Cloud point: Temperature above which cloudiness occurs.
3) Upper consulate temperature: Temperature above which two liquids get completely miscible, e.g. Phenol-water.
4) Lower consulate temperature: Temperature below which two liquids get completely immiscible, e.g. Triethyl amine water.
5) Syneresis: Shrinkage of gel by extrusion of liquid.
6) Draves test: Efficiency of wetting agent.
7) Pumice: Gas in solid.
8) Foam: Gas in liquid.
9) Bulges: Bentonite magma.
10) Spur: Procaine penicillin gel.
11) Schulze-Hardy rule: Precipitating power of oppositely charged ion.
12) Hofmeister Rank series: Precipitating power directly related to ability to separate water molecule.
13) Mark-Hou wink equation: Intrinsic viscosity.
14) Fanning equation: Energy loss due to friction.
15) Van der Waal’s equation: Real gases.
16) Clausius-Clapeyron equation: Heat of vaporisation.
17) Darcy equation: Filtration rate.
18) Instron tester: Tackiness and stickiness.
19) Cryoscopic constant: Freezing point depression (Beckmann apparatus).
20) Ebullioscopic constant: Elevation of boiling point.
21) Graham’s law: Diffusion of Gases.
22) Dalton’s law: Total vapour pressure.
23) Raoult’s law: Partial vapour pressure (Positive deviation: Benzene; Negative deviation: Acetone, chloroform)
24) Parachor: Liquid surface tension (sudgen constant).
25) Rabbit RBC’s: Standardisation of electrophoretic cells and zeta meter.