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Key points for physical pharmaceutics

Key points for physical pharmaceutics

1) Kraft point: Temperature at which solubility of surfactant equal to CMC.

2) Cloud point: Temperature above which cloudiness occurs.

3) Upper consulate temperature: Temperature above which two liquids get completely miscible, e.g. Phenol-water.

4) Lower consulate temperature: Temperature below which two liquids get completely immiscible, e.g. Triethyl amine water.

5) Syneresis: Shrinkage of gel by extrusion of liquid.

6) Draves test: Efficiency of wetting agent.

7) Pumice: Gas in solid.

8) Foam: Gas in liquid.

9) Bulges: Bentonite magma.

10) Spur: Procaine penicillin gel.

11) Schulze-Hardy rule: Precipitating power of oppositely charged ion.

12) Hofmeister Rank series: Precipitating power directly related to ability to separate water molecule.

13) Mark-Hou wink equation: Intrinsic viscosity.

14) Fanning equation: Energy loss due to friction.

15) Van der Waal’s equation: Real gases.

16) Clausius-Clapeyron equation: Heat of vaporisation.

17) Darcy equation: Filtration rate.

18) Instron tester: Tackiness and stickiness.

19) Cryoscopic constant: Freezing point depression (Beckmann apparatus).

20) Ebullioscopic constant: Elevation of boiling point.

21) Graham’s law: Diffusion of Gases.

22) Dalton’s law: Total vapour pressure.

23) Raoult’s law: Partial vapour pressure (Positive deviation: Benzene; Negative deviation: Acetone, chloroform)

24) Parachor: Liquid surface tension (sudgen constant).

25) Rabbit RBC’s: Standardisation of electrophoretic cells and zeta meter.