Nail preparations are also called as manicure preparations. Various manicure preparations in use include: Nail Bleaches, Nail lacquer or Nail enamel, Enamel removers, Nail elongators
Nail bleaches: They are used to whiten the nails and remove stains from the nails. Nail bleaches contain oxidizing agents like hydrogen peroxide or reducing agents like sulphites.
A typical formula of nail bleach is as follows:
Nail enamels/ Nail lacquers: These are the preparations intended to impart lusture and/or colour to the nails.
Formulation of Nail Enamel
1. Film former
5. Pearlescent pigments
Film formers: Cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate, cellulose acetobutyrate, ethyl cellulose, methacrylate and vinyl polymers are used as film formers in nail lacquers. But the film forming properties of cellulose nitrate are so good that it is widely used as the film former.
Solvents: Usually a mixture of solvents i.e. high boiling, medium boiling, low boiling solvents are used in nail lacquers. The mixture of solvents is so balanced that precipitation of cellulose nitrate is prevented. Example of
solvents used include: –
High boiling: Butyl lactate, ethyl oxalate, isoamyl acetate etc.
Low boiling: ether, carbon disulfide, acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate etc.
Medium boiling: isopropyl acetate, toluene, isopropyl alcohol, amyl formate etc.
Plasticizers: These impart flexibility and gloss to the film and also helps in adhesion of films to the nails. Examples of plasticizers used in nail enamels include – dibutyl phthalate, resorcinol doacetate, castor oil, butyl acetyl ricineolate etc.
Colors: Usually insoluble pigments and lake colours are used in nail enamel.
Pearlescent: These impart pearly appearance to the film. Example of pearlescent material used include – 2-amino, 6-oxypurine (crystalline guanine), bismuth oxy chloride coated pigments.
Enamel Remover: These are the preparations intended to remove enamel from the nails and basically consists of solvents for the enamel.