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Pharmacology of Drugs Acting on Endocrine System – I (Short Questions)

Pharmacology of Drugs Acting on Endocrine System – I important Question For One Mark 

True or False

1) Pituitary is an essential gland of the body and is generally called as the master gland.
2) Ghrelin is a peptide hormone secreted from live.
3) Somatostatin is a 14 amino acid peptide that can inhibit the secretion of GH, TSH, and prolactin from pituitary gland.
4) Lack of growth hormone or defects in its binding with receptors is called as growth retardation or dwarfism.
5) Acromegaly occurs due to excessive GH secretion in children.
6) Prolactin is a peptide hormone which is secreted by the posterior pituitary.
7) Bromocriptine is a natural ergot derivative and a potent dopamine agonist.
8) Nafarelin is a long -acting GnRH agonist and is 150 times more effective than the natural GnRH.
9) Vasopressin is a neurohypophysial hormone present in most mammals.
10) Parathormone is secreted by the chief cells of parathyroid glands. It is a polypeptide containing 80 amino acids.
11) Calcitonin is a 32-amino acid linear polypeptide hormone.
12) Vitamin D is transported to the liver through blood and gets converted to calcidiol .

Fill in the Blanks

13) The ___________ of the thyroid gland synthesise calcitonin in humans.
14) ____________ is a branch of a broader field of internal m edicine, and is the study of disorders of endocrinal glands.
15) Pituitary is an essential gland of the body and is generally called as the __________.
16) __________ occurs due to excessive GH secretion in young children.
17) __________ is the functional unit of thyroid gland.
18) ______ is the component of thyroid hormones but is also the fastest acting thyroid inhibitor.
19) The first clinically used sulfonylurea for treating diabetes was ___________.
20) ___________ is the first drug of a new class of oral hypoglycaemic.
21) ___________ and ___________ are the most common examples of natural mineralocorticoids.

Answers

1) True 2) False 3) True 4) True 5) False 6) False 7) False 8) True 9) True 10) False 11) True 12) True 13) Parafollicular cells 14) Endocrinology 15) Master gland 16) Gigantism 17) Thyroid follicle 18) Iodine 19) Carbutamide 20) Repaglinide 21) Aldosterone, Desoxycorticosterone

Important Summary For one mark Question

1) The endocrine system acts by releasing chemical agents (usually in the blood) and is important for the proper development and functioning of organism s.
2) Endocrinology is a branch of a broader field of internal me dicine, and is the study of disorders of endocrinal glands.
3) The endocrine system comprises of glands which secrete a type of hormone for regulating the body functions.
4) The word hormone has originated from a Greek word hormaein which means to impel.
5) Pituitary is an essential gland of the body and is generally called as the master gland.
6) Ghrelin is a peptide hormone secreted from the stomach.
7) Somatostatin is a 14 amino acid peptide that can inhibit the secretion of GH, TSH, and prolactin from pituitary gland.
8) Lack of growth hormone or defects in its binding with receptors is called as growth retardation or dwarfism.
9) Gigantism occurs due to excessive GH secretion in young children . It occurs occasionally due to a tumour of somatotropes.
10) Acromegaly occurs due to excessive GH secretion in adults, generally due to benign pituitary tumours.
11) Prolactin is a peptide hormone which is secreted by the anterior pituitary and is structurally similar to GH.
12) Bromocriptine is a synthetic ergot derivative and a potent dopamine agonist.
13) Thyroid stimulating hormone is a 210 amino acid and two chain glycoprotein (22% sugar) with a molecular weight of 30000.
14) Nafarelin is a long -acting GnRH agonist and is 150 times more effective than the natural GnRH.
15) Two hormones, Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH, vasopressin) and oxytocin are secreted by the posterior pituitary lobe.
16) Vasopressin is a neurohypophysial hormone present in most mammals.
17) Diabetes insipidus is the most common disease related to vasopressin.
18) Two hormones, i.e., thyroxine (T 4) and triiodothyronine (T 3), are synthesised by the thyroid gland.
19) Thyroid follicle is the functional unit of thyroid gland.
20) All cells of the body are possible targets of thyroid hormones.
21) Iodine is the component of thyroid hormones but is also the fastest ac ting thyroid inhibitor.
22) Parathormone is secreted by the chief cells of parathyroid glands. It is a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids.
23) Calcitonin is a 32-amino acid linear polypeptide hormone which acts opposite to PTH, i.e., it reduces blood calcium levels.
24) The parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland synthesise calcitonin in humans .
25) Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, and phosphate.
26) Vitamin D is synthesised in the animal skin when a pr ecursor molecule (7 – dehydrocholesterol) absorbs light energy.
27) Vitamin D is transported to the liver through blood and gets converted to calcidiol (the pro-hormone).
28) Overdosing of vitamin D supplements results in vitamin D toxicity.
29) Insulin is a polypeptide having 51 amino acids organised in two chains attached together with disulphide bonds; chain A consists of 21 amino acids and chain B consists of 30 amino acids.
30) Insulin is recommended to type I diabetic and some kinds of type II diabetic
patients.
31) Hypoglycaemic agents are used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus by lowering the blood glucose levels.
32) The first clinically used sulfonylurea for treating diabetes was carbutamide.
33) Newly established meglitinide analogues include repaglinide and nateglinide.
34) Repaglinide is the first drug of a new class of oral hypoglycaemics.
35) Glucagon is a 29 amino acid , single chain polypeptide released by the - cells of the islets of Langerhans in pancreas.
36) ACTH is a polypeptide hormone which controls the secretions of adrenal cortex and is released by the chromophobe cells of pituitary gland
37) Steroids are synthesised mainly in the adrenal gland and also in the steroidogenic cells of the brain, ovary, testes, and placenta.
38) Aldosterone and desoxycorticosterone are the most common examples of natural mineralocorticoids.

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