Angina pectoris, usually referred to as angina, denotes severe chest pain which
may be caused by ischemia (lack of blood, and hence lack of oxygen supply) of heart muscle. This ischemia is the result of obstruction or spasm of coronary artery (vessels supplying blood to heart). Thus, the main cause of angina is coronary artery disease which results from atherosclerosis of the cardiac arteries.
The anti-anginal drugs are classified as follows:
1) Vasodilators (Organic Nitrites and Nitrates):
Amyl nitrite, Sodium nitrite, Nitroprusside sodium, Isosorbide dinitrate, Isosorbide mononitrate, Erythrityl tetranitrate, and Nitroglycerine.
2) Calcium Channel Blockers
i) Arylalkylamines: Bencyclane, Bepridil hydrochloride, Caroverine,
Cetiedil citrate, Diltiazem hydrochloride, Doprenilamine, Etafenone, Fendiline, Mecinarone, Prenylamine, Proadifen, and Terodiline.
ii) Phenyldihydropyridine Derivatives: Amlodipine, Darodipine, Felodipine, Flordipine, Isrodipine, Mesudipine, Nicardipine, Nifedipine, Niludipine, Nilvadipine, Nimodipine, Nisoldipine, Nitrendipine, Oxodipine, and Riodipine.
iii) Piperazine Derivatives: Cinnarizine, Flunarizine, and Lidoflazine.
iv) Verapamil and Related Drugs: Anipamil, Dagapamil, Devapamil,
Emopamil, Falipamil, Gallopamil, Methoxyverapamil, Ronipamil , Tiapamil, and Verapamil hydrochloride.
v) Miscellaneous Agents: Flutonidine, Fostedil, Perhexiline, and Piprofurol.
3) Potassium Channel Opener:
4) beta-Adrenoceptor Antagonists (beta-Blockers):
Atenolol, Metoprolol, Nadolol, and Propranolol.
5) Metabolic Modifiers:
Ranolazine and Trimetazidine.