(For office use only) Lecture Note on Course No.: Agron. 1.1 Title: Agricultural Heritage As per Fifth Dean Committee by 2017 Prepared by Dr. Nitin N. Gudadhe and Dr. J. D. Thanki Department of Agronomy N. M. College of Agriculture Navsari Agricultural University Navsari-396 450 L. Title of topic Sub topics to be taught Text /Ref. Publisher, Remarks N. Book Edition and page number 1. Introduction of Indian Definition of agriculture, heritage, agricultural heritage Glimpses of Y. L. Nene, agricultural heritage Preamble of agricultural heritage Agricultural Munshiram Agriculture heritage in India heritage of Manoharlal Ancient literature on agriculture e.g. Rigveda, KrishiParashar India Publishers Pvt. Ltd 2. Ancient agricultural Traditional farming practices in India, weather forcasting and Glimpses of Y. L. Nene, practices drought prediction Agricultural Munshiram Local farming knowledge in India and Gujarat with examples heritage of Manoharlal Indigenous seed conservation and preservation India Publishers Pvt. Traditional fore fathers knowledge of agriculture Ltd 3. Relevance of heritage to KautilyasArthasastra Glimpses of Y. L. Nene, present day agriculture, past Physical geography of Indian sub-continent past and present Agricultural Munshiram and present status of Indus valley civilization, vedic civilization and pastoralism heritage of Manoharlal agriculture and farmers in Harappa, Buddhist, Maurya, Gupta and Sangam period of India Publishers Pvt. society agriculture Ltd 4. Journey of Indian Period, events and ages of development of civilized agriculture History of Randhava N. Agriculture and its Development of Scientific agriculture in world Agriculture in S., ICAR development from past to Advanced agriculture in 19th and 20th century India Vol III Publication modern era 5. Plant production and Traditional tillage, cultivation, grain preservation, seed treatment Indian Journal NISCAIR, protection through technology and weed, disease and pest management practices of Traditional New Delhi indigenous traditional Knowledge knowledge 6. Crop voyage in India and Description of Indian civilization and agriculture by different Principles of Reddy and world travelers from China, Europe and USA of Agronomy Reddi, Kalyani Old and new world crop in detail with origin, country, introducer Publication 7. Agriculture scope Detail scope of animal husbandry and crop production Principles of S. R. Reddy, Food production, supply, demand, export Agronomy Kalyani Publication 8. Importance of agriculture Development of SAUs and ICAR with detail history Principles of S. R. Reddy, and agricultural available in Important State, National and International agriculture institutes Agronomy Kalyani India Publication 9. Crop significance and Classification of field crops according different criteria's Hand Book of ICAR, classifications Agriculture Publication 10. National agricultural setup Structure of ICAR, SAUS, CAUs and Ministry of Agriculture Hand Book of ICAR, in India (India and State) Agriculture Publication 11. Current Scenario of Indian Agriculture technology available in today's context e.g. Organic Current Bhopal, Agriculture farming, Farming system, Precision farming, Microirrigation, Agriculture Madhya Conservation Agriculture etc. Research Pradesh Place of Indian agriculture in Indian economy Journal 12. Indian agricultural concerns Ill effects of Green Revolution, soil degradation, pollution (soil + Indian ICAR, New and future prospects water + air), malnutrition, water crisis, labour crisis, escalating Farming Delhi input cost and produce prices and minimum support price of crop etc. Vision of future agriculture in India, ecofriendly and low cost technology, protected cultivation, non conventional energy sources and its use, setting of agri/plant clinics and agri business centre, Use of ICT in crop production 1. Introduction of Indian agricultural heritage Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS), as defined by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the UNO), are: "Remarkable land use systems and landscapes which are rich in globally significant biological diversity evolving from the co- adaptation of a community with its environment and its needs and aspirations for sustainable development". Worldwide, specific agricultural systems and landscapes have been created, shaped and maintained by generations of farmers and herders based on diverse natural resources, using locally adapted management practices. Building on local knowledge and experience, these ingenious agricultural systems reflect the evolution of humankind, the diversity of its knowledge, and its profound relationship with nature. These systems have resulted not only in outstanding landscapes, maintenance and adaptation of globally significant agricultural biodiversity, indigenous knowledge systems and resilient ecosystems, but, above all, in the sustained provision of multiple goods and services, food and livelihood security for millions of local community members and indigenous peoples, well beyond their borders. For millennia communities of farmers, herders, fishers and forest people have developed complex, diverse, and locally adapted agricultural systems. These systems have been managed with time-tested, ingenious combinations of techniques and practices that have usually led to community food security, and the conservation of natural resources and biodiversity. Agricultural heritage systems can still be found throughout the world covering about 5 million hectares, which provide a vital combination of social, cultural, ecological and economical services to humankind. These “Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems-GIAHS” have resulted not only in outstanding landscapes of aesthetic beauty, maintenance of globally significant agricultural biodiversity, resilient ecosystems and a valuable cultural heritage. Above all these systems sustainabley provide multiple goods and services, food and livelihood security for millions of poor and small farmers. The existence of numerous GIAHS around the world testifies to the inventiveness and ingenuity of people in their use and management of the finite resources, biodiversity and ecosystem dynamics, and ingenious use of physical attributes of the landscape, codified in traditional but evolving knowledge, practices and technologies. Whether recognized or not by the scientific community, these ancestral agricultural systems constitute the foundation for contemporary and future agricultural innovations and technologies. Their cultural, ecological and agricultural diversity is still evident in many parts of the world, maintained as unique systems of agriculture. Through a remarkable process of co-evolution of Humankind and Nature, GIAHS have emerged over centuries of cultural and biological interactions and synergies, representing the accumulated experiences of rural peoples. Indian Agriculture Indian agriculture began by 9000 BC as a result of early cultivation of plants and domestication of crops and animals. Settled life soon followed with implements and techniques being developed for agriculture. Double monsoons led to two harvests being reaped in one year. Indian products soon reached the world via existing trading networks and foreign crops were introduced to India. Plants and animals—considered essential to their survival by the Indians—came to be worshiped and venerated. The middle ages saw irrigation channels reach a new level of sophistication in India and Indian crops affecting the economies of other regions of the world under Islamic patronage. Land and water management systems were developed with an aim of providing uniform growth. Despite some stagnation during the later modern era the independent Republic of India was able to develop a comprehensive agricultural program. Need and importance for studying Agricultural Heritage Our agriculture has lot of inherited sustainable practices passed from one generation to other generation. And also agriculture in India is not an occupation; it is a way of life for many Indian populations. Hence the present day generation should be aware about our ancient and traditional agricultural systems and practices. This will enable us to build the future research strategy also. India has made tremendous progress in agriculture and its allied fields, but the emphasis on intensive use of inputs without considering their adverse impact of long term basis has created several problems related to sustainability of agriculture. Irrational use of chemical fertilizers, insecticides and exploration of natural resources is threatening the agro eco systems. Soil is getting impoverished, water and air getting polluted and there is an increasing erosion of plant and animal genetic resources. Therefore, attention in now shifting to sustainable form of agriculture. The indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) provides insight into the sustainable agriculture, because these innovations have been carried on from one generation to another as a family technology. There are several examples of valuable traditional technologies in India but unfortunately these small local systems are dying out. It is imperative that we collect, document and analyze these technologies so that the scientific principle/basis behind them could be properly understood. Once this done, it will be easier for us to further refine and upgrade them by blending them with the modern scientific technology. Agriculture Heritage in India Our heritage is unique than any other civilization. As a citizen of India, we must feel proud about our rich cultural heritage. Agriculture in India is not of recent origin, but has a long history dating back to Neolithic age of 7500-4000 B.C. It changed the life style of early man from nomadic hunter of wild berries and roots to cultivator of land. Agriculture is benefited from the wisdom and teachings of great saints. The wisdom gained and practices adopted have been passed down through generations. The traditional farmers have developed the nature friendly farming systems and practices such as mixed farming, mixed cropping, crop rotation etc. The great epics of ancient India convey the depth of knowledge possessed by the older generations of the farmers of India. Objective of the course Agriculture in India - Way of life and not an occupation To increase awareness of the rich heritage of Indian agriculture which is unique than any other civilization. To implant a sense of pride amongst the people, particularly agricultural students as our agriculture has sustainable practices for generations. To stimulate scientific research based on traditional technology. Definitions HISTORY : Continuous record of past events HERITAGE : Inherited values carried from one generation to other generation AGRICULTURAL HERITAGE : Values and traditional practices adopted in ancient India which are more relevant for present day system. History denotes the continuous record of past events, where as heritage indicates the inherited values carried from one generation to other generation. Agricultural heritage denotes the values and traditional practices adopted in ancient India, which are more relevant for present day system. List of available documents on agriculture during ancient and medieval period 1. Rigveda (c.3700 BC) Agricultural practices in the Vedic period presumably started from c.1500 BC and ended in c.500 BC, corresponds to last phase of the Chalcolithic period and Iron Age in India. The possible sites stretched from north-western parts of India to the entire alluvial of the river Ganges. The associated factors with agricultural practices in Vedic India to be included in the present study are: (i) Soil, land and village settlement; (ii) Manure and manuring; (iii) Crop husbandry inclusive of plant protection measures, agricultural technology and agricultural implements; (iv) Irrigation system; (v) Animal husbandry and (vi) Meteorological observations in relation to crop prospects. The entire account has no treatise like approach but projected mostly through sacerdotal matters. The Vedic Aryans pursued pastoralism and agriculture as the mainstay of their livelihood. According to Max Muller the term Arya, derived from the root, ar, to stir, i.e., stirring of soil by means of stick or plough, shows Aryans were cultivators1 before separation as Indo-Iranian and Indo-Aryan. The Vedic Aryans for their existence on Indian soil had to fight against many obstacles. Appeasement of natural phenomena in form of anthropomorphic deities for existence and prosperity made them close to nature and natural objects. Analysis of related data on agriculture contained in the Vedic texts shows three prominent phases. The early phase shows struggle for fertile field. The twin god Dya–va–-pr. thivi– is extolled for snatching fertile field from the dasyus or Non-Aryans and granting to the Aryan people.2 Agricultural pursuits were thus not very easy for the Vedic Aryans at the early stage. Prayer to different godheads for copious rain and other favourable conditions congenial for raising of food crops (anna) and animal resources is frequent in the Rigvedic mantras. Agriculture occupied such an important place that Su–rya was conceived as having three bonds in three lokas. His bond in water, i.e. habitable world, explained by commentator Sa–yana are tillage, rain and seed.3 Thus in this hymn Vedic idea on three essentials of Kr.s.i (agriculture) is presented through this imagery of Su–rya in form of Asƒva. A very few grain-crops are mentioned in the R. gveda. Yava (barley) is one among them. Obviously this shows the particular settlement area of the people at that time was favourable for cultivation of yava. Divinity was imposed on every conditions of nature. The entire agricultural operations were given a spiritual domination. This is found in the idea of Ks.etrapati, presiding deity of agriculture, indicating either Rudra or Agni, supervising all the agricultural activities. 2. Atharvaveda (c. 2000 BC) The late Vedic period introduced manuring of yava (barley) seeds with clarified butter and honey as pre-sowing treatments of seeds. The mantras uttered for this practice are laid down in the Atharvaveda. Yava (barley) was the only cultivated crop in the R. gvedic period. According to the story contained in the Atharvaveda , yava, the sweet corn was first cultivated by the gods on the bank of river Sarasvati– for the benefit of mankind. The great Indra was the furrow master and the Maruts were the ploughmen. Association with Indra and Maruts suggests it as a rain-growth corn. Excepting bird no other pestiferous agents were known in the preceding period. A host of such elements infesting grains in the field and unfavourable natural phenomena causing harm to crops came to be known during the Atharvavedic period. The pests inclusive of natural phenomena were. a) Borer (tarda) indicating either insect or bird, hooked insect (saman.ka), noxious insect (upakvasa) and locust (patan . ga), b) Rodents (vyadvaras) and rats (a–khu) c) Reptiles d) Natural phenomenon like lightening and sun. Charms and spells formed the preventive and remedial measures. The late Vedic period introduced weed as pest in addition to those recognized in the Atharvaveda. Weed was particularly wheat-pest. Preventive and remedial measures were charms and spells in association with some substances appear to have pesticidal effects. These include: a) spreading of lead after furrowing, b) burying in field the metabolic product (grass) from the bowels of sacrificed cattle and some parts of particular plant substances. Weed control was also recommended by burying of several plant substances in the fields before sowing of seeds. The Atharvaveda refers winnowing fan (sƒu–rpa) in this connection. Grains (here barley) were stored in a vessel (urdara). The next phase of the Vedic period, i.e., period of the Atharvaveda gave more stress on rain-water for irrigation. Utilization of river- water by diverting its course in channel became prominent. Green-manuring in soil fertility is a process that has continued from the Atharvavedic period till today. 3. Ramayana (c.2000 BC) 4. Mahabharata (c.1400 BC) Mahabharata refers different names of river Sarasvati in its flows in different directions. There is mention of seven Sarasvatis indicating seven branches of river. The valley below Pehowa was known as Sapta Sarasvati i.e. the place where the river divided itself in seven streams. Saraswati disappeared in the desert at Vinasana before its meeting with Indus drainage. Its reappearance took place at Camasodbheda. Final union of Saraswati with sea has been mentioned in Rigveda and Mahabharata. 5. Krishi-Parashara (c.400 BC) Krishi-Parashara (c. 400 BC) gives details of the design of the plow with Sanskrit names for different parts. This basic design has hardly undergone any change over centuries. A bamboo stick of a specific size was used to measure land. Vedic literature and Krishi- Parashara also mention disc plow, seed drill, blade harrow (bakhar), wooden spike tooth harrow, plankers, axe, hoe, sickle, supa for winnowing and a vessel to measure grain (udara). Pairs of bullocks used for plowing in ancient days varied from one to eight. Krishi-Parashara (c. 400 BC) and Brhat Samhita give, what today one could describe as, simple astrological models for predicting rains in a particular season. Parashara’s main technique of forecasting rain was based on the positions of the Moon and the Sun in the sky. In Krishi-Parashara, it is stated that crops grown without manure will not give yield and a method of preparing manure from cowdung is described. In Krishi-Parashara (c. 400 BC), a description of a cattle shed is found. Cleanliness of the shed was emphasized. To protect animals from diseases, cattle sheds were regularly fumigated with dried plant products that contained volatile compounds. 6. Kautilya’s Artha-sastra (c.300 BC) 7. Amarsimha’s Amarkosha (c.200 BC) 8. Patanjali’s Mahabhasya (c.200 BC) 9. Sangam literature (Tamils) (200 BC-100 AD) 10. Agnipurana (c.400 ?) 11. Varahamihir’s Brhat Samhita (c. 500 AD) 12. Kashyapiyakrishisukti (c.800Ad) 13. Surapala’s Vrikshayurveda (c.1000 AD) 14. Lokopakaram by Chavundaraya (1025 AD) 15. Someshwardeva’s Manasollasa (1131 AD) 16. Saranghara’s Upavanavioda (c.1300 AD) 17. Bhavaprakasha-Nighantu (c.1500 AD) 18. Chakrapani Mistra’sViswavallbha (c.1580 AD) 19. Dara Shikoh’s Nuskha Dar Fanni-Falahat (c.1650 Ad) 20. Jati Jaichand’s dairy (1658-1714 AD) 21. Anonymous Rajasthani Manuscript (1877 AD) 22. Watt’s Dictionary of Economic Products of India (1889-1893 AD) 2. Ancient agricultural practices Traditional farming practices in India Soil Classification In ancient times geographical distribution by Surapala was jangala (arid), anupa (marshy) and samanya (ordinary). It is further divided by colour into black, white, pale, dark, red and yellow by taste into sweet, sour, salty, pungent, bitter and astringent. Samanya land was suitable for all kinds of trees. Rig-veda identified productive and non-productive soils. There were 12 classification based on soil fertility, irrigation and physical characteristics. These soil classifications are as follows : 1. Urvara (fertile) 2. Ushara (barren) 3. Maru (desert) 4. Aprahata (fallow) 5. Shadvala (grassy) 6. Pankikala (muddy) 7. Jalaprayah (water) 8. Kachchaha (land contiguous to water) 9. Sharkara (full of pebbles) 10. Sharkaravari (sandy) 11. Nadimatruka (land water from river) 12. Devamatruka (rainfed) Another classification based on crops suitable a. Vrdiheyam (rice (rainfed) / corn) b. Shaleyam (kamala (wet) rice) c. Tilyam (sesamum) d. Mashyam (blackgram) e. Maudginam (mung bean) Sangam, Tamil literature classified soils as mullai (forest), Kuringi (hills), marudham (cultivable) and neithal (coastal). Maintenance of soil productivity Traditional soil management practices are the product of centuries of accumulated knowledge, experience and wisdom refined and perpetuated over generations. These practices were evolved within the framework of local technical possibilities. They enlivened the soil, strengthened the natural resources diversify and maintained the production levels in accordance with the carrying capacity of agro-ecosystem without damaging it. Ancient farmers mostly relied on crop residues, manures, legumes and neem for enriching soil fertility. In Kirishi - parashara, it is stated that crops grown without manure will not give yield and stressed the importance of manures. He also recommended compost preparation from cow dung. The dried, powdered cow dung is placed in pit for decomposition where weed seeds are destroyed. The time duration for composting is two weeks. Kautilya mentioned the use of cowdung, animal bones, fishes, milk as manure. Surapala describes the ancient practice of preparing liquid manure (kunapa) prepared by boiling a mixture of animal excreta, bone marrow, flesh, dead fish in an iron pot and then add it to sesame oil cake, honey and ghee. This is clearly evident that present day Panchakavya is prepared in the same way and used in all crops. Liquid manure (Kunapa) : Preparation of kunapa involves boiling flesh, fat, and marrow of animals such as pig, fish, sheep or goats in water, placing it in earthen pot, and adding milk, powders of sesame oil cake, black gram boiled in honey, decoction of pulses, ghee and hot water. There is no fixed proportion of ingredients. The pot is put in a warm place for two weeks. This fermented liquid manure is called kunapa. Green manures : In Rajasthan : Prosopis cineraria - brings up moisture and nutrients from the underground and leaves used as green manure. In Tamil Nadu : Calotropis gigantiea, Mortinda tinctoria Theprosia purpurea, Jatropha, Ipomoea Adathoda In North India : A traditional weed Kochia indica used as green manure. Ancient farmers adopted crop rotation and inter cropping to restore soil fertility. Mixed or inter cropping with legumes in cereal and oil seed cultivation were widely practices. All these practices adopted in ancient time are now being recommended today under organic farming concept. Water harvesting and irrigation developments during different periods – water storage – distribution and relevance to modern agriculture. The need for continuous supply of water for irrigation whether from canal, well, pond or lake is realized as the most important for agriculture in ancient period. The different irrigation principles adopted in ancient period are : Construction of large mud embankment on a stone foundation for diverting flood water. Building of small tanks. Severe penalty was imposed when water is let out other than sluice gate. Extensive tank irrigation systems were adopted in Sri Lanka and later in South India. In Sri Lanka ancient kings practiced that not even a drop of rainfall should go to sea without benefiting man. The topography of Telengana region of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka is ideally suited for the construction of tanks. A special feature of tanks in Telengana tank construction in series, by bunding the same valley at several points and surplus water from lower elevation and so on. Even now the tanks constructed by chola king in the same way exist today in Tamil Nadu. It is also suggested that preference of the use of water should be in the order of food crop, vegetables and flowers. Table 1: History of irrigation development in India SN Period Irrigation development 1. Ancient Period 2500 - 1000 BC People settled near the banks of river / tanks for the purpose of getting water for drinking and irrigation. 2. Chalcolithic 3000 - 1700 BC Practice of irrigation to crops was evolved. 3. Vedic period 1500 - 1600 BC People employed craftsman to dig channels from rivers to their fields. Well irrigation through kuccha and puccha wells and were practiced 4. Pandyas / Cholal (1st Century 300 AD) Irrigated rice cultivation started during this period. chera‟s Period Dams and Tanks were constructed for irrigation. 5. Medieval period (1200 -1700 Irrigated agriculture was developed during Mogul AD) period. Canals, Dams and Tanks were constructed (e.g.) 1. Construction of western yamuna canal 2. Constructions of Anantaraja sagar. Methods of conserving rain water In ancient days itself, people, especially Indians, know the methods of conservation of rain water. There are evidences that, even during Harappan period, there was very good system of water management as could be seen in the latest excavation at Dholavira in Kachch. Rain water harvesting structures in the low rainfall areas of Rajasthan, harvesting springs in hilly areas and mountainous region and percolation ponds and tanks in southern India. In Tamil Nadu, the ancient people stored rainwater in public, placed separately one for drinking purposes and another for bathing and other domestic purposses and called them as Ooranies. The various methods of rainwater harvesting are classified below under two category, Traditional and Modern methods. Traditional rainwater harvesting, which is still prevalent in rural areas, was done in surface storage bodies like lakes, ponds, irrigation tanks, temple tanks etc. In urban areas, due to shrinking of open spaces, rainwater will have to necessarily be harvested as ground water, Hence harvesting in such places will depend very much on the nature of the soil viz., clayey, sandy etc. The below listed are the various kinds of traditional rainwater harvesting methods. The Modern methods of rainwater harvesting are categorised under two, they are Artifical Recharging and Rain Water Harvesting. The former is classified into Absorption Pit Method, Absorption Well Method, Well cum Bore Method and Recharge trench cum injection well. The later is categorised into Individual Houses and Grouped Houses which are further classified into Percolation Pit Method, Bore Well with Settlement Tank, Open Well Method with filter bed Sump and percolation Pit with Bore Method. Bamboo method of rainwater harvesting In Meghalaya, an indegenious system of tapping of stream and springwater by using bamboo pipes to irrigate plantations is widely prevalent. It is so perfected that about 18-20 litres of water entering the bamboo pipe system per minute gets transported over several hundred metres and finally gets reduced to 20-80 drops per minute at the site of the plant. Kunds of Thar Desert In the sandier tracts, the villagers of the Thar Desert had evolved an indegenious system of rainwater harvesting known as kunds or kundis. Kund. Usually constructed with local materials or cement, kunds were more prevalent in the western arid regions of Rajasthan, and in areas where the limited groundwater available is moderate to highly saline. Groundwater in Barmer, for instance, in nearly 76 per cent of the district‟s area, has total dissolved salts (TDS) ranging from 1,500-10,000 parts per million (ppm). Under such conditions, kunds provide convenient, clean and sweetwater for drinking. Traditional Rain water harvesting The traditional rainwater harvesting methods in North India is surface water harvesting methods are viz., Tanka, Nada, Nadi, Talai, Talab, Khadin Sar, Sagar and Samend. Tanka: It is constructed of on farm, country yard and fort. The shape is normally circular / square. Dimension is 2 m dia. 3 m deep capacity 10000 lit Talai: Similar to Tanka, still deeper (2-3cm depth). Special attention paid for selection of location such that there is adequate flow of rain water into Talai Nada: In this method, low lying areas in between hillocks is excavated as pit and provided embankment to arrest rain water from these hillocks. Nadi: Compared to Nada. the Nadi is bigger in size. A village or group of Villages uses the run off water collected in the Nadi. Talab: It is relatively shallow and spread over to more area compared to Nadi. It is generally constructed in rangeland. The catchment area of Talab is 480 ha., can lost for many years. Khadin: Accumulation of run off water in between hillocks is known as Khadin. Khadin means cultivation crops. The khadin water is generally used for crop cultivation and animals. Sar, Sagar and Samand: It is used to harvest rainwater for irrigation purpose. Even today this structure provides excellent source of reservoir and also tourist spot. Weather forcasting Astronomy – Prediction of rains: PARASHARA, VARAHAMIHARA PANCHANG Modern scientific knowledge of methods of weather forecasting have originated recently. But ancient indigenous knowledge in unique to our country. Indian had glorious scientific and technological tradition in the past. A scientific study of meteorology was made by our ancient astronomers and astrologers. Even today, it is common that village astrologers (pandits) are right in surprisingly high percentage of their weather predications. Observation coupled with experience over centuries enhanced to develop meteorology. The ancient / indigenous method of weather forecast may be broadly classified into two categories. 1. Observational method • Atmospheric changes • Bio-indicators • Chemical changes • Physical changes • Cloud forms and other sky features 2. Theoretical methods ( or) Astrological factors ( or) planetary factors • Computation of planetary positions and conjunctions of planets and stars • Study of solar ingress and particular date of months • Study of Nakshatra Chakras • Study of Nadi Chakras • Dashatapa Siddhanta Almanacs in Indian astronomy and astrology ( Panchangs) According to the Encyclopedia Britannica ( 1969), “ an almanac is a books or table containing a calendar of the days, weeks and months of the year, a register of ecclesiastical festivals and saint‟s day and a record of various astronomical phenomena, often with weather prognostications and seasonal suggestions for countrymen”. In India, the classical Hindu almanac is known as „Panchang‟. This book published yearly, and is the basic book of the people all over India. For astrologers, it is one daily basis and is extensively used by the people all over India. For astrologers, it is one of the basic books for making astrological calculators, casting horoscopes, and for making predictions. For farmers, it is an astrological guide to start any farming activity. The word „panchang‟ has it‟s roots in two Sanskrit words, viz., „panch‟ and „ang‟, which means „five‟ and „body part/limb‟ respectively. These parts are 1. Tithi (or) Lunarday – Total of thirty tithes in a lunar month, fifteen in each fortnight. 2. Vara or week day – seven varas, (Monday- Sunday) 3. Nakshatra ( or) asterism ( or) constellation – Total of twenty seven nakshtras named according to the yagataras (or) identifying stars of each of the twenty seven equal parts of the ecliptic ( or) solar path. 4. Yoga ( or) time during which the joint motion of the sun and the moon covers the space of the nakshatra ( there are twenty seven yogas). 5. Karana (or) half of a lunar day (or) half – tithi. The other items considered for astrological prediction are 1. Rashi ( or) twelve equal parts of the Zodic belt, hence twelve rashis 2. Planets 3. Solar months and solar year 4. Lunar months and lunar year 5. Era Theoretical basis of weather forecasting in ancient literature and panchangs According to varahamihira and other scholars, the formation of clouds (or) garbhadharana takes place 195 days before their birth ( or) delivery (or) garbhaprasava. During his period clouds were grouped as Abartak ( Avartak), Sambartak ( Samvartak), Pushkara and Drona. It abartak is dominating one year, rain will be received in certain places in that year; if sambartak, rain will be received in all of the country; if pushkara, the quantity of will be very less; and if drona, that year will receive abundant rain water. It is also true even today, the cloud classification indicates Cirrus, Cirrostratus, Cirro Cumulus, Altostratus, Altocumulus, Stratocumulus, Stratus, Nimbo Stratus, Cumulus and Cumulonimbus. Among this Nimbostratus and Cumulonimbus gives rainfall to the earth. According to the ruling planet of a year, overall rainfall of that particular year should be anticipated as follows: S.No. Ruling planet Rainfall 1. Sun Moderate 2. Moon Very heavy 3. Mars Scanty 4. Mercury Good 5. Jupiter Very good 6. Venus Good 7. Saturn Very low ( Stormy wind) For predicting the monsoon and its subsequent effects on weather, all panchang makers consider three different Nadi Siddhantas (Capsular theories) commonly known as Nadi charkas. These are : 1. Dwinadi charks 2. Trinadi charks 3. Saptanadi charks Table 2:Arrangement of nakshatras in Saptanadis and its associated effect on weather Seven nadis Effect on weather Chanda Bright sunshine, no rainfall Vata Sunshine and wind, normal rainfall Vanhi Strong hot wind ( Westerlies) Soumya Normal rainfall Meera Very good rainfall Jala Abundant rainfall Amrita Heavy to very heavy rainfall causing flood Prediction analysis and discussion The analysis indicates that rainfall predictions made in panchangas based on ancient astrological theories are, on an average, better than and in some cases at par with the predictions made by Govt. meteorological department through modern techniques and procedures. (E.g.) The yearly fully corrected predictions of rainfall made during 1946-1955 were 75,78,74 and 75% respectively for different panchangam. The seasonal prediction also indicated that it was 89% for summer, 55% for rainy, 90% for winter and 78% for overall. Method for measurement of rainfall The method of measurement of rainfall is described by Varahamihira. A circular vessel with a diameter equal to one (human) arm or the distance measured by the width of 20 (human) fingers and with a depth equal to the distance measured by the width of eight fingers should be accepted for measurement of rainfall. When this vessel is completely filled with rainwater, the rainfall should be equal to 50 palas or one adhaka. This method has been explained by the Parashara. According to Parashara, the basic unit of rainfall is adhaka. 1 adhaka = ¼ drona (eq.1) 1 drona = 4 adhakas = 6.4 cm (eq.6) Krishi – Panchang The researcher developed the Krishi panchang ( or) Agroalmanac ( or) Agro- panchang. It may be defined as basic astro-agricultural guide book/calendar published annually, giving calendrical information on various aspects of agricultural and allied, activities, basically suggesting region wise, seasonwise and cropwise. Crop strategy based on astro – meteorological prediction, giving auspicious time for undertaking various farm related operations, along with a list for performing religious rites, festivals, observing fasts and some non-astrological agricultural guidance, primarily useful for the farming communities and persons having interest in agricultural development. The contents of the proposed Krishi-Panchang can broadly be categorized into two kanor groups as fallows : 1. Information which changes every year • Annual date and Holiday calendar • Month – wise daily guide for the whole year • “Rashiphal”, i.e., month-wise forecasting of persons having different zodiac sings. • Daily/monthly/annual weather forecasting for the particular year • Crop prospects of that year based on planetary positions • Season-wise crop strategy based on anticipated weather 2. Information which remains same irrespective of any particular year • Theories relating to agricultural and meteorological forecasting • Auspicious moments for agricultural and allied activities • Some general agricultural guidance Panchang-making The content and coverage of the proposed Krishi-Panchang, indicate that only qualified astrologers cannot prepare the whole content on their own, rather an editorial board comprising of both qualified astrologers and crop specialists can do justice. While preparing the Panchang, the – editional board members should keep in mind the following important points : • The Krishi-Panchang is largely meant for the local farming communities, having very low educational status. Hence, it must be in the local colloquial language to facilitate reading and comprehension. • Care should be taken to make the Krishi-Panchang easily understandable and clear in its meaning. • It should be very comprehensive in its content and coverage with proven predictive information only. • It should not contain any astrological details or complexities which would go beyond the understanding capability of our less educated farmers and agriculturists. • It should be attractive in colour, and presentation of information should be systematic according to season (kharif, rabi, and summer) and crops. • It must be low-priced/nominal-priced, within the affordable range of small and marginal farmers. More important, is, the must be made available to the farmers and needy persons sufficiently in advance, i.e., at least 1-2 months before the start of the agriculture year (July-June). Local knowledge used to predict drought and weather pattern Table 3:Drought prediction and mitigation SN Predictors/Signs Description 1 Pigeon feathers Pigeon lying on the ground by spreading its feathers, the indication of drought 2 Sound of wild cat If the wild cat make sound with Dhul/Mul and people as to the wild cat and response with dhul then drought may occur 3 Ants upward movement If ant starts to move upward from down, rain may come 4 Red colour in the west If the sky shows bright red colour in the west sky during sky sunset, drought may ome in the following year 5 Sun lights kid If sunny days show illusion like roder bachha, drought may occur 6 Thunder in the east sky If frequent thunder happen in the east sky at night. This indicates drought in the next year 7 Abundance of termites When large number of termites found in the mound, drought is the immense issue for the year 8 Visibility of black ant Appearance of black ants and storing grain and eggs in safer places indicate that the rain follows for the couple of days 9 Hoppers fly If hopper fly randomly, drought may occur 10 Dark clouds in the west The appearance of dark clouds on the west, the immediate sky hail storm accompanied by thunder, lighting and kalboishakh 11 Chirping of Fatik bird The chirping of Fatik bird during October to April is a sign of rainfall 12 Rainbow If rainbow come in the eastern sky, there would be chance of drought and if it comes in the western sky that indicates sure rains Table 4. Local knowledge used to reduce drought impact and extreme weather SN Practice Description 1 Frogs marriage Arrange marriage for the frog to invite immediate rainfall to end the drought 2 Use mulch Farmers were used straw and water hyacinth as the mulch materials in the horticultural production at their homestead to protect drought impact on production 3 Orchard Farmers were established mango orchard at their homestead and the establishment crop field to mitigate drought impacts as a whole 4 Planting trees Long back peoples in the area were planted trees especially palm trees to protect drought and its impacts as a whole 5 Short term Farmers alone or along with family members were migrated to the mitigation urban areas for livelihoods and return to the home after drought effects 6 Home ardening Peoples started vegetable gardening in their homestead to protect drought impact on agricultural production Local Farming Knowledge in India Presently, the loss of biological diversity and erosion of traditional knowledge systems (TKS) are issues of great concern. Most of these systems of knowledge are unique and are often known only to a few individuals or communities. This traditional knowledge includes mental inventories of local biological resources, animal breeds, local plant, and crop and tree species. Traditional knowledge may include information about trees and plants that grow well together, about indicator plants that show the soil salinity, or are known to flower at the beginning of the rains. It includes practices and technologies, such as seed treatment and storage methods, and tools used for planting and harvesting. Traditional knowledge encompasses belief systems that play a fundamental role in people's livelihood, maintaining their health, and protecting and replenishing the environment. and value which include traditional knowledge. The following traditional agro ecosystems were adapted to minimize crop loss due to insect and pests: (a) Ploughing, hoeing and basin preparation to influence soil inhabiting pests through “microclimate manipulation”, e.g. goat droppings burnt along with dried Euphorbia spp. to maintain a smoke blanket layer throughout the night arresting the pathogenic activity, (b) Intercropping of diverse plant species to provide habitats for the natural enemies of insect pests as well as alternative host plants for pests, and also to prevent competition of crops from weeds, (c) Shifting cultivation that helped the easy migration of natural pest predators from the surrounding forest, (d) Genetic diversity of cropping systems followed to delay the onset of diseases and reduce the spread of disease-carrying spores, and modify environmental conditions less favorable to the spread of certain diseases, (e) Practice of integrated crop-livestock systems to balance the biomass and nutrient inputs and outputs. Examples of traditional knowledge and practices Animal healthcare practices Hot soup of Cumin and garlic being analgesic and antipyretic fed to animals affected by fever and cold. Use of bark of belly tree/crushed leaves of karnu tree as antiseptic for speedy healing. Mixture of ash of Burning grass (Jawanlari) and black cloth along with oil fed to cows to cure dysentery. Mixture of sulphur and mustard oil for prevention and control of skin diseases. Use of bamboo leaves and bark boiled with paddy husk and fed to cows for expulsion of placenta. Treatment of diarrhea with leaves of Leucas lanata (Safeda) and bamboo leaves. Traditional moulting practices - Dipping in water, applying ash and mud, quarantine the birds to dark locations in separate mini huts, fixing feathers on to the beak followed for shedding and regrowth of feathers and rejuvenation of poultry birds. Use of garlic (Allium sativum) and vinegar for deworming. Juice of marigold/ Annona squamosa leaves to kills maggots and heal wound. Plant protection and Post-harvest management Packaging of food commodities using containers made of bamboo sticks and internally lined with cow dung for grains, potato, maize cobs, etc or lime and sand for millets. Use of neem/mint/walnut/sweet flag leaves/Pongamia pinnata as antimicrobial agent for grain storage. Storage of pulses by mixing with turmeric powder or mustard oil. Storage for seed crops in under ground pits dug in fields with a pitcher and covering the top of pit with ash and soil to create zero energy cool chambers. Pickled mango, lime, etc. packed in sterilized earthen pots using fumes generated from burning red chilies along with Asafoetida and mustard oil. Storage of cabbage, ginger was done under ground pits which provided cool condition for storage ensuring freshness for prolonged use. Storage of sugar/jaggery in large earthen pots with top cover made of wood. Enhancement of shelf life of fruit and vegetables by wrapping in moist gunny bags. Use of smoke for protection of fruit crops from frost damage. Practice of applying a thin paste of cow dung, clay and cow urine to pruned ends of twigs and cuts to prevent access to pathogens. Use of wood ash on vegetables to ward off pests and to enhance nutrient status of soil. Use of kerosene oil to kill stem and shoot borers. Use of powder of leaves and pods of Mucuna prurita to reduce rat damage to the crop. Use of crushed seeds/extracted oil of castor against Rhinoceros beetle, Nematodes infestation in coconut, Pulses and cereal seeds. Use of chilies and other hot peppers powder against caterpillars, flies, aphids, ants and other pests of vegetables. Use of Pulses soaked in whey to prevent wilting. Euphorbia neriifolia milk for seed protection of various crops like paddy, castor, pearl millet, maize and Sorghum. Weather forecasting Presence of visible spectrum with a greater diameter around the sun than around the moon, indicates rainfall after a day or two. On a hot summer day cry of the bird called Nailu for water brings rainfall. If centipedes emerge from their holes carrying their eggs in swarms an early rainfall is predicted. If Dragon fly swarm in a large group over water surface a dry weather is predicted, if they swarm over open dry lands then early rainfall is predicted. If the first 10-15 of the month May-June are very hot a good rainfall is predicted. Sustainable natural resources management Indigenous techniques of harvesting honey and beeswax from bees, using various indigenous styles of hives. Polygonum hydropiper Linn. (Smart weed) used as fish toxicant for catching fish from natural aquatic resources as well as for removal of uneconomical fishes from the aquaculture pond. Mollusc shells-Anadara granosa (Khola), Meritrix meritrix (Gondhi), Meritrix casta. (Pati) and Ceritidea cingulata (Genda) traditionally used for lime preparation. Inhibition of bacterial growth in milk by keeping under the pyramids made out of natural materials as wood. Use of indigenous fishing instrument Polo for capturing fishes in low water raising. Alnus nepalensis cultivated in Jhum in Nagaland has multiple usages as a nitrogen fixing tree, as fodder and timber, and retains soil fertility. Soil and water management Construction of kuhls/wooden water channels/ Virdas/Khadins for irrigation. Drip and pitcher irrigation in areas with scanty rainfall. Use of bamboo channels with small holes made at the internodes for water trickling. Roof water harvesting and collection of water in dug out structures (Wells, Bawdi). Sorangas in Karnataka in the lateritic regions to tap the moisture trapped in the large sand depositions, Ahar-pyne traditional irrigation system in Bihar Harvesting of dew and fog water. Conservation of soil moisture by mulching: Wet soil mixed with seeds of rye (Brassica nigra) is placed inside the holes left between the stones of terrace risers for minimization of water need for germination and use of the unused space of terrace riser for vegetable cultivation. Earthen bunds made of different materials like stones and sticks, Kana bundi using the crop residue, Vetiver zizaniodes grass for controlling soil erosion. Methods used for improvement in soil fertility by burning Butea monosperma and Madhuca indica) leaves and branches, cultivation of crops with trees such as Sesbania grandiflora, Leucaena lecocephala or other leguminous plants, local weeds. Indicators to assess the fertility of soils by better growth of weeds like Setaria tomentosa in light soil, vigorous growth of Desmostachya bipinnata and Cenchrus spp, Echinochloa colonum growth for better paddy yield. Indigenous seed conservation and preservation Conservation of seed is the conservation of planet (Srishti). Seed contains the basic DNA, which is capable to produce the plant of the same kind. For protection of seed material, the practices of our ancestors are evident from pre-historic, historic and vedic periods. Storage of seed in cylindrical pits dug in earth or in granaries or in containers made of ropes and plastered with mud or in well baked clay pots, scaring away birds with sling balls, initiation of mixed cropping technique, controlled use of water irrigation in fields, etc. are the some specific practices found in use during these periods. Many examples of crop and seed protection such as making din and noise for bird scaring in maize fields, setting traps or digging pits and fix traps in the fields to keep away the wild animals. Use of cow dung, milky juice of Solanum indicum, coconut water, Emblica ribes, cow urine and ghee (butter oil), etc. for treatment of seed material were practiced during vedic era. For control of pulses bruchid (Callosorbruchus chinensis) the oil of Mentha spicata, or M. arvensis or M. piperita was found very useful. Gunny bags are used for bulk storage of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds. For prophylactic treatment, these bags are soaked in 15% concentration of leaf extracts of Pongamia pinnata or Justicica gendarussa. The use of wooden and cow dung ash and red baked soil as seed dresser because the quantity of silica in these might have deterred the egg formation and larvae feeding. The use of ash and soil as indigenous pesticides is reported in so many literatures. Similarly the uses of Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eucatyplus are very common and effective treatments. The uses of various plant parts as storage pesticides, because these plant parts emit a pungent type smell. This is because of availability of essential oil in the plant parts. The emission of a kind of smell acts as a repellent of insect and deters their survival. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) contains meliacin, nimbin, nimbinene, nimbandiol and azadiractin, walnut (Juglens regia L.) leaves contains ascorbic acid, carotene and juglone. Bakayan (Melia azadirachta L.) contains meliacin, turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) contains phenolic compound known as curcuminoides, lemon (Citrus limon L.) contains lemon oil, citric acid and pectin and mustard oil contains allyal isothiocynate. All these substances found in the above plant materials have been reported to be antifeedants against several pests. Table 5: Plant parts and other materials used for seed/grain protection S Materials used for pest control Crops Types of material N 1 Bach (Acorus calamus L.); rhizome and leaves Cereals and pulses Seeds and grains 2 Peach (Prunus persica L.);leaves Cereals and pulses Seeds and grains 3 Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss); leaves Cereals, oil seeds and pulses Seeds and grains 4 Timur (Zanthozylum armatum DC.); leaves Cereals, pulses and oils seeds Seeds and grains 5 Walnut (Juglens regia L.); leaves Cereals and pulses Seeds and grains 6 Bakayan (Melia azadiracta L.); leaves Cereals and pulses Seeds and grains 7 Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.); leaves Cereals and pulses Seeds and grains 8 Lemon (Citrus limon L.); leaves Cereals and pulses Seed and grains 9 Wooden ash Wheat, barley and Seeds rice seed material 10 Cow dung ash Cereals Seeds 11 Cow dung + cow urine Cereals and pulses Seeds 12 Kerosene oil Pulses Seeds 13 Lime powder Pulses Seeds 14 Mustard oil Pulses Seeds and grains 15 Red roasted soil Cereals and pulses Seeds Local farming knowledge in Gujarat Traditional knowledge in food and fibre Tribals in south Gujarat region use more than 43 species as fodder plants. Fibers are extracted from varied sources by the tribals. The people of the coastal region extract fibers from palms. In forest areas, fiber-yielding trees like Combretum ovalifolium, Butea parviflora and Derris scandens are used for ropes. Roots of palash are also woven into ropes. In Dangs, ropes made from fibers extracted from the leaves of Ketki are durable and used for tying cattle, as these ropes do not hurt their skin. Kotwalia community is specialised in making decorative bamboo artifacts. Traditional Grain Storage Structures in Gujarat Kothi: These storage containers, mostly known as Kothi are made out of leaner bamboo strips. Weaving patterns depend upon thesize of the grain to be stored. They are known by different names in different parts of the state such as Mosti (pic. h) in Vadodara and Chhotaudepur districts, Porsi and Porso in Panchmahal and Dahod districts, Kothi in Sabarkantha, Vadodara, Narmada, Tapi, Surat, Valsad and Dang districts. The outer surface of the storage structure is generally covered with fine mixture of loam, cow dung and husk. It prevents spillage and strengthens the storage structure. Folding Kothi: A few communities in Dang district use folding grain storage containers. They look like carpets weaved using leaner bamboo strips only. These carpets are rectangular in shape but they have two bamboos weaved at their ends, what seems like these bamboos are knotted together, which makes a cylinder to store grains . This kind of grain storage structures are almost 6 feet tall and 200 kg to 250 kg grain storage capacity and have no permanent base or lid. Just like other Kothi, it is also covered entirely with fine mixture of loam, cow dung and husk. Top is also covered with dry Tectona grandis L leaves and sealed with fine mixture of loam, cow dung and husk. Nagli ni kothi (Kothi for Eleusine coracanaL): Nagli (Eleusine coracana L) and Vara (Panicum sumatranse Roth) are lesser known cereal crops planted mostly in central and south Gujarat. These grains are very small in size hence, stored in very complexly woven storage containers. These containers are smaller in size, almost 2 feet tall, and dome shaped with flat base, movable and light weight. Kanthi ni Kothi (Kothi made of Nyctanthes arbortristis L): All the above mentioned storage containers are made either from Dendrocalamus strictus (Nees) or from Bambusa arudinacea (Willd). But there are a few locations where the local inhibitors use plants apart from bamboo to make grain storage containers. Bhils from Sabarkantha district use Nyctanthes arbortristis L to make almost 8 feet tall cylindrical grain storage containers. Dudhi ni Kothi (Kothi made of Wrightia tinctoria RBr): Some tribes of Vadodara, Chhotaudepur and Narmada districts use Wrightia tinctoria R Br twigs to make huge cylindrical grain storage structures. Due to the high amount of latex present in the plant makes the containers termite resistant. These Kothi are usually 5 feet tall and mounted on a platform made of mud and interwoven fresh twigs of Wrightia tinctoria R Br. Gara ni Kothi (Kothi of Mud): Kutch is the far North-Eastern district of the state with diffused scrub forest and arid to semiarid climatic conditions. It is difficult to find resources like Dendrocalamus strictus Nees or Bambusa arudinacea (Retz) Willd naturally in Kutch due to the climatic conditions. Hence, residents of this district have come up with a solution of storage structures majorly made of mud. These storage structures are made of loam, donkey dung, wheat husk, and yellow salty clay typically found in Kutch. Gara ni char-paiee Kothi (Four legged Kothi of Mud): Dwellers of Sabarkantha district use this kind of storage structures which are difficult to make as compared to the structures made of Bamboo. They are entirely made of loam, cow dung, and wheat husk and very heavy in weight yet movable. These structures are cylindrical in shape, almost 5 feet tall with a huge intake at the top to pour grains in and four legs at the bottom which keep the storage container elevated from the ground. These storage structures are highly durable and used for generations. Dangar ni Kundi (Kundi for Paddy storage): These storage structures are reported form Sabarkantha district which are used to store paddy. They look like char-paiee Kothi and made of loam, cow dung, and wheat husk but small in size with a huge intake at the top and three or four legs at the bottom which keeps the storage elevated from the ground. They are 1-1.5 feet tall, movable and long-lasting. Methods of Grain Preservation Many domestic grain storage practices are followed in Gujarat. Most of them have one or more ecofriendly natural resource used to store grains round the year. Castor Oil: It is the most common practice followed in which sundried grains are smeared with a little amount of castor oil. Wheat, Rice, and a variety of pulses are stored using castor oil. Excess amount of castor oil changes the natural taste of grain and so it is made sure that the seeds are just smeared with oil. Almost 1kg oil is needed to preserve 100kg of grains. Leaves of Azadirachta indica A Juss: Dried leaves of Azadirachta indica A Juss are mixed with sundried grains and stored into traditional storage containers. This practice is common in most areas of the state. Aspiration cleaning is must before using seeds. Bhils of Central Gujarat use Azadirachta indica A Juss leaves in a different way, by adding dried leaves of Azadirachta indica A Juss to the mixture of loam, cow dung and husk which is used to cover inner and outer surfaces of storage containers which provides protection against pest. Leaves of Calotropis procera (Ait): Fresh leaves of Calotropis procera (Ait) are collected and dried in shed. These leaves are spread on the inner surface of the storage containers such a way that they cover the whole inner surface of the container. Para ni Thepli (Dice made of Mercury) This is an interesting technique which includes a heavy metal – Mercury. Take 100gm of Fuller‟s earth (Multani Mitti), 200gm of clay and 200gm of dried cow dung powder. Mix it well and add 10ml of Mercury in it. Then add some water and make dough. Make small round shaped thepli (dices) out of this dough and sundry them. Put almost 50 of such thepli with every 100 kg of grains. This thepli can be used for 10 to 15 years. Cow dung ash Cow dung is burned on a clean surface and ash is collected. This ash is mixed with grains while storing them in the storage containers. For that a 3 inch layer of ash is made at the bottom of the container. On which, almost 10 inch of layer is made of the grains. Then againa 3 inch layer of ash is spread over. Whole structure is filled with grains and ash likewise, layer by layer. Aspiration cleaning is must before using seeds. Other Storage practices Bamboo shoots preservation Hibiscus sabdariffa L leaves preservation Earthen vegetable preservation Preservation in Salt Fruit preservation in saltwater Fishing ITK in Gujarat Saurashtra peninsula is the major fishing area of the state. It consists of seven districts namely Amreli, Bhavnagar, Jamnagar, Surendranagar, Junagadh, Rajkot and Porbandar. Saurashtra region occupies about 50 percent of state,s coastline, and accounts for more than 70 percent of fish production of Gujarat state. Fishing has therefore become a flourshing industry in this area . The detailed description of the ITK‟s collected from Saurashtra region of Gujarat are given below. Catching whale shark by trawlers: This method is known to all trawlers from Porbandar to Jaffrabad. The shark fins, oil from liver, and flesh had fetched good returns for these fishermen. Wooden wada fish catching technique: This is an age old technique in vogue by the traditional fishermen of Jamnagar district. Mostly the catch consists of Sciaenids. Fish harvesting by stone wada: This is an age old technique for catching fish. The catch comprises miscellaneous varieties, and ensures fish for family and the surplus is sold in the local market. The bigger varieties are iced and sold in nearby cities. Mechanically shocking the fishes: Wherever there are rocky coasts with puddles, traditional fishermen usually go for single line hooking. If the place does not fetch any hooking, then the fishermen move to the next nearby area. While walking through intertidal areas, he may come across such puddles in which fishes may be there. Usually children of these fishermen scout these areas, & they have been observed to carry out this operation. For the poor fishermen, catching of these fishes does add to their bread basket. Indian Sea bass catch from underneath boulders on coast: The fishermen who operate hook & line carry out this operation when they move along a rocky coast line. This operation has been observed in Beyt Dwarka & Mithapur. Indian sea bass being a priced fish, and the fish usually caught being of a big size, this method cannot be avoided by the scouting fishermen. Extracting Solen from muddy coast: When wooden wada fishermen go for collection of fish in the wada, both to & fro, they need to walk on such areas, where these Razor Clams are found. By this method, they can remove the animal from its daily fishing path, & forms their food. Catching sand crab Description of the ITK: Sand crabs live in sandy beaches often digging burrows in sand move quite fast and bigger ones which is to be caught when gets inside burrows with sandy beaches is packed with dry sand. When excavated, the dry sand can be distinguished from wet sand which when dug up and then the crab can be found at the end of the dry sand channel. Cast netting of inshore sepia: This technique has been in use by Veraval fishermen and the same technique (without the use of petromax) is used by Miyani fishermen for cast netting oil sardines from near shore waters through dugout canoes. Natural thermal fatality: Fishermen know that at particular time of the year, the air as well as the seawater temperature gets to higher levels by mid day, and this kills the fish near costal waters. Traditional water harvesting techniques In Gujarat, the traditional water harvesting techniques has been revived and 35 other Villages of Amreli district are known for their hard, rocky terrain on account of their peculiar geological features. These areas could not conserve rain water. However, the situation has been changed by raising dykes to check rain water along with the putting up of check dams and percolation tanks. Water and famine in these perpetually drought prone rural areas of Gujarat has become a thing of the past with flourishing green farmland fields one from all side. The Tanka of Bharuch. The Zoroastrians are believed to have brought the concept of harvesting water from ancient Iran to Bharuch. The „Tanka‟ is an underground tank, accommodated inside the house, made of chiseled blocks of stone, in lime mortar. It is made waterproof by an indigenous herbal mix, which seals minor cracks and prevents bacteriological growth inside the Tanka. The size of the Tanka is large enough to store sufficient drinking water for a family for six to eight months. An average storing capacity of the Tanka is around 25,000litres. When required to be cleaned, Tankas must be emptied manually, they are large enough for people to enter and work inside. The Tanka feeds on the rainwater collected through roof runoff. A simple system of collection, via a 3″ to 4″ pipe, depends on successive sumps whose water is collected, while settled impurities are flushed out through an overflow pipe. The Tanka has a hatch cover, which is kept closed except for the time when water is needed. The water retention capacity of these Tankas is seen in the form of a particular „danger level‟ indicated inside the tank by the depiction of a sculptured „fish‟. Filling above this mark was considered dangerous as the hydraulic pressure inside may well exceed the retaining capacity of the tank wall. Most owners clean the Tanka only once in 5 to 10 years. The water quality of the Bharuch Tankas has been tested and found to be potable by W.H.O. standards. Virda Virdas yield fresh water in the region where the groundwater and soil are highly saline with salinity levels reaching as high as 98000 ppm. Virda is a traditional water harvesting system found in the Banni area of Kutch‟s district and in the Northern-western Banaskantha and Sabarkantha‟s districts as well as in some places of the Northern Gujarat. The region is characterized by arid conditions with a day temperature‟s range going from 10° C to 50° C, meaning an annual rainfall of about 300 mm in short and intensive spells. Virda yields fresh water for two up to three months per day and yields about 1000 liters. It is abandoned when the water gets salty. The Virda‟s durability depends on the intensity of its exploitation as well as water holding capacity of an open tank. The duration of use varies from 20 days to four months. It gradually becomes saline. When tanks are full during monsoon, these Virda get plugged by silt and debris, but can be easily revived by clearing these. Runoff water collected in the natural depressions and artificially excavated tanks provide pastoral-communities with water during and after the monsoon. Water stays in these tanks for a maximum period of three months. Lime treated Drinking Water In Parwada and Gorimja (Jamnagar) such a traditional technology has been serving more than 10000 people for the last 300 years. Indigenous people used lime for water treatment. For this, they used pots made of soil powder filled with lime and covered the mouth with a piece of cloth. Then, they used to put the pots in tank and the lime used to leach out slowly through the pores of the vessel and, thus, purifying the water. Nowadays, some people put 3-4 lime packets of 1-2 kilogram each depending upon the size of the underground tank. These packets are lightly pierced so that lime leaches out slowly. The packets are replaced by fresh ones for more effectiveness and sometimes chlorine, too, is used for the same purpose. According to those analyses on drinking water treated with lime, two sources in Parwada village were selected; i.e. Tank water and pot water. Two water samples were tested on the same parameters. 3. Relevance of heritage to present day agriculture, past and present status of agriculture and farmers in society Kautilyas Arthasastra Kautilya (also known as Vishnugupta or Chanakya) (321-296 BC) was a great scholar of time. He wrote a treatise titled, Artha-sastra, which deals with the management of resources. During Kautilya’s time agriculture, cattle breeding and trade were grouped into a science called varta. Kautilya gave great importance to agriculture and suggested a separate post of head of agriculture and named it as Sitadhakashya. Agriculture today receives prime importance, by policy and administrative support from government officials. eg. i) Supply of good seeds and other inputs ii) Provision of irrigation water iii) prediction of rainfall by IMD iv) Assistance in purchase of machineries v) Marketing and safe storage. All the important aspects are mentioned by kautilya in his book. He suggested many important aspects in agriculture which are highly relevant today. 1. The superintendent of agriculture should be a person who is knowledgeable in agriculture and horticulture. There was a provision to appoint a person who was not an expert but he was assisted by other knowledgeable person. This is applicable even today, appointment of the directors of agriculture, horticulture are sometimes civil servants assisted by technical persons. 2. Anticipation of labours by land owners before sowing. Slaves and prisoners were organised to sow the seeds in time. He also emphasized that thorough ploughing provides good soil texture required for a particular crop. Even today farmers in Punjab hire labours from Bihar at times of heavy demand period. 3. Timely sowing is very important for high yield particularly for rainfed sowing for which, all the implements and accessories have to be kept ready. Any delay in these arrangements received punitive action. 4. Kautilya suggested that for getting good yield of rainfed crop, a rainfall of 16 dronas (one drona=40 mm to 50 mm) was essential and 4 dronas rainfall is sufficient for rice. It is very significant to note that rain gauge was used during Kautilya’s period. It was apparently a circular vessel (20 fingers width, 8 fingers width depth) and the unit to measure rain was adhaka (1 adhaka=12 mm approx.) 5. He also stressed the optimum distribution of rainfall during crop growing season one third of the required quantity of rainfall falls both in the commencement and closing months of rainy season (July/Aug; October/Dec) and 2/3 of rainfall in the middle (August/ Sept.; October) is considered as very even. This concept is applicable even today i.e. even distribution is essential for rainfed crop. 6. The crops should be sown according to the change in the season. eg. Sali (transplant rice), Virlu (direct sown rice), till (Sesame), millets should be sown at the commencement of rain. Pulses to be sown in the middle of season. Safflower, linseed mustard, barley, wheat to be sown later. It is clear that even today our scientific results prove that cereals, millets were sown early and oilseeds, wheat, barley require less water which could be sown at last or as post rainy season. 7. He also stressed that rice crop require less labour expense vegetables are intermediate, and sugarcane is worst as it requires more attention and expenditure. It is true even today after 2000 years the situation has never changed that sugarcane requires heavy labour and expenditure. 8. The crops like cucurbits are well suited to banks of rivers, Long-peper, sugarcane and grapes do well where the soil profile is well charged with water. Vegetable require frequent irrigation, borders of field suited for cultivation of medicinal plants. Even today the practice of growing cucurbit (Watermelon, pumpkin) on river banks continue from river Ganges north to Pamba river in south. This is an outstanding example of sustained practice, which ensures utilization of moisture available in river bank. 9. Some of the biocontrol practices suggested by Kautilya has got relevance even today. They are: a) Practice of exposing seeds to mist and heat for seven nights. These practices are followed even now in wheat to prevent smut diseases. Soaking of seed in water to activate fungal mycelia and drying the seed under hot sun to kill the fungal. b) Cut ends of sugarcane are plastered with the mixture of honey, ghee and cowdung. Recently evidences proved that honey has widely an antimicrobial property. Ghee could seal off the cut ends prevent loss of moisture and cowdung facilitated biocontrol of potential pathogens. 10. He also suggested that harvesting should be done at proper time and nothing should be left in the field not even chaff. The harvested produce should be properly processed and safely stored. The above ground crop residues were also removed from fields and fed to cattle. Trade and Marketing (Economic policies) All the industries were categorized into two groups according to their ownership. One group of key industry was covered by state and another group by private. It is interesting to note that this policy resembles today’s model mixed economy. The production, distribution and consumption of agricultural produces were well controlled by the king. Agriculture was placed in the category of privately owned industries. The state Government should control and regulate all the economic aspects and evade the influence of market forces and private interests. These practices suggested by Kautilya were followed by Indian farmers for over centuries which are more sustainable and relevance to scientific agriculture. Physical geography of Indian Sub Continent past and present Geologically, the Indian subcontinent was first a part of so-called "Greater India", a region of Gondwana that drifted away from East Africa about 160 million years ago, around the Middle Jurassic period. The region experienced high volcanic activity and plate subdivisions, creating Madagascar, Seychelles, Antartica, Austrolasia and the Indian subcontinent basin. The Indian subcontinent drifted northeastwards, colliding with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene. This geological region largely includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The zone where the Eurasian and Indian subcontinent plates meet remains one of the geologically active areas, prone to major earthquakes. The English term mainly continues to refer to the Indian subcontinent. Physiographically, it is a peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the east. It extends southward into the Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea to the southwest and the Bay of Bengal to the southeast. Most of this region rests on the Indian Plate and is isolated from the rest of Asia by large mountain barriers. Whether called the Indian subcontinent or South Asia, the definition of the geographical extent of this region varies. Geopolitically, it had formed the whole territory of Greater India, and it generally comprises the countries of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Prior to 1947, most of the Indian subcontinent was part of British India. It generally includes Nepal, Bhutan, and the island country of Sri Lanka and may also include the island country of Maldives. The geopolitical boundaries of Indian subcontinent, according to Dhavendra Kumar, include "India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and other small islands of the Indian Ocean". Maldives, the small archipelago southwest of the peninsula, is considered part of the Indian subcontinent. Parts of Afghanistan are sometimes included in Indian subcontinent as, states Ira M. Lapidus – a professor of History, it is a boundary territory with parts in Central Asia and in Indian subcontinent. Given the passage difficulty through the Himalayas, the sociocultural, religious and political interaction of Indian subcontinent has largely been through the valleys of Afghanistan in its northwest, the valleys of Manipur in its east, and by maritime over sea. More difficult but historically important interaction has also occurred through passages pioneered by the Tibetans. These routes and interactions have led to the diffusion of Hinduism and Buddhism, for example, out of the Indian subcontinent into other parts of Asia, while Islam arrived into the Indian subcontinent through Afghanistan and to its coasts through the maritime routes. Following is the history of India through the Ages The Pre Historic Era The Stone Age: Began 500,000 to 200,000 years ago and recent finds in Tamil Nadu indicate the presence of the first anatomically humans in the area. Tools crafted by proto-humans that have been dated back to two million years have been discovered in the North-western part of the country. The Bronze Age: 3300 BCE with the early Indus Valley Civilisation. One of the world's earliest, urban civilisations, along with Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. Inhabitants of this era developed new techniques in metallurgy and handicraft and produced copper, bronze, lead and tin. Early Historic Period Vedic Period: The Aryans were the first to invade the country. They came out of the North in about 1500 BC and brought with them strong cultural traditions. Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages spoken by them, was used in the first documentation of the Vedas. The Vedic era in the subcontinent lasted from about 1500-500 BCE, laying down the foundation of Hinduism and other cultural dimensions of early Indian society. The Aryans laid down Vedic civilisation all over North India, particularly in the Gangetic Plain. Mahajanapadas: This period saw the second major rise in urbanisation in India after the Indus valley Civilisation. The word "maha" means great and the word "janapada" means foothold of a tribe. In the later Vedic Age, a number of small kingdoms or city states had mushroomed across the subcontinent and also find mention in early Buddhist and Jain literature as far back as 1000 BCE. By 500 BCE, sixteen "republics" or Mahajanapadas has been established, namely; Kasi, Kosala, Anga, Magadha, Vajji (or Vriji), Malla, Chedi, Vatsa (or Vamsa), Kuru, Panchala, Matsya, Surasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhara, and Kamboja. Persian and Greek Conquests: Much of the Northwest subcontinent (currently Afghanistan and Pakistan) came under the rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire in C. 520 BCE under the rule of Darius the Great and remained so for two centuries. In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great conquered Asia Minor and the Achaemenid Empire, when he reached the Northwest frontier of the Indian subcontinent he defeated King Porus and conquered most of Punjab. Maurya Empire: The Maurya Empire, ruled by the Mauryan Dynasty from 322-185 BCE was a geographically extensive and mighty political and military empire in ancient India, established in the subcontinent by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha (present-day Bihar) and it further thrived under Ashoka the Great. Ancient India Timeline Prehistoric Period: ( 400000 BC - 1000 BC ): The period when man, basically a food gatherer, discovered fire and wheel. Indus Valley Civilisation: (2500 BC - 1500 BC): Derived its name from the river Indus and thrived on agriculture and worshipped natural forces. Epic Age: (1000 BC - 600 BC): The period saw the compilation of the Vedas, distinction of Varnas in terms of Aryans and Dasas (slaves). Hinduism and Transition: (600 BC - 322 BC): As caste system became more rigid, the period saw the advent of Mahavira and Buddha who rebelled against casteism. Mahajanapadas were formed - Magadha under Bimbisara and Ajat Shatru and Shisunanga and Nanda dynasty. The Mauryan Age: (322 BC - 185 BC): Founded by Chandragupta Maurya, the empire encompassed the entire North India and Bindusara further extended it. After fighting the Kalinga war, Ashoka embraced Buddhism. The Invasions: (185 BC - 320 AD): The period saw the invasion of Bactrians, Parthians, Shakas & Kushans, opening of Central Asia for trade, issuance of GOLD coins and introduction of the Saka era. Deccan and South India: (65 BC - 250 AD): The southern part was ruled by Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas This period is known for construction of Ajanta and Ellora cave temples, Sangam literature, and arrival of Christianity to India. The Gupta Dynasty: (320 AD - 520 AD): The Gupta dynasty founded by Chandragupta I, ushered in classical age in north India with Samudragupta extending his kingdom and Chandragupta II fighting against Shakas. Shakuntalam and Kamasutra were written during this period, Aryabhatta achieved feats in Astronomy and Bhakti cult emerged. Age of Small Kingdoms: (500 AD - 606 AD): The period saw migrations from Central Asia and Iran as Hunas moved to north India. There was rise of many small kingdoms as the North was divided into warring kingdoms. Harshavardhana: (606 AD - 647 AD): The famous Chinese traveller Hieun Tsang visited India during Emperor Harshawardhana's reign. But his kingdom disintegrated into small states even as Hunas invaded . It was a period when the Deccan and the south became powerful. The Southern Kingdoms: (500 AD - 750 AD): Empire of Chalukyas, Pallavas & Pandya flourished. Zoroastrians (Parsis) came to India. Chola Empire: (9th Cent. AD - 13th Cent. AD): Founded by Vijayalaya, the Chola empire adopted a maritime policy. Temples became cultural and social centres and Dravadian languages flourished. The Northern Kingdoms: (750 AD - 1206 AD): The Rashtrakutas became powerful, Pratiharas ruled in Avanti and Palas ruled Bengal. The period also saw emergence of Rajput clans. Temples at Khajuraho, Kanchipuram, Puri were built and miniature painting started. The period witnessed invasion from the Turks. The Mughal Empire: In 1526, Babur, a descendant of Timur and Gengis Kahn from Fergana Valler (present-day Uzbekistan) swept across the Khyber Pass and established the Mughal Empire which covered modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh. The Mughal dynasty ruled most of the Indian subcontinent till 1600; after which it went into decline after 1707 and was finally defeated during India's first war of Independence in 1857. Colonial Era: From the 16th century, European powers from Portugal, Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom established trading posts in India. Later, they took advantage of internal conflicts and established colonies in the country. The British Rule: The British Rule in India began with the coming of the British East India Company in 1600 leading to the rule of Queen Victoria. It culminated in the First War of Indian Independence in 1857. Independence and Partition: Religious tension between the Hindus and Muslims had been brewing over the years, especially in provinces like Punjab and West Bengal, accentuated by the British policy of divide and rule. All through this Mahatma Gandhi called for unity among the two religious groups. The British, whose economy had been weakened after World War-II, decided to leave India and paved the way for the formation of an interim government. Eventually, the British Indian territories gained independence in 1947, after being partitioned into the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. Post-Independence Period: As many civilizations the Greek, the Roman, and the Egyptian - rose and fell, leaving only ruins, the Indian civilisation and culture remained unscathed. Even wave after wave of invaders descended on the country, founded empires and ruled over its different parts, the indomitable soul of Bharatvarsh could not be subjugated. Today, India marches proudly as the most vibrant republic and largest democracy of the world, an influential nation in South Asia and an emerging global superpower. India is the second largest country in Asia and the seventh largest and second most populous country on Earth. It comprises as much as one third of Asia and supports one seventh of humanity. Indus valley civilization In the year 1922, archaeologists dug up a few places in the Indus valley and carried out excavations at Mohenjodara (meaning a mound of dead) in Sind (in Pakistan) and at Harappa on the river Ravi in Punjab. They found traces of a very ancient civilization, which flourished more than five thousand years ago. They observed that the people utilized the pots, utensils and ornaments. These cities were built along the river Indus and hence this civilization is known as Indus valley civilization. It is also known as Harappan culture and occupied the areas stretching from Delhi to Gujarat. During this period the people identified the importance of ploughing for the proper sowing of crop (i.e) soil has to be stirred and seed has to be covered. Ox-drawn wheel cart was used for transport. The people cultivated wheat, barley, gram, peas, sesamum and rape. They also cultivated cotton and also devised methods of ginning, spinning and weaving. Animal husbandry was also given more importance during this period. They domesticated buffalo, cattle, camel, horse, elephant, ass and birds. They utilized them in agriculture and also for transport. The most remarkable discovery in Harappa is the Great Granary used for storing food grain. These grannaries, each 50x20 feet overall, are arranged symmetrically in two rows of six in each row with central passage and 23 feet wide. From the size of the granary it can be concluded that the peasants paid their dues to the Government in kind, used the kinds in granary for payments to employees. The artisans, carpenters and others received their wages in kind from the farmers. The Vedic civilization The word “Veda” is derived from “Vid” which means “Knowledge” Veda is the only literary source from which we know about the Aryans in India. Aryans were more prevalent during Vedic time which extends from Eastern Afghanistan, Kashmir, Punjab and Parts of Sind and Rajasthan. The land of Aryans was called land of seven rivers i.e., (Satlaj, Beas, Ravi, Chennab, Jhelum, Indus and Saraswathi). The Rig-veda was the oldest book of Aryans. Pastoralism The Vedic Aryans were primarily pastrol. When they settled in the Punjab, they cut the jungles and built their villages. They grazed the animals in jungles and cultivated barley near the houses to protect from wild animals. Vedic people realized the importance of off- season ploughing and they started ploughing as and when the rain was received. The first ploughing of the season was inaugurated amidst much ritual. The plough used was large and heavy. Bullocks and ox were used for ploughing. With regard to irrigation, channels were dug from the rivers.Wells were in use for supply of drinking water and irrigation called kucha wells, which were just holes dug in the ground. Even now such wells are in use in the river rain areas of northern India. Crops cultivated in Vedic period In early Vedic period there is no mention of rice and cotton though they were cultivated in Harappa period. In the later Vedic period (1000 - 600 BC) agricultural implements were improved and iron ploughshare also improved. The people possessed the knowledge of fertility of land, selection of seed, seedtreatment, harvesting, manuring and rotation of crops. Barley sesame and sugarcane were the main crops. Cucumber and bottle gourd were also mentioned in Vedic period, Aryans were accustomed to barley diet. Barley is good for men, cattle and horses. Barley is used in Hindu rituals even today. For cloths, wool and cotton were used. The agriculture implements mentioned in vedic literature include the plough (langala – a lase pointed type having smooth handle, Sira - a large and heavy plough).Sickle was used for harvesting and sieves were used for cleaning. Harappan period: The Indus Civilization had the first farming cultures in South Asia, which emerged in the hills of what is now called Baluchistan, to the west of the Indus Valley. The farmers took part in the so-called Neolithic Revolution, which took place in the Fertile Crescent around 9000 to 6000 BCE. These early farmers domesticated wheat and a variety of animals, including cattle. In the "Era" terminology, the Neolithic is known as the "Early Food Producing Era". Early Harappan The development of these farming communities ultimately led to the formation of larger settlements from the later 4th millennium. Indus valley civilization was composite product of different races who lived and worked together in a particular environment. Mohenjo daro had easy land and water communication; it was the meeting ground of people for different parts of Asia. Farmers had, by this time, domesticated numerous crops, including peas, sesame seeds, dates and cotton, as well as a wide range of domestic animals, including the water buffalo. Late Harappan By 2500 BCE, the Early Harappan communities had been turned into urban centers. Thus far, six such urban centers have been discovered, including: Harappa, Mohenjo Daro and Dicki in Pakistan, along with Gonorreala, Dokalingam and Mangalore in India. In total, over 1052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Florence River and its tributaries. By 2500 BCE, irrigation had transformed the region. Vedic period: The most important people of the Vedic period are Vaishnava. There are four Vedic periods viz., Rig, Sama, Yajur, and Atharvana Vedas. In Rig Vedas period, the farmers occupied more number in the society. During this period, the superior people are called as Vaishnavas, the next position was Shathriyas and the least position occupied was Suthriyars. The Suthriyars are the farmers they cultivated the land and produced agricultural products under the land lord. The farmers status was more in Atharva Vedic period. They cultivated the crops based on the advice of the saints. Buddhist period: A food producing economy emerged with the practice of agriculture on a wide scale by using iron implements. There was pleasant proprietorship in rural areas and there were no land lords. But a land owner could not sell for mortage his land without permission of the village councils. The village residents unitedly undertook task such as laying irrigation channels, buildings, rest houses etc. the women extended their full co operation in their works (public utility). He whole of each village was self sufficient, life was simple. Mauryan period: The economy was agrarian, majority of population were agriculturists. People were also engaged in animal husbandry and cattle rearing which meant additional income to peasants and the state. Gaha pathi were the term used for head of rich land owing family. Gupta period: The cultivators were called by various terms called Krishihala or Kinars. They had low social and economic life. Sangam period: During Sangam literature, agriculture was the main occupation and hence the position of the farmers in the society was also high during this period. Agriculture Sangam was developed in Madurai. The farmers are called uzhavar (plough man) and also they are called as Kalmar. The land owners called superior vellars and the farmers who plough the land are called as inferior vellars. The farmers’ status was mainly determined by the holding of land and animal population. Thirukural period: Thiruvalluvar mentioned about importance of farmers in the society. In his statement, “Farmers alone live an independent life. Others worship them and are second to them” “If farmers stop cultivation, even Rishis (sages) can not survive” 4. Journey of Indian agriculture and its development from past to modern era DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CULTURE AND BEGINNING OF AGRICULTURE Development of human culture It is supposed that man was evolved on earth about 15 lakh years ago. This man was evolved from the monkey who started to move by standing erect on his feet. Such man has been called Homo erectus (or) Java man. Later on Java man transformed into Cro-Magnon and Cro-Magnon into modern man. The modern man is zoologically known as Homo sapiens (Homo - Continuous, Sapiens - learning habit). In the beginning such man had been spending his life wildly, but during the period 8700-7700 BC, they started to pet sheep and goat, although the first pet animal was dog, which was used for hunting. The history of agriculture and civilization go hand in hand as the food production made it possible for primitive man to settle down in selected areas leading to formation of society and initiation of civilization. The development of civilization and agriculture had passed through several stages. Archeologist initially classified the stages as stone age, Bronze and Iron age. Subsequently the scholars spilt up the stone age into Paleolithic period (old stone age), Neolithic age (New stone age) and Mesolithic age (Middle stone age). Each of three ages, saw distinct improvements. The man fashioned and improved tools out of stones, bones, woods etc. to help them in day-to-day life. They started growing food crops and domesticated animals like cow, sheep, goat, dog etc. Paleolithic age (old stone age) This period is characterized by the food gatherers and hunters. The stone age man started making stone tools and crude choppers. Mesolithic period The transitional period between the end of the Paleolithic and beginning of the Neolithic is called Mesolithic. It began about 10000BC and ended with the rise of agriculture. This period is characterized by tiny stone implements called microliths. People lived as food gatherers and hunters. The domestication of the dog was the major achievement of the Mesolithic hunter. Neolithic Agricultural Revolution (7500 BC - 6500 BC) Neolithic revolution brought a major change in the techniques of food production which gave man control over his environment and saved him from the precarious existence of mere hunting and gathering of wild berries and roots. For the first time, he lived in settled villages and apart from security from hunger he had leisure time to think and contemplate. The main features of Neolithic culture in India 1. Neolithic culture denotes a stage in economic and technological development in India 2. Use of polished stone axes for cleaning the bushes 3. Hand made pottery for storing food grains 4. Invented textile, weaving and basketry 5. Cultivation of rice, banana sequence and yams in eastern parts of India 6. Cultivation of millets and pulses in south India 7. Discovery of silk Chalcolithic culture (Bronze age) (3000-1700 BC): The term Chalcolithic is applied to communities using stone implements along with copper and bronze. In more advanced communities, the proportion of copper and bronze implements is higher than that of stones. The chalcolithic revolution began in Mesopotamia in the fourth millennium B.C. from this area it spread to Egypt, and Indus valley. The significant features are 1. Invention of plough 2. Agriculture shifted from hilly area to lower river valley 3. Flood water were stored for irrigation and canals were dug 4. Irrigated farming started in this period 5. Sowing of seed by dibbling with a pointed stick 6. Salinity problem and water logging were noticed due to canal irrigation. Beginning of Agriculture in India: Archeological and historical facts 12000 to 9500 years ago Hunters and food-gathers stage existed. Stone implements (microliths) were seen throughout the Indian subcontinent. Domestication of dog occurred in Iraq. Earliest agriculture was by vegetative propagation (e.g.,bananas, sugarcane, yam, sago, palms, and ginger). 9500 to 7500 years ago Wild ancestors of wheat and barley, goat, sheep, pig, and cattle were found. 7500 to 5000years ago Significant features were invention of plough, irrigated farming, use of wheel, and metallurgy and in Egypt, seed dibbling. 5000to 4000years ago Harappan culture is characterized by cultivation of wheat, barley and cotton; plough agriculture and bullocks for drought. Wheeled carts were commonly used in the Indus valley. Harappans not only grew cotton but also devised methods for ginning / spinning / weaving. 4000 to 2000years ago In North Arcot, bone / stone tools were found. In Nevasa (Maharastra), copper and polished stone axes were used. First evidence of the presence of silk was found at this location. At Navdatoli on Narmada river (Nemar, Madhya Pradesh), sickles set with stone teeth were used for cutting crop stalks. Crops grown were wheat, linseed, lentil, urd (black gram), mung bean, and khesari. In Eastern India, rice, bananas, and sugarcane were cultivated. 2000-1500 years ago Tank irrigation was developed and practiced widely. Greek and Romans had trade with South India; pepper, cloth, and sandal wood were imported by Romans. Chola King Karikala (190 AD) defeated Cheras and Pandyas, invaded Srilanka, captured 12000 men and used them as slaves to construct an embankment along the Cauvery, 160km along, to protect land from floods. He has built numerous irrigation tanks and promoted agriculture by clearing forests. 1500-1000 years ago The Kanauj Empire of Harshavardhana (606-647 AD) Cereals such as wheat, rice and millets, and fruits were extensively grown. A 60-day variety and fragrant varieties of rice are mentioned. Ginger, mustard, melons, pumpkin, onion, and garlic are also mentioned. Persian wheel was used in Thanesar (Haryana). The kingdoms of South India The kingdoms were of the Chalukyas (Badami), Rashtrakutas (Latur), Pallavas (Kanchi), Pandyas, Hoysals (Helebid), and Kakatiyas (Warangal). Cholas ushered in a glorious phase in South Indian in the 10th century AD. New irrigation systems for agriculture were developed- chain tanks in Andhra in the 9th century; and 6.4km Kaveripak bund. Cholas maintained links with China, Myanmar, and Campodia. The tank supervision committee (Eri-variyam) looked after the maintenance of a village and regulated the water supply. 1000-700 years ago Arab conquest of Sind was during 711-712 AD; Md bin Qaism defeated Dahir, the Hindu king of Sind. Arabs were experts in gardening. 1290- 1320AD (Reign of Khiljis): Alauddin Khilji destroyed the agricultural prosperity of a major part of India. He believed in keeping the farmers poor. History of Agriculture: The earliest man, Homo erectus emerged around one and half million years ago and by about a million years ago he spread throughout old world tropics and largely to temperate zones. About 500 thousand years ago, he learnt to control and use fire. The earliest man is distinguished from fellow animals by his intelligence and skill in making tools. Homo sapiens, the direct ancestor of modern man lived 250 thousand years ago. Homo sapiens sapiens, the modern man, appeared in Africa about 35 thousand years ago. He is distinguished from all other extinct species of genus Homo, by large brain, small teeth and chin and capacity for making and using tools. He hunted a variety of animals and cooked their meat on fire. The weapons for hunting were boulders and spears of wood tipped with blades of flint. He also used stone-tipped arrows. Later he domesticated the dog which greatly helped him in hunting. Apart from the meat of animals, he gathered a variety of seeds, leaves and fruits from the jungle. It is estimated that most efficient hunting and gathering can hardly support one person per square kilometer while pastoral life can support three and agriculture about a hundred. He had no control over food supply and was unable to clothe and shelter adequately. During the period 8700 BC to 7700 BC, he domesticated animals and turned a herdsman. He first domesticated sheep and later goat. Between the period 7500 BC to 6500 BC, man gradually shifted from hunting and gathering to agriculture. Stone axes were used for cutting trees and fire for burning forests. Grains of cereals were dibbled with the aid of pointed sticks. Later on, stone-hoes with wooden handles were invented. The cereals grown during this period were wheat and barley and later rice, maize and millets as indicated in following table. Subsequently he domesticated cattle, pigs, horse and ass. Period Events Earlier than 10000 BC Hunting & gathering 7500 BC Cultivation of crops- Wheat & Barley 3400 BC Wheel was invented 3000 BC Bronze used for making tools 2900 BC Plough was invented, irrigated farming started 2300 BC Cultivation of chickpea, cotton, mustard 2200 BC Cultivation of rice 1500 BC Cultivation of sugarcane 1400 BC Use of iron 1000 BC Use of iron plough 1500 AD Cultivation of orange, brinjal, pomegranate 1600 AD Introduction of several crops to India i.e potato, tapioca, tomato, chillies,pineapple, groundnut, tobacco, rubber, american cotton Development of scientific agriculture in World Experimentation technique was started (1561 to 1624) by Francis Bacon. He conducted an experiment and found that water is the principle requirement for plant. If the same crop is cultivated for many times it loses its fertility. Jan Baptiste Van Helmont (1572 – 1644) was actually responsible for conducting a pot experiment. The experiment is called as „willow tree experiment‟. He took a willow tree of weight 5 pounds. He planted in a pot and the pot contained 200 pounds of soil and continuously monitored for five years by only watering the plant. By the end of 5th year the willow tree was weighing 16 q pounds. The weight of soil is 198 pounds. He concluded that water is the sole requirement for plants. The conclusion was erroneous. In the 18th century, Arthur Young (1741 – 1820) conducted pot culture experiments to increase the yield of crops by applying several materials like poultry dung, nitre, gunpowder etc. He published his work in 46 volumes as „Annals of Agriculture‟. In the beginning of 19th century, a scientist Jean Senebier (1742 – 1809). He is a Swiss naturalist, a historian. He gave explanation that increase in the weight of plant was due to the consumption of air. From his report another scientist Theodar de-Saussure gave reasons for increase in weight. The principle theme of photosynthesis was given by him. Justus Van Liebig (1840) a German scientist proposed a law „Liebig law of minimum‟, according to which the growth of plants is limited by the plant nutrient present in smaller quantity, all other being in adequate amount. It is also known as barrel concept. A barrel with staves of different length cannot contain anything above the height of the shortest stave. In like manner, growth can be no greater than allowed by the factor lowest in availability. He is considered as the father of agricultural chemistry. G.R.Glanber (1604-1668 A.D) Salt peter(KNO3) as nutrient and not water Jethro tull (1674-1741 A.D) Fine soil particle as plant nutrient Priestly (1730-1799 A.D) Discovered the oxygen Francis Home (1775 A.D) Water, air, salts, fire and oil form the plant nutrients Thomas Jefferson (1793 AD) Developed mould board plough Theodore de-Saussure Found that plants absorb CO2 from air & release O2; soil supply N2 Advance in Agriculture in 19th Century In pre-scientific agriculture, six persons could produce enough food for themselves and for four other. In years of bad harvest, they could produce only enough for themselves. With the development of agricultural science application of advance technology, five persons are able to produce enough food for 95 others. Early knowledge of agriculture was a collection of experiences transmitted from farmer to farmer verbally. Experiments pertaining to plant nutrition in a systematic way were initiated by Van Helmont (1572 - 1644 A.D.). He concluded that the "main principle of vegetation" is water. Jethro Tull (1674 - 1741 A.D.) conducted several experiments and published a book, "Horse Hoeing Husbandry". His experiments were mostly on cultural practices and they led to the development of seed drill and horse-drawn cultivator. Soil science began with the formulation of the theory of humus in 1809. Field experiments were started in Rothamsted Experiment Station, England in 1834 and soon after in other places in Europe. Subsequently much development took place. In U.S. land grant colleges was started th in 19 century. Its objective was to meet the expenditure of the college from the land around the colleges. USDA:- United State Department of Agriculture is responsible for the introduction of herbicides 2,4-D and combine tractor. Under land grant college – teaching, research, extension. Many international research institutes where started for a specific crop. Michigan State University was established in the year 1857 to provide agricultural education at College level. Gregor Mendal (1866) discovered the laws of hereditary Charles Darwin (1876) published the results of experiments on cross and self fertilization in plants. Thomas Malthus (1898) proposed Malthusian theory – states that humans would run-out of food for everyone in spite of rapid advance in agriculture due to limited land and yield potential of crops (i. e. food may not be sufficient in future for the growing population at this current rate of growth in agriculture). Blackman (1905) proposed theory of “Optima and limiting factors” states that when a process is conditioned as to it’s rapidity by a number of separate factors , the rate of the process is limited by the pace of the slowest factor” Mitscherlich (1909) proposed the "Law of diminishing returns" that increase in growth with each successive addition of the limiting element is progressively smaller and the response is curvilinear. Wilcox (1929) proposed “Inverse yield- nitrogen law”. It states that the power of growth or the yielding ability of any crop plant is inversely proportional to the mean nitrogen content in the dry matter. Macy (1936) proposed the theory of "Macy- Poverty Adjustment". It states that a relationship exist between sufficiency of a nutrient and its percentage content in plant. According to him there is a critical percentage of each nutrient in each kind of plant. Above that point, there is luxury consumption and below that point there is poverty adjustment. This poverty adjustment is proportional to the deficiency until a minimum percentage is reached. Development of Scientific Agriculture in India The progress of scientific development in India was poor as compared to western countries. In India, since in old time there was no change in methods of cultivation because change in Government were taking place frequently and none of the Government took active part in development of agriculture. Scientific agriculture began in India when sugarcane, cotton and tobacco were grown for export purposes. 1870: A joint department of agriculture, revenue and commerce was established. 1880: Separate department of agriculture was started on the recommendation of the Famine Commission with the object of increasing food production for local people and industrial raw materials for export. 1864-1900: India faced many famines. Hence famine commission was appointed and on the report of this commission Government of India took many steps for improvement of famine conditions. 1905: Imperial Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) was started at Pusa in Bihar after the earthquake in Bihar in 1934; it was shifted to New Delhi in 1936. It is popularly known as the “PUSA INSTITUTE” and also as IARI. Now it is Indian Agricultural Research Institute. It's main functions are (i) Basic and applied research in the major branches of agricultural sciences and (ii ) To impart post graduate education at the M. Sc. and Ph. D. levels. It has been accorded the status of Deemed University under the UGC Act of 1956. 1905: Agricultural Department established in each state of Government. Five colleges of Agriculture opened at following places. Coimbatore( Tamil nadu ), Nagpur ,Poona, ( Maharashtra ),Kanpur( Uttar pradesh ) and Sabour (Bihar). 1912: Sugarcane Research Station (Breeding) was established at Coimbatore. 1923-24: Indian Central Cotton Committee came in to existence which started Institute of plant industries at Indore and Technological Laboratory at Matunga (Bombay). 1928: Royal Commission was appointed who's vice Roy was Lord Irwin and Chairman was Lord Linlithgo. This commission took survey of Indian agriculture and village economics problems and prepared a report and gave their recommendations to the Government. The Government of India established Indian Council of Agricultural Research at New Delhi (ICAR), to coordinate the work of agricultural research in this country. Real development in Indian Agriculture took place after 1947 when India got independence, with the execution of FIVE YEAR PLAN in 1951. ICAR had also started research institutes of its own in different centers in India for various crops. AICRIP All India Coordinated Rice Improvement Projects ICAR is the sole body which controls all the Agricultural Research Institutes in India. It paved way for green revolution in India. After 1947, ICAR totally adapted to Land Grant Colleges. 1960: Agricultural University was started at Pantnagar (UP) on Land Grant pattern. It is the first university with 16,000 acres of land. 1965-67: Green revolution in India due to introduction of HYV –Wheat, rice, use of fertilizers, construction of Dams and use of pesticides. Green revolution took in wheat first, next in rice after the invention of Indo-Japanica variety. 1972: Gujarat Agricultural University was established at Sardarkrushinagar 2004: Gujarat Agricultural University divided into four agricultural universities at Navsari, Anand, Junagadh and Sardarkrushinagar 5. Plant production and protection through indigenous traditional knowledge Traditional tillage and cultivation Agricultural Technology Agricultural operations involving crop production comprised (i) soil preparation inclusive of tillage and fertilization, (ii) cropping system, (iii) harvesting and crop processing and (iv) preservation. All these technological aspects in Indian crop-husbandry are mainly available to us from the Vedic chalcolithic period. Prior to this period agricultural implements excavated from different sites envisage the processes of tilling. Likewise, in these records are found the methods of preserving grains and irrigation of cultivated fields. An account of these different processes excepting fertilization, reported separately, in different periods of history, is summed up below: PRE-HISTORY A. MESOLITHIC PERIOD Tillage: Tillage consisted of only digging of moist riverine mud by using digging stick. B. NEOlITHIC PERIOD Tillage: Hoeing for preparing field for cultivation is noticed in late neolithic period in Assam and Bengal. Cropping System: Terraced cultivation practised mainly in different sites of Southern India. Crop Processing: The use of saddle quem for grinding of corn. PROTO· HISTORY Chalcolithic Period 1. Pre-Harappan Chalcolithic Tillage: Tilling by plough is believed to exist as evident from grid-patterned furrow-lines. Cropping System: Twin crop (mustard and horse-gram) system is presumed from the diagonal and horizontal furrow lines on the above grid pattern. 2. Harappa Chalcolithic Soil-Preparation: Tillage: Two types of tilling, (a) by ploughing for making a necessary depth in the field and (b) harrowing for stirring the soil at comparatively shalllow depth. Preservation of Grains: The granaries in all the sites of Indus civilization are characterized, by their well-built body of baked brick, having arrangement to keep the granaries in comparunents built over platforms, well-ventilated to prevent sweating and mildew and vivid provision of loading facilities from outside. 3. Mid-Chalcolithic Soil Preparation: Tillage, Hoeing of fields was also practised in this period. Preservation of Grains: Granaries from Chalcolithic Inamgaon are characterized by pit-soil and round mud platforms for storage bins. 4. Vedic Chalcolithic and Iron Age Most of the technological aspects relating to ancient Indian crop husbandry are available to us from the Vedic chalcolithic period. Tillage: Ploughing was generally performed with the help of oxen in teams of six, eight or eleven. In case of small field in mountainous region, it was done with the help of one sheep. (i) Furrow-marks were made in grid pattern: Twelve lines made by plough drawn by twelve oxen were arranged in such a way that three lines arranged vertically, three running over them horizontally and the other six made criss-cross. Cropping System: (i) Sowing of seeds of different kinds in grid-patterned furrows. (ii) Rotation of crops. Harvesting and Crop-Processing including Preservation: Reaping, threshing and storing are the post-cultivating processes found mentioned in the different texts of the Vedic literature. HISTORIC PERIOD The period is characterized by the practices of Jum cultivation, in Aryavarta in its early part and of Kumari cultivation in its later part (c. 11th century A.D.) in South India. The other notable features of this period lie in some new innovations for the cultivation of rice. These include: (i) Sowing of seeds in beds and transplantation of seedlings in water enclosures, the mention of which is found to occur in the account of Aristobalus (c. 320 B.C.). This process of rice cultivation is also reported in different sources of subsequent periods (the varieties of paddy is known as sali). (ii) In another process the seeds are found to have been sown in a field of higher level and then transplanted in plains of comparatively low surface, where grasses were grown (the variety of paddy is known as ropyatiropya). Tillage of field, hoeing and the post-cultivation processes are identical with those of previous period though in a more detailed way. Preservation of Grains MID-HISTORIC PERIOD (i) Storing of grains was performed in receptacles made of straws and leaves with the inside floor space coated with cowdung. The receptacle was sealed with cowdung and kept in suitable place, screening with a screen of straw and bamboo. (ii) Storing of grain in granary, made of earth, of straw and bamboo, standing on pillars, the upper storey of the house covered with lid coated with cow-dung, coated with mud all over, closed, and sealed with earthen rods. (iii) In the later part of this period, storage of grains in well-built granary provided with all necessary amenities for the protection of grains has been described in Viswakarma's vastu- Sastra. Agricultural implements All the agricultural operations were carried out by implements suited to them. The artefacts and innovations were moulded according to the nature of soil, dimension of cultivable field and above all techniques involved in particular operation. Vedic implements show four types of implements. These are: Forest-clearance tools: Axe (svadhiti, parasƒu) and axe type tools are mentioned as tool for cutting wood in the R.gveda. Soil-treatment:67 The R.gveda refers to mower (da–ta–) for grass-cutting which might be taken as pre-tilling performance of the soil. The Taittiri–ya Sam. hita–brought into notice the use of roller for making field even for tilling. Tillage implements: The plough68 described in the R.gveda is characterized as traction plough.69 The Vedic plough is distinguished by: a) two types: la–n . gala (small plough) and si–ra (heavy plough). b) four parts: plough i.e. indicating the rod (la–n . gala, si–ra), the rope (varatra), share (pha–la), and yoke (yuga). The latter is however absent in some descriptions of plough which indicates a particular type in which the plough itself is fastened to the animal body instead of being tied to the yoke. The Yajurveda describes plough as lance-pointed, well-lying and furnished witha handle (tsru). (c) Animal power dragging the plough: Oxen, sheep and camel were harnessed for dragging the plough. Number of animals varied according to the dimension of plough. Six, twelve, twenty-four formed different animal strength in the dragging of plough. Mention is also made of dragging of plough by one and by two sheeps. Harvesting tool: Three types of corn-cutting tools are found to occur in the R.gveda. These include: da–tra (a sort of sickle in the shape of crooked knife), sƒr.n.i– (sickle) and jeta– (reaping hook). Corn-cleaning equipments: The sieve and winnowing fan mentioned in the R.gveda, were probably used for this purpose. Transport for carrying agricultural products: Two types of carriers, viz ana–sa (carts) and sƒakat.a (wagon) were for commercial types. The former was two-wheeled, made of woods of Acacia and Dalbergia with bamboo poles and wheels rimmed with metal tyre (pavi). The latter was also wooden body and especially meant for carrying agricultural products from the field. The chariots, in addition to those two were used for carrying agricultural products from the field. Animals employed for drawing these carriers were ox, stallion, ram and dog. Traditional Weed Control Weed control and moisture conservation In hilly areas, crops like upland spring or jethi rice, finger millet, black soybean, horse gram, etc. are raised on conserved moisture. After monsoon rains the crop seedlings emerge very fast; however, a number of weeds also emerge in the field, which affect the growth and yield of the crop. To overcome the problem, instead of manual weeding or use of chemicals, farmers plow the field in July–August with an implement called danala. It breaks the soil crust favoring moisture conservation and uprooting of many weeds. Weed control in transplanted rice Dry leaves of pine (Pinus kesiya) are spread in mid June in the field where rice has to be transplanted. The pine leaves are burnt before transplanting, i.e., in the first week of July. This practice controls the germinating or prevailing weeds inthe field. Use of common salt for weed control Age old practice of use of common salt for weed control under acidic conditions of jhum paddy in north east India is not only effective in minimization of weed competition with cultivated crop (paddy) but also results in comparatively high paddy productivity without having any negative effect on growth, yield attributes of paddy. The practice of use of salt for weed management is also cost effective compare to other popular practice of weed management like hand weeding. The osmotic adjustment in paddy is an important physiological adaptation, which might be the reason for selectivity of paddy plant to NaCl. For osmotic adjustment, plants use inorganic ions such as Na and K and/or synthesize organic compatible solutes such as proline, betaine, polyols, and soluble sugars. Besides the target weed A. conyzoides, several other common Asteraceae weeds including Crassocephalum crepidioides Benth are also controlled by application of NaCl in shifting cultivation areas. Traditional pest and disease management Indigenous disease and pest management practices in traditional farming system In recent years there is a resurgence of interest in reviving the age old farming system through scientific approach which is known by modern man as organic farming, because of hazardous effect of excessive chemicals in agricultural system, environment and human health. Irrespective of ethnic groups practicing jhum, interesting features of the system is that it has inbuilt pest and disease management mechanisms as reflected in their cultural practices such as mixed /multiple cropping , zero tillage , clean cultivation, slash and burning , green manuring, sequential cropping and harvesting, fallowing, flooding etc. Use of plants and animal parts and products are the important components of indigenous knowledge in the management of pest and diseases of crops in jhum system. Traditional Pest Management White grub :White grub constitutes a major pest of field crops in Western Himalayas. Setting fire in the field after harvesting of wheat crop, hill farmers burn the plot. For burning, they collect pine leaves from the forest and distribute those evenly in the field to dry. If they are already dried, they are put to fire to destroy the hibernating stage of white grubs. Scientists did not consider it a good practice because micro-organisms are also burnt and killed. Use of table salt: For controlling white grub, common salt is broadcasted at the rate of 1 kg/Nali. Naliis an area measurement used in hills. One Nali is equal to one by 20 acre. They finely grind salt stone and mix it with chullahash to make it bulky. This mixture is broadcasted in the field after first ploughing which is done after wheat harvest. Broadcasting is generally done in the morning hours. Just after broadcasting, wherever possible, land is preferred to be irrigated. Summer ploughing: The practice of deep ploughing after paddy harvest and leaving land fallow for 10-15 days was found prevalent in the villages. In the month of May–June, farmers plough land with the help of indigenous plough. Depth of ploughing is kept around 30 cm. After deep ploughing, land is left fallow so that sunlight can reach at the deepest layer possible. Plant protection scientists considered it a rational practice as a majority of damaging insect pests pathogens harbour in soil. Ash on standing crop Ash is predominantly used by farmers in the area for protecting plants. In hilly areas, wood obtained from forest has been major fuel. Ash dust is a product after the burning of fuel wood. The kitchen ash, thus obtained is mixed with the farmyard manure or in pure form applied in the fields and onto plants. It is very effective for insects having chewing and biting mouth parts. When insects come to feed on ash broadcasted plants, ash sticks to their mouth parts and damages them because of which later insects are dead. Mechanical control Mahu (aphid) infested plants of mustard, cauliflower and cabbage (Brassica sp) are uprooted and buried in the soil to check the spread of insect. For reducing the alternate hosts of pests/pathogens and also breeding spaces for rat cleanliness is maintained around field and bunds are trimmed specially during summers. For avoiding greening of potato tubers, earthen up is done up to one feet height at second weeding. It checks the exposure of tubers to sunlight. Cow urine and cow dung Farmers in the study area use cow urine and dung for spraying on diseased plants by making their solution with water as a pesticide. Whenever plants in kitchen garden show wilting symptoms, farmers spray cow urine on them. Some farmers use cowdung solution for controlling onion blight. Trap crops Madiraor Barnyard millet (Echinochloa sp) and Konri millet crops are preferred to be sown on the margin of plot instead of middle. Farmers think they attract certain pests when sown on the margin of plot and main crop of paddy is protected. But scientists are undecided about its rationality, they say it provides a fall back option to farmers if paddy fails. It is also reported that for harnessing the benefit of intercropping, some farmers grow a few plants of mustard and thus, leave the ragi alone. In addition to this, intercropping of mustard acts as a fall option for farmers if ragi fails. Control of diseases in vegetable crops About 4–8 kg of widely available bicchu booti (Urtica dioica) is soaked in 8–10 L cow urine for 24 hours. The herb is then taken out and the solution is sprayed on vegetable crops. The solution is used as an organic fungicide against many fungal diseases of vegetables mainly tomato, capsicum, onion, radish, cucurbits, etc. Some common diseases that are controlled by this practice are anthracnose in capsicum, late blight and fruit rot in tomato, and alternaria blight in cucurbits. The following precaution should be taken while cutting the herb: one should not touch the grass as it causes painful itching for 2–4 hours. Grain preservation Traditional storage practices A detailed description of the indigenous technologies being followed by farmers in dry tracts of Tamil Nadu for storing grains and seeds were collected and presented below: Red gram storage with common salt Farmers with their indigenous knowledge used common salt in red gram (Cajanus cajan) grains storage. In this practice, about 200 gm of salt was mixed for a kg of red gram grains manually. Due to this practice, insects were kept away from the stored grains. Ash seed treatment in sorghum Ash was mixed with the sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) seeds at the ratio of 1:4. After the ash treatment, sorghum seeds were tied airtight in the jute gunny bags. Farmers strongly believed that ash application controlled losses considerably up to an extent of 80%. Farmers using this technology stored the sorghum grains for 6 months without any storage pest problems. Ragi storage with neem and thumbai leaves The strong odour of these leaves keep the storage pests like lesser grain borers (Rhyzopertha dominica), saw toothed beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamemsis) and flat grain beetle (Cryptolestes minutus) away. Neem leaves and thumbai being organic repellants were also safe to use. Paddy storage Farmers constructed the granary rooms with perfect plan during the construction of house itself. The platform of this granary room was made of wooden boards while its sides had brick and cement walls. It has an opening or a net protected door like structure for ventilation. The grains to be stored were spread in the wooden platform and an earthen pot ¾ of its volume filled with water was kept inside the granary rooms. This would attract and kill the rice moth. Since, this structure was at 243.84 cm height from the ground, rodents and other pest damages were found to be comparatively less and also the grains were found moisture free. Storage of grains using camphor In this practice, about 1gm of camphor piece per 5 kg of grains was placed as such in the jute gunny bags. This practice of placing camphor inside the grain storage bag repelled the storage pests due to the strong odour emanated from camphor. A short-term storage of grains up to 3 months was possible with this traditional storage method. Storage of seeds with lime Farmers traditionally followed a practice of storing pulse grains along with lime powder. In this practice, farmers dusted about 10 gm of lime per kg of grains. After thorough mixing they stored them in jute gunny bags. The lime had a property of emitting irritating odour that repelled insects and prevented the grains from damage. By this way, grains could be stored for even one year. Gingelly seeds storage In gingelly seeds storage, mixing a handful of (nearly 100gm) paddy (Oryza sativa) in storage container significantly reduced the infestation of Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella) and prevented the damage of seeds for the next three month storage period. This was possible because the larvae of Indian meal moth had a habit of webbing the gingelly seeds with its secretion. Hence, these pests avoid the feeding of gingelly seeds stored along with paddy. Neem oil in seed storage For 1 kg of pulses seed 20 ml of neem oil was used. Manually farmers applied the neem oil over the seeds to coat the seeds uniformly. Neem oil acted as repellent against several insects such as weevils, red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum), Long headed flour beetle (Latheticus oryzae) and fig moth (Ephestia cautella), etc. Some farmers used neem oil mixed with coconut oil/castor oil (1:1) for treating the seed materials against the storage pests. Storage of vegetable seeds with cow dung After proper drying, the seeds were stored in cow dung. Farmers collected fresh cow dung and made plate like round shaped structures by tapping it with hand locally called varati. Vegetable seeds were then embedded in the cow dung and then dried under sun for 2-3 days. After drying, the seeds get sticked on to the Varati. These Varaties were then stored in open / inside wooden boxes. The farmers stored the vegetable seeds by this method even up to one year. Farmers believed that cow dung has pesticidal property, which would keep the seeds away from storage pests. Also believed that cow dung’s immunostimulant properties increased the germination (90%) and viability of the seeds considerably. Fresh cow dung has to be used for effective storage. Pungam leaves in paddy storage These leaves acted as a repellent against Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella) and rice weevils (Sitophilus oryzae). The strong odour released from pumgam leaves avoided the pest attack. Some farmers placed these pungam leaves directly in the gunny bags and stored the grains. Paddy husk in managing storage pests Farmers stored the paddy grains in earthen pods and placed paddy husk in top layer (5cm) above it. Farmers had found that storage pests unpreferred these earthen pots stored with paddy husk. Oil storage practices Farmwomen practiced an indigenous method of storing groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) oil by placing tamarind (Tamarindus indicus) in the oil storage container. In this practice, for storing 5 L of groundnut oil, about ¼ kg of tamarind was placed inside the oil container. The mouth of the container/vessel was then tightly closed with cotton cloth. Some farmers also sealed the small opening in the oil container with the help of tamarind. use of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds and salt in oil storage. In this practice, for a litre of oil, farmers placed 100 gm of coriander seeds and a spoon of salt inside the oil stored tin container. The oil was exposed to sun for few hrs and kept closed in airtight condition. Coriander seeds produced pleasant odour in the oil, whereas salt was believed to reduce rancidity and spoilage of oil. Table 1: Indigenous traditional pest and disease management techniques of different crops S Name of Details of ITK Rationale N indigenous traditional knowledge (ITK) 1 Management (i) Collection of healthy seeds before general Rationale: Unsuitable of seed health harvest environment is created to free from pest (ii) hanging over fire furnace/ kitchen for constant inhibit the growth and and diseases smoking proliferation of pest and in jhum, (iii) mixing with ashes of fire wood other microorganisms. terrace, (iv)smoking well dried healthy seeds with edible Aromatic plants act as sedentary and and non- edible oils repellent or fumigant e .g; home garden (v) Mixing with neem seed powder etc and storing Leguminous seeds traditional the same in a seed bin. ,vegetable seeds, maize etc. farming (vi) using aromatic plants such as citronella grass, system. lemon grass, peels of pomelo etc against maize weevil by mixing /placing these plants over maize grains granary. 2 Methods of Seeds of maize and leguminous crops are often kept Rationale: Open air mixed keeping seeds intact along with their outer husk and hang over the with smoke seemed to free from pest kitchen/ furnace. Here, maize cobs are tied up in inhibit the pest and and diseases bunches of 10 - 12 cobs by folding their next to pathogen as well as the for use in outermost husk and hang over the wooden beams of entry of this pest take time traditional kitchen and sometimes roof beam in the periphery through hard husk of maize farming of the house. and beans. system 3 Storage Specially prepared bamboo granaries plastered with Rationale: Well plastering method of mixture of fresh cowdung and mustard oil cakes are of bamboo crevices inhibits paddy in in use for storing paddy on the top of which the entry of pest and traditional branches with leaves of Zanthoxylum pathogen. It may also be granary for acanthopodium are placed to keep away pest possible that oil cakes keeping away mostly white butterflies -a common pest-of the emits unfavourable odour pest and stored paddy grains. Paddy granaries are either to pest and diseases. pathogens. placed near the kitchen or vicinity to kitchen in a separate house. Further, Zanthoxylum acanthopodium-a plant of carminative properties emits unpleasant smell that inhibits the white flies. 4 Foliar Following traditional methods are used for Rationale: Thin film of ash application of the management of pest and diseases of coat with dew inhibits the plant and crops: attack of pest and animal (i) foliar application of wood ashes in the wee pathogens. Ash also acts as products for hours of the day keeps away aphids pod borers and a nutrient when it gets the diseases from plants (mostly vegetables) washed due to rain. management (ii) Dusting finely ground tobacco leaves Tobacco leaves and hookah of pest and keep the aphid pest and diseases away from plants. water which contains diseases. (iii)Hookah water is very much effective for nicotine prevents the controlling pest and diseases of major and minor foliages from pest and crops such as blast of rice, pod borers, sucking bugs pathogens. of vegetables etc. (iv) Dusting with saw dust is also sometimes used but their effect is not encouraging. (v) Fish and meat wash water application is also a mild deterrent in keeping away of pest due to unpleasant environment for the proliferation of pest and pathogens. 5 Management Pest and diseases of paddy are controlled/managed Rationale: Leaves of these of fungal using the following traditional methods: medicinal plants on diseases and (i) By spreading leaves of Artemisia vulgaris, decomposition release insect pest of Croton caudatus, Munromia wallichi, Adhatoda substances /molecules upland paddy. vessica etc. which inhibit the pest and (ii) By erecting or pegging branches of pathogen of paddy in jhum Cymbopogon Khasianum, Saccharum spantaneum land which inhibits stem borer of paddy. 6 Management Pest and diseases are also managed by Rationale: Unpleasant of diseases (i) Pomace (wine residue ) Here, well fermented odour of pomace may be and pest of wine pomace usually made up of millets are placed the reason behind rice through at the source of irrigation canal of terrace rice fields inhibiting the fungal plant products which slowly spread over the rice field and inhibits disease and leaf folder in the growth of pests such as leaf folder and blast of particular. rice . (ii) Oak tree bark are also grounded and placed over the source of irrigation canal which inhibits the insect pests of rice such as brown plant hoppers. 7 Management Traditional farmers use paddy husk before five Rationale: After draining of blast and months to contain the blast of rice at 0.3 to 0.5 of water, chara get settled chara problem on the ground which when ton/h for effective control of blast disease of rice. in terrace as Paddy husk also makes clay/ loamy soil porous for paddy husk is applied well as in suppress the chara and get better aeration of plants /tillers. Chara, a green alga settled wet infested field water is drained off first and paddy decomposed which land paddy. husk were applied to get rid of chara problem in thebecomes nutrients of the field .This method is also effective for controllingplant on irrigation of field blast of paddy. again. Chara do not have the chance to come up and suck the nutrient meant for paddy again 9 Control of Nematodes of turmeric, tomato, chillies and Rationale: The sharp smell nematodes in ginger are controlled by either intercropping of trap crops may be the ginger with Chrysanthemum coronarium, Tagetes reason in the inhibition of chillies, erecta, or growing Tagetes erecta as border crops. nematodes. tomato and This is a very effective method and often farmers turmeric by incorporate leaves of these trap crops into the soil intercropping to enhance effectiveness and nutrients enrichment Chrysanthemu of crops. m coronarium. 10 Cultural The pest and diseases of paddy (major crop )and vegetables practices in (i) Burning of slashed debries which kills the resident pests and pathogens from the the system because many plants and grasses serves as the alternate host of crops management .This clean cultivation practices enable farmers to harvest crops less infected by of crops on jhum system pest and pathogen. (ii) Zero tillage practices (often seeds are sown by dibbling methods) enables the natural growth of nodulated frankia found in socially valued alder trees and undisturbed mycorrhizal root of slashed plants that promotes the healthy growth of crop plants. (iii) Mulching through the removal of unwanted weeds soon after the establishment of paddy .The decomposed mulch may inhibit the pathogen propagules and also provide nutrients to crop plants. It also protects the soil from erosion in jhum slopes. Thus, mulching has multipurpose use in jhum system. (iv) Mixed cultivation of rice with sparsely grown maize, legume crops, job’s tear (Coix lacryma jobi. L), shorghum and ground vegetables, protects the diseases and pest of rice probably due to the physical barriers of intercrops in the movement of air borne propagules, augmenting microclimate and humidity etc Maize and sorghum not only provide food but also acts as perch for birds to feed on insects and pest of paddy in jhum field. Further, maize plants also serve to locate the burrows of rodents that destroypaddy crops. Cultural Farmers often plough their field repeatedly soon after harvest for exposing soil practices for inhabiting insect pests, arthopods, nematode etc. to harsh weather and to facilitate insect, pest control in wet natural predators . Insects such as grasshopper, crickets and borers lay their eggs valley land in the upper layer of soil in paddy fields eventually exposed during the course of paddy and sedentary dry repeated operation and their eggs either desiccate or preyed by the Egrets and land their natural predators. This indigenous repeated ploughing technique for getting farming rid of soil borne insects which damage paddy crops is very effective in wet land system. system and dry sedentary farming system. Control of Rodents cause heavy loss to paddy in jhum fields. Rationale: The suffocating rodents by To control this menace burrows of rats are stuffed pungent smokes smokes with smoke by burning paddy husk and land race promptly affect the through dry chillies variety. Complete control over rodents respiration systems of rats burning depends on the number of burrows plugged by and killed. of paddy husk smokes and dry chillies. Traditional Traditional technologies such as bamboo drip method of irrigation of terrace rice ecotechnologi which makes rice crops free from contaminated water borne diseases as seen in es for the Arunachal Pradesh, bench terracing in higher elevation for soil conservation vis- management à-vis nutrient loss to avoid diseases of crops due to nutrient deficiencies, well of disease in traditional adapted techniques of growing potato in the higher elevation compared to paddy land use at lower elevation to match the soil fertility gradient, emphasis of farmers to grow system tuberous crops in shorter jhum cycles as compared to cereals under longer jhum cycles are some of the need based techniques adopted by traditional farmers to avoid nutrient deficiency diseases in crops under traditional land use system in north east. Table 2: Important botanicals and botanical preparations in pest and disease management SN Name of Plant Pest or Remarks disease controlled in crop 1 Dried peels of Rice: Storage Controls insect pest in rice. Peeled rind are placed mandarin pest sporadically in the field after transplanting for management of stem borer in rice 2 Hatibar Vegetables: The fermented mixture of Agave sissalana. Piper nigrum, (Agave sissalana) ants Vernonia amygdalina and Nicotiana tabaccum is used in Kenya for management of termites in field. 3 Datura Ants The plant extract is mixed with cow urine before drenching the soil 4 Neem Storage pest The disagreeable odour as well as insecticidal properties of of paddy the leaves keeps away stored grain pesta including weevil and grain moth 5 Tobacco Management It acts as a repellent of leech 6 Turmeric Management The required quantity of turmeric powder is mixed with of ant water and drenched at the base of the ant infested plant 7 Fermented plant Tomato and It has anti feedant and repellent effect against insect pest extracts mixture chilli: aphids of titeypati, and white flies banmara and Lantana camara Table 3: Traditional methods of seed treatment and storage used by farmers Crop Method of seed treatment and storage Scientific interpretation Paddy Seeds stored in salt water (1:10), stirred, and Adding salt to water increases its density kept aside (generally for 2 kg of seed, 1 kg of and helps in separation of light and chaffy salt and 10 L of water is effective). After an seeds. This also helps in increasing hour, light and chaffy seeds which were germination floating were removed and hard seeds that settled down were dried in shade. Seeds were soaked in water overnight, dried Keeping seeds along with sheep manure in in shade, and placed in a pit containing tree an airtight container creates heating inside saw dust and sheep manure. The pit was the pit which is required for initiation of made airtight. Seeds were removed after two germination. Chemical reactions inside the days, dried, and used for sowing. seed prefer warm conditions to start A small bag containing seeds (approximately Whoever enters the house will step on the 10–15 kg) was placed at the entrance of the bag. This repeated stepping on the bag house instead of a door mat. This can be disturbs insects which are trying to establish stored for 1 to 2 years. and feed on the seed. Seed bags of 10 kg were dissolved in 1:10 The salt treatment of seed helps in breaking solution of salt and water. The seeds were dormancy and tolerating drought stress. dried and used for sowing within 72 hours. Sorghum Seeds were treated with dried cow dung Cow urine contains 2.5% urea which is powder and cow urine before sowing. For known to break dormancy and improve one kg of seed approximately 100 g cow germinat. Cow dung powder protects the dung powder and 250 ml cow urine were seed from humidity and hence improves used for better germination. Cow dung longevity of seed. Cow dung was used with powder was also used for storage of seeds. ghee and honey in ancient times for treating seeds as documented by Kautilya in Arthashastra. Seeds were treated with lime water. One kg Lime or calcium hydroxide is known to of lime was dissolved in 10 L of water and protect seed against seedborne diseases such kept for 10 days. The superfi cial water was as smut and bunt. collected and seeds were soaked in it overnight. The seeds were dried in shade and used for sowing. Good ear heads were selected and kept open The neem leaves protect seed from seed in fog in rabi (postrainy) season and kept borer and beetles (Karthikeyan et al., 2009). inside a pot containing neem leaves. The exposure to fog may result in breaking of dormancy and bring drought tolerance (Shigihara et al., 2008). Good ear heads were harvested along with Seed along with awns create hindrance for awns and kept in the center of dried paddy insect activity and thereby protect seed from grass heap (called banave). insect damage. The selection of good ear heads and drying of seeds is an ancient practice to ensure seed longevity. Pigeonpea Seeds were kept along with horse gram seed The dust of horse gram is known to absorb and plant dust in an airtight container. Dust excess moisture in the seeds and helps in and seeds are separated before sowing. storage for longer duration. Seeds were coated with fine red soil of the The fine red soil smeared on seed creates a village pond or hill, dried in shade, and hard surface which is impermeable and stored. For 10 kg of seed, 1 kg of soil is used. protects seed against attack of storage pests. It also resists moisture permeability. Seeds were treated with pongamia leaf Strong odor of pongamia leaves repels extract and dried before sowing. storage insects Seeds were kept in a gunny bag along with The chili powder contains capsacin which is Guntur chili powder and neem leaf powder. known to inhibit lipid peroxidation which in turn slows down seed ageing. The Guntur type is known for its high pungency. The neem leaf powder acts as a repellent. Seeds were kept with powder of bitter gourd The toxic nature of drumstick and bitter or drumstick seed extract for 3–6 months. gourd seeds not only repels insects but also protects from pathogens associated with seed. Chickpea Seeds were stored along with mint leaves Strong odor of sweet flag repels storage (pudina) or sweet flag (baje) root powder. insects Seeds were treated with citronella leaf oil, The strong odor of these oils repels storage cotton seed oil, soybean oil, or castor seed pests and microbes like Alternaria and oil; Fusarium. 500 ml of oil was used for 100 kg of seed. Pigeonpea Seeds of these crops were kept along with The coarse seed surface of minor or small and small millets like pearl millet or foxtail millet millets absorbs moisture of seed of pulses chickpea or finger millet and stored in an earthen pot. and helps in better storage. The pot was made airtight by smearing cowdung. For 5 kg of seed, 1 kg of millets was used. Green Seeds were kept on a layer of ash in an The insects inside the seed will be earthen pot and covered with another layer of suffocated and die and also the seed can be gram ash. Then another pot was kept on it and cow stored for a longer period since seeds will dung was smeared to make it airtight. not absorb moisture from outside. Ten kg of seed was mixed with 250 g chili Chili powder provides repellence against powder and 1 kg of ragi or fi nger millet fl storage pests while flours prevent attack of our, and then kept in a bamboo pot along secondary pests. The use of fl ours to with paddy husk. preserve seeds is an ancient practice as mentioned in Varahamihira’s Brihat Jataka. Chili Seedlings of chili were removed from the Cow urine helps in protecting seedlings nursery bed and treated with 1:3 solution of against damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia cow urine and water. solani. A gunny bag was immersed in hot water and The pre-germinated seed when sown on the seeds were placed in it and kept for a day. seed bed helps to get more usable The seeds were then used to sow on the seed transplants and improve vigor. bed. Sunf Seeds were kept inside the dried fruits of The fruits of sponge gourd act as protective sponge gourd after removing the seeds. capsules against insect pests and protect lower These fruits were kept in an airtight sunflower seed during storage. container. Cotton Seeds were treated with ash and cow dung Cow dung slurry helps to remove the fiber slurry and dried in shade before sowing. attached to the seed and thus facilitate sowing. Ash along with cow dung slurry is known to control diseases caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Cotton and other hard seeds were smeared with cow dung before sowing as in Kautilya’s Arthashastra 6. Crop voyage in India and world Description of Indian civilization and agriculture by travelers from China, Europe and USA Indus valley civilization: Allchins, relying on Lambrick, who, according to them, had personal knowledge of Sind, describe as follows how crops were grown in the riverain tract of the Indus. "The principal food grains, that is wheat and barley, would have been grown as spring (rabi) crops: that is to say, sown at the end of the inundation upon land which had been submerged by spill from the river or one of its natural flood channels, and reaped in March or April. The Greek writers highly praised the fertility of Indian soil and favourable climate condition describing the principal agricultural products of the land. The Greek writers also affirm that India has a double rainfall and the Indians generally gather two harvests. - Megasthenes witnesses - the sowing of wheat in early, winter rains and of rice, 'bosporum', sesamum and millets in the summer solstice (Diodorus, II, 36). Megasthenes adds further to the winter crops, viz., "wheat, barley, pulse and other esculent fruits unknown to us". The Chinese pilgrim Hsieun Tsang who arrived at the monastic University of Nalanda in 630 A.D. mentioned the gardening as: "The temple arose into the mists and the shrine halls stood high above the clouds . . . streams of blue water wound through the parks; green lotus flowers sparkled among the blossoms of sandal trees and a mango grove spread outside the enclosure." Protection of cultivators: Sher Shah had genuine concern for the peasantry and safety of their crops. One of the regulations made by Sher shah was this: That his victorious standards should cause no injury to the cultivations of the people; and when he marched he personally examined into the state of the cultivation, and stationed horsemen round it to prevent people from trespassing on any one`s field. As regards the peasantry and their condition, there is reliable evidence in the observations of the European travellers who travelled in India in the seventeenth century. Evidence of the structure of the Mughal gardens and plants grown in them is in the Persian classics illustrated during the reign of Akbar. Among them is Diwan-i- Anwari, a collection of poems by the Persian poet Anwari, who flourished in the latter part of twelfth century. It contains some excellent paintings on gardens and gardening. Abu-l-Fazl mentions three kinds of sugarcane, viz. paunda, black and ordinary. Abu-l-Fazl provides a list of twenty-one fragrant flowering plants along with the colour of their flowers and the season of flowering in the AiniAkbari. Terry, an English traveler, writes, ‗The country was abounding with musk-melons. One could also find water-melons, pomegranates, lemons, oranges, dates, figs, grapes, coconut, plantains, mangoes, pineapples, pears, apples, etc.‘ Terry also mentions the use of coffee by some people. He writes, ‗Many religious people drank a ―wholesome liquor‖ which they called coffee. Black seeds were boiled in water, which also become black. It altered the taste of water very little. It quickened the spirit and cleansed the blood. Francois Bernier: Of the European travelers who come to India during the Mughal rule, the most intelligent and learned was Francois Bernier a Frenchman. Bernier gives a vivid description of Bengal its landscape people and its plant and animals products. With extensive fields of rice, sugar, corn, three or four sorts of vegetables, mustured, seasems for oils and small mulberry trees two or three feet (61 to 91 cm) in height, for the food of silk worms. Meadows Taylor states ―The Bahmanis constructed irrigation works in the eastern provinces, which incidentally did good to the peasantry while primarily securing the crown revenue. Vincent Smith points out that those items to their credit weigh lightly against the wholesale devastation wrought by their credit weight lightly against the wholesale devastation wrought by their wars, massacres, and burnings. Their rule was harsh and showed little regard for the welfare of Hindu peasants, who were seldom allowed to retain the fruits of their labour much more than would suffice to keep body and soul together. Herodotus (484-425 BC) the father of history reported in his writings that the wild Indian (cotton) trees possessed in their fruits fleeces, superseding those of sheep in beauty and excellence from which the natives used to weave cloth. Herodotus further wrote that ―trees which grow wild in India and the fruit of which bear wool exceeding in beauty and fineness that of sheep wool Indians make their clothes with this tree wool‖. Some traveller writers fabricated stories of a lamb sitting inside the fruit. Marco Pola, a Venetian, who traveled widely throughout the Asia in AD 1290 said that the coast of Coromandel (Madras, India) produced the finest and most beautiful cotton in the world. Indian cloth, particularly the Dacca muslin was renowned all over the world and has been described as ‗webs of woven wind‘ by oriental poets. It was so fine that it could hardly be felt in the hands. It is said that when such muslins were laid on the grass to bleach and the dew had fallen, it was no longer visible. A whole garment made from it could be drawn through a wedding ring of medium size. There is also the often repeated tale of Moghul princes who put on seven layers of muslin and still the contours of her body were so visible that she had to be admonisher by her father, Muhamed Bin Thuklak. Development of New world crops The encounter of America by Christopher Columbus in 1492 was the greatest event of the late Middle Ages and is a convenient benchmark to date the beginning of the Modern Era. Three great cultures coexisted in America, although they were unaware of each other: Aztec, Mayan, and Incan. These were monumental civilizations similar in many respects to that in ancient Egypt with enormous temples in the form of pyramids, pictorial writing, a system of cities and government, a bewildering theology, magnificent art, and a developed agriculture. These cultures also had a dark side—slavery, constant warfare, the offering of living human hearts as sacrifice, and cannibalism. Ironically, Columbus, in searching for Asia, did discover their descendants. However, much more valuable than gold and silver treasures were the new crops from the New World that have continually enriched the bounty and cuisine of Europe and the world. Important New World crops are presented (Table 1). We review the history and images of New World crops with particular relevance to horticulture. NEW WORLD CROPS Grains and pseudograins Various grains and pseudograins were domesticated in the New World, including maize (Zea mays), amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), wild rice (Zizania palustris L.), and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). Maize has become the most important world grain, surpassing wheat, rice, sorghum, and millets. Maize is presently the principal source of animal feed, especially for pigs and chickens, human food (e.g., cornbread, grits, sweet corn, tortillas, and popcorn), as a source of sugars (corn sweetener), and now as a major source of energy (ethanol). Maize was cultivated by Aztec, Mayan, and Incan farmers, and its production and use made settled life and civilization possible. The significance of maize as a major staple among the native people of the New World is evident in the deification of this crop and its popularity as a common feature of ceramic pottery. Legumes New World legumes such as common bean, lima bean, and peanut (groundnut) were destined to become important world food crops. The peanut, found in ceramics from the Moche culture in Peru, was spread worldwide by European traders and became particularly important in Africa after being brought there from Brazil. Phaseolus bean was vital to New World agriculture for agronomic, nutritional, and culinary reasons. Beans and maize were sown in the same hole and the two crops complemented each other. Maize acted as a support for the climbing beans, and nitrogen-fixing bean as a result of rhizobium bacteria provided this element to the soil. The mixture of beans and tortillas (maize pancakes) provide a complete protein food that was the basis of Aztec and Mayan diets. It remains the basis of Mexican cuisine to this day. Cucurbits The New World cucurbits, Cucurbita moschata, C. pepo, C. maxima (squashes and pumpkins), and Sechium edule (chayote), were important crops of the indigenous population and were grown for their fruit and seed. Representation of C. pepo can be found in Incan ceramic pottery. The New World cucurbits became prominent in Renaissance herbals in the 16th century and the genre known as natura morta (still life) popular in the 17th and 18th century. Solanaceous fruit crops Capsicum peppers and pepino, important food crops with ceremonial and medicinal uses in pre-Columbian America, are represented in various indigenous ceramics. Because Columbus was looking for black pepper, the discovery of the even more pungent fruits of various species of Capsicum led to their immediate acceptance and popularity throughout the world, particularly in Asia and China where they became an important part of their cuisine. European herbal images of capsicum pepper are abundant and sculpted forms can be found on the door of the Pisa Cathedral (Italy) along with tomato. Tomato fruit, because of its resemblance to the poisonous Old World mandrake, was treated with skepticism but soon was consumed raw and cooked to become an integral part of Italian cuisine, and now is one of the most important fresh and processed world vegetables. Root and tuber crops Indigenous people in the New World domesticated a number of starchy vegetables, including cassava, potato, and sweetpotato, that have become very important world crops. There are numerous images of potato in pre- Columbian sculpture, and potato culture of the Incas is illustrated in a calendar presented to the King of Spain in 1580. Potato has become one of the 10 most important world food crops. Fruit crops There are various temperate, subtropical and tropical fruits in the New World that have become valuable world crops and many such as various annonas, guava, jaboticaba, and mamey that are still not fully used. Brambles. Rubus species are abundantly found across North America with the blackberry (Rubus subg. Rubus), red raspberry, and black raspberry (R. idaeus and R. occidentalis, respectively) being the most well known and most important commercially. The seeds of cacao originating in the Amazon Basin were long prized in Mesoamerica and the seeds once used as currency by the Aztecs; the fruits are a common feature in pre-Columbian pottery. Ground fermented cocoa bean is the main source of chocolate. The pulp surrounding the seed is delicious and remains to be commercially exploited. The beverage xocolatl, a Nahuatl word meaning bitter water, was introduced to the Spanish court in 1544 and soon became very popular in Europe when the hot chili flavoring was replaced with sugar. Cactus fruits. The cactus family (Cactaceae) is confined to the New World but has been distributed worldwide. Cacti have become important world crops for fruit (cactus pear, pitaya), vegetables (cladodes), animal feed, and ornamentals. Pineapple. Columbus in his second voyage of 1493 found domesticated pineapple on the island of Guadeloupe, an island in the eastern Caribbean, and described it as pin˜a de India because of its resemblance to a pinecone. Papaya. This tropical fruit is now ubiquitous as a backyard tree in the tropics worldwide and has become an important export in Brazil, Hawaii, Mexico, and Thailand. Strawberry the small-fruited diploid was well known in Europe but the modern largefruited octoploid strawberry (2n = 8x = 56) is derived from F. chiloensis and F. virginiana that hybridized in France. Large whitefruited forms of F. chiloensis were found growing in Chile. Ornamentals The Americas have been the source of over 1000 garden plants. Various ornamentals including dahlia, fuchsia, helianthus, and petunia have become very important in floriculture and are now grown worldwide. Helianthus, the sunflower, has long been associated with America as a food and medicinal plant and became an important ornamental and oilseed crop in the 20th century. Industrial crops Four New World crops, cotton (Gossypium), Para´ rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), tobacco (Nicotiana spp.), and quinine (extracted from Cinchona sp.), exploited by indigenous Americans were to have important effects on world history. American cotton, derived from two species of Gossypium, G. hirsutum from Central America and G. barbadense from Brazil, accounts for the majority of world cotton production as a result of its longer, stronger fibers compared with Old World cottons. The resinous latex from the tropical Amazonian tree H. brasiliensis is used for the production of rubber, which has important uses in transportation, clothing, and the electrical industry. Rubber has become one of the most vital industrial crops, but the industry is now concentrated in Southeast Asia, particularly Malaysia. Table 1. Selected crops indigenous to the New World. New World crops Binomial New World origin A Cereals and pseudo cereals 1 Amaranth Amaranthus spp. Mexico 2 Maize Zea mays Mesoamerica 3 Quinoa Chenopodium quinoa Andean highlands 4 Wild rice Zizania palustris Northern North America B Legumes Common bean Phaseolus vulgaris South America Lima bean Phaseolus lunatus South America Peanut Arachis hypogaea Brazilian–Paraguayan Center C Cucurbits Chayote Sechium edule Mexico, Central America Pumpkin Cucurbita maxima South America Squash Cucurbita moschata, C. pepo Mexico D Solanaceous fruits Capsicum peppers Capsicum annuum, C. bacattum, C. South America, northern Peru chinenese, C. frutescens, C. pubescens Ground cherry, Physalis peruviana, P. philadelphica Central America husk tomato Pepino Solanum muricatum Tropical America Tomato Solanum lycopersicum Western South America, domesticated in Mexico E Roots and tubers Cassava Manihot utilissima Brazil Potato Solanum tuberosum Peru Sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas Central America F Fruits and nuts Annona Annona cherimola Brazil Avocado Persea americana Mesoamerica Black raspberry Rubus occidentalis North America Brazil nut Bertholletia excelsa Amazon Blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum North America Cacao Theobroma cacao Tropical America Cactus Opuntia ficus-indica Mexico Cashew Anacardium esculenta Brazil Cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon North America Guava Psidium guajava Tropical America Jaboticaba Myrciaria cauliflora South America Mamey Mammea americana West Indies, northern South America Papaya Carica papaya Tropical America Pineapple Ananas comosus Tropical South America Pitaya Stenocereus spp. Mexico Strawberry Fragaria chiloensis Pacific Coast, North Fragaria virginiana and South America Eastern, North America Soursop Annona muricata Peru–Ecuador G Industrials Cotton Gossypium hirsutum, G. barbadense Central America, Brazil Quinine Cinchona calisaya Peru Rubber Hevea brasiliensis Amazon Tobacco Nicotiana rustica, N. tabacum Mexico, Central America H Ornamentals Dahlia Dahlia spp. Mesoamerica Fuchsia Fuchsia triphylla Hispaniola; South America Helianthus (sunflower) Helianthus annuus North America Petunia Petunia spp. South America CROPS – INDIGENOUS AND INTRODUCED - HISTORY OF RICE, SUGARCANE AND COTTON Since time immemorial, cereals, particularly wheat, rice, and maize are considered to be life sustaining crops for humans. Even in future these crops will play a pivotal role in food security system of several nations across the world. The utilization of cereals as food and feed, and for industrial purpose is around 1792 million out of which wheat, rice, and coarse grains contribute nearly 35.4%, 20.8%, and 53.7% respectively. In the past fifty years the world has witnessed structural change in cereal economics: Long run trend towards wheat and rice and to some extent for maize, while replacement of coarse grain crops occurred. Developing countries achieved higher growth in production and consumption and at the same time recorded rise in deficits. Rapid expansion of cereals as feed in developing countries and increased share of cereals in world trade. Rice Rice is the most important tropical cereal and supplies a quarter of the entire caloric intake of the human race. About 90% of its area and consumption is in South and Southeast Asia, which support a major part of the world population. Rice belongs to the genus Oryza and there are two main cultigens, i.e., sativa in Asia and glaberrima in Africa. Rice is a semi aquatic graminaceous crop having great deiversity as it is grown in complex range of environments, i.e., from uplands at altitude of 3000 m to rainfed lowland irrigated, tidal swamp, and deepwater areas. Besides these two species, aquatic rice species, i.e., Zizania aquatica and Z. palustris, are endemic to North America, where it is the staple food of Indians. Origin The place of major diversity where rice might have domesticated is roughly the east west belt along the Himalayas and adjoining Asia mainland (from Assam, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, southern China, and northeren Vietnam). The archaeological evidence suggests that Asian rice culture was established around 7000 years ago. In India carbonized grains excavated from Hastinapur (New Delhi) suggest that it was in cultivation during 1100- 800 BC. Evolutionary history The evidences from diverse disciplines including biosystematic and paleogeology suggest that the genus Oryza arose from a common ancestor. The evolutionary path was from wild perennial to wild annual to cultivated annual, and the closely related wild relatives contributed differentiation of two cultigens. In oryza sativa, the evolution of different geographical races, i.e., japonica, javanica, and indica (the latter forming aman, aus, and indica types in the Ganges belt) took place assisted strongly by human selecton. There is general agreement that in both Asia and Africa elongation and floating ability in two cultigens was derived from their wild relatives. In rice, change might have occurred in the following sequence: Perennial->climatic stress->seasonal->human selection-> cultivated rice. Agri-history of Cotton in India : An Overview The antiquity of cotton in the Indian subcontinent has been traced to the 4th millenium BC. The fabrics dated approximately 3000 BC , recovered from the Mohenjo-daro excavations in Sind (Pakistan), were identified to have originated from cotton plants, closely related to the Gossypium arboreum species. The lint-bearing species of the genus Gossypium, the true cottons, are four, out of which the diploid (2n=26) species G. arboreum and G. herbaceum are indigenous in Asia and Africa. The history of introduction into India of the new world cottons (tetraploid species of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense with 2n=52) dates back to the 18th century AD. By the last decade of the 20th century, India had gained a pride of place in the global cotton statistics with the largest cropped area of 8.9 million in 1996-97, growing the most diverse cultivars in terms of botanical species and composition, producing the widest range of cotton fiber quality suitable for spinning 6‘s to 120‘s counts yarn, and supporting the largest agrobased national industry of the country. Origin of the indigenous cottons The cotton textiles of the Harappan civilization (2300-1750BC) were produced by sophisticated textile craftsmanship. Thus at the earliest agricultural levels yet discovered, true cottons were already present in the Indian subcontinent. Wild and weedy types have been found to be associated with primitive cultivated types in both the old world species of G. herbaceum and G. arboreum. Species of G. herbaceum, have been found from the coastal strip northwest of Karachi (Pakistan), through northern Baluchistan to south Yemen, Ethiopia, and Sudan and even in West Africa south of the Sahara. Species of G. arboreum. have been recorded by in Kathiawar, Gujarat, Khandesh, and the Deccan in India. It seems likely that it was in Gujarat (India) or Sind (Pakistan) that G. arboreum cottons were first brought into cultivation (Hutchinson, 1971). It may further be surmised that the differentiation of the three perennial races of G. arboreum, namely burmanicum of northeastern India, indicum of western India and the Penninsula, and sudanense of northern Africa, ante-dated domestication and that each contributed separately to the cultivated cottons in Asia and Africa. Agri-history of cotton production development Until the middle of the 18th century, only indigenous arboreum and herbaceum varieties of cotton were grown in different regions of the country. Due to the human skills and dexterity of the local artisans, very fine yarns were produced by them, from even the short staple and coarse cottons grown in India. In 1788, the Governor General (at Calcutta) was requested by London to encourage growth and improvement of Indian cottons to meet the requirements of the Lancashire textile industry. The figures for exact area under indigenous cottons and production in India during this period are not available, although it is reported that the local production had stabilized by 1900AD. Sugarcane The origin of sugarcane was India. The species Saccharum officinarum was first domesticated in India and the spread to other countries by Arab merchants. Evidences revealed that 3000-7000 years ago, Atarna veda indicated that sugarcane originated from the area Sakkaram and then later it was indicated as sakkra in Sanskirit. Earlier indications in Kautilya Artha Sastra also mentioned about the cowdung sett treatment for sugarcane. Crops introduced by Britishers Pseudo cereals Avena sativa (oat);Grain legumes Castanospermum australe (black bean), Pisum sativum (pea); Fiber crops Gossypium barbadense (cotton);Vegetables Allium tuberosum (leek), Asparagus racemosus (satawar), Beta vulgaris (beet root), Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower), Capsicum frutescens (sweet pepper), Cichorium intybus (chicory), Cucurbita maxima (squash), Daucas carota (carrot, orange type), Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Pisum sativum (sweet pea); Fruits Averrohoa carambola (carambola), Carica papaya (papaya), Fragaria ananassa (strawberry), Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen), Manihot esculenta (cassava), Malus pumila (apple), Prunus armeniaca (apricot), Prunus avium (cherry), Prunus communis syn. P. domestica (plum), Prunus persica (peach), pyrus communis (pear), Ribes rubrum (red currant) Medicinal Cinchona officinalis (quinine), Origanum vulgare (majoram), aromatic plants Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Pelargonium capaitatium (Geranium), Salvia officinalis (sage), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Vanilla aromatica (vanilla) Crops introduced from West and Central Asia by Mughals or Arabs Allium cepa (onion), Allium sativum (garlic), Brassica rapa (turmip), Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Cucumis melo (sweet muskmelon), Daucas carota (carrot, black & red type), Phoenix dactylifera (date palm), Pisum sativum (pea), Syzygium aromaticum (clove), Vitis vinifera (grape) Crops introduced by Spaniards Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean) Crops introduced from China Aleurites fordii (tung-oil), Glycine max (soyabean), Eriobotrya japonica (loquat), Juglans regia (walnut), Litchi chinensis (litchi), Sapium sebiferum (tallow-tree) Crops introduced from Latin America Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber), Ananas comosus (pineapple) Crops introduced from Southeast Asia and Pacific islands Arenga pinnata (sugar-palm), Artocarpus communis (breadfruit), Citrus decumanus (pomelo), Citrus paradisi (grapefruit), Durio zibethinus (durian) and Metroxylon sagus (sago) Some recent introductions Humulus lupulus (hops), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Simarouba glauca (simarouba), Cyphomandra betacea (tree tomato), Carya illinoensis (pecan nut), Corylus avellana (hazel nut), Macadamia tetraphylla (macadamia nut), Parthenium argentatum (guayule), and Mentha arvensis (spearmint, USA) Acacia senegal (Australia), Acacia mangium (Australia) and Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit, New Zealand) 7. Agriculture scope Scope of Indian Agriculture Agriculture: - The term agriculture is derived from two Latin words ager or agri meaning soil and cultura meaning cultivation. Agriculture is a broad term including all aspects of crop production, livestock farming, fisheries, forestry etc. Agriculture is a branch of applied science. It is the art of farming including the work of cultivating the soil for producing crops and raising livestock. There are three main spheres of agriculture as under; Geoponic:- meaning cultivation in earth, Hydroponic:- meaning cultivation in water and Aeroponic:- meaning cultivation in air. AGRICULTURE is defined in the Agriculture ACT, 1947, as including ‘horticulture, fruit growing, seed growing, dairy farming and livestock breeding and keeping, the use of land as grazing land, meadow land, osier land, market gardens and nursery grounds, and the use of land for woodlands where that use ancillary to the farming of land for Agricultural purposes”. Agriculture is defined as an art, science and business of producing crops and livestock for economic purposes Agriculture is a productive unit where the gifts of nature like land, light, water and temperature are integrated into a single primary unit i.e crop plant which is indispensable for human beings. The secondary productive units of agriculture are animals including livestock, birds and insects which feed on the primary units and provide concentrated products such as meat, milk, hide, wool, eggs, honey, silk and lac. Agriculture is considered as mother of all agro-based industries because the development and functioning of all such industries is governed by the raw material supplied from agriculture sector E.g. Textile, Oil, Sugar, Dairy and Canning industries are directly governed by cotton, oilseeds, sugarcane, milk and fruits production, respectively. The important cultural energies utilized for the production and protection of agricultural commodities are;- Natural resources:- Agriculture implies the effective use of land, water, light and other resources of environment through the production of field crops, forage crops, horticultural crops, farm animals, fisheries and forestry. Added resources:- 1. Irrigation and drainage 2. Organic, biological and mineral fertilizers, chemicals 3. Farm equipments and draft power. These are used to maximize the productivity per unit time, water, land, labour and rupee invested. The word AGRICULTURE thus may be expanded as Activities on the Ground for Raising Intended Crops for Uplifting Livelihood Through the Use of Rechargeable Energies. REVOLUTIONS IN AGRICULTURE Revolution Concerned with Achievements Green revolution Food grain production Food grain production increased from 51 million tones at independence to 223 million tones in(2006 - 07), 4.5 times increase. White revolution Milk production Milk production increased from 17 million tones at independence to 69 million tones, four times (1997-98). Yellow revolution Oilseeds production Oil seed production increased from 5 million tones to 25 million tones since independence, 5 times increase Blue revolution Fish production Fish production increased from 0.75 million tones to nearly 5.0 million tones during the last five decades. Similarly, the egg production increased from 2 billion at independence to 28 billion, sugarcane production from 57 million tones to 276 million tones, cotton production from 3 million bales to 14 million bales which shows our sign of progress. India is the largest producer of fruits in the world. India is the second largest producer of milk and vegetable. In future, agriculture development in India would be guided not only by the compulsion of improving food and nutritional security, but also by the concerns for environmental protection, sustainability and profitability. By following the General Agreement on Trade and Tariff (GATT) and the liberalization process, globalization of markets would call for competitiveness and efficiency of agricultural production. Agricultural will face challenging situations on the ecological, global climate, economic equity, energy and employment fronts. Agriculture as an art, science and business and Branches of agriculture Agriculture as an art:- Learning by doing and gaining experience. Art is concerned with skill and experience. It is inherited by seeing parents or elders through experience. E.g. art of walking of a child. Skill of agriculture is purely derived by physical work. Skill Physical skill Mental skill Agriculture primarily requires physical skill and secondarily mental skill. Physical skill is inherited by doing physical work with perfect execution. e.g. Opening a straight furrow, broadcasting/sowing seeds, levelling the field, top dressing of fertilizer, weeding, harvesting crop etc. Art of agricultural requires secondarily mental skill. it is related with decision making. e.g. Selection of crops for a particular area is a skill season, right time of sowing the crop after onset of monsoon. Agriculture as a Science:- Science is systematic study of happenings of any thing Scientific technology helps in getting maximum output, science helps to select a crop suitable to seasons at the appropriate time Part of science is inherited by farmers Science of agricultural tries to give reasons. Yield increase is due to application fertilizer. Yield reduction also results due to pest and disease attack etc. Farmers will become scientists if more sophisticated methods are given. Experience makes them scientists Science of agriculture requires primarily mental skill and secondarily physical skill Agriculture as Business Nowadays, it is purely business oriented. The market price of agricultural produce is governs by total production of a particular commodity. It follows the economic principle of demand and supply. In agriculture business, quantity is ignored and profit is more. The farmers try to get more profit per rupee invested. E.g. in Punjab, rice is produced during Kharif season for profit and commercial reason Business of agriculture is purely economic No. Agriculture Industry a) Resources are self generated Depends on raw materials b) Direct producer Indirect producer c) Subjected to natural calamities Protected from natural calamities d) Production is not under control Production is under control e) All the process is carried out by single There are separate units and subunits person or family f) Owner himself is the labour Owner as a labour is less in industry BRANCHES OF AGRICULTURE Seven branches as under 1) Agronomy: – It deals with the production of various crops which includes food crops, fodder crops, fibre crops, sugar, oil seeds, etc. The aim is to have better food production and how to control the diseases and pest. 2) Horticulture: – Branch of agriculture deals with the production of flowers, fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants, spices, condiments (includes narcotic crops – opium, etc. which has medicinal value) and beverages. 3) Forestry: – It deals with production of large scale cultivation of perennial trees for supplying wood, timber, rubber, etc. and also raw materials for industries. 4) Animal Husbandry: – The animals are being produced, maintained, etc. Maintenance of various types of livestock for direct energy (work energy). Husbandry is common for both crop and animals. The objective is to get maximum output by feeding, rearing, etc. The arrangement of crops is done to get minimum requirement of light or air. This arrangement is called geometry. Husbandry is for direct and indirect energy. 5) Fishery Science: – It is for marine fish and inland fishes including shrimps and prawns. 6) Agricultural Engineering: – It is an important component for crop production and horticulture particularly to provide tools and implements. It is aiming to produce modified tools to facilitate proper animal husbandry and crop production tools, implements and machinery in animal production. 7) Home Science: – Application and utilization of agricultural produces in a better manner. When utilization is enhanced production is also enhanced. E.g. a crop once in use in south was found that it had many uses now. On integration, all the seven branches, first three is grouped as for crop production, next two animal management and last two alive agriculture branches. Land utilization statistics Sr. Particulars India Gujarat No. 1. Geographical location 80.4' - 370.6' N latitude 210.1' - 240.7' N latitude and and 0 68 .7' - 970.25' E longitude 0 68 .4' - 740.5' E longitude 2. Total geographical area 328.848 million ha 19.60 million ha 3. Total reporting area 304.300 million ha 18.82 million ha 4. Area under cultivation 143.000 million ha 9.42 million ha 5. Total cropped area 179.750 million ha 10.16 million ha 6. Area sown more than 36.750 million ha 0.74 million ha once 7. Area not available for 161.300 million ha 2.61 million ha cultivation 8. Area under forest 66.400 million ha 1.88 million ha 9. Length of Sea coast 7516.5 km 1600 km Agricultural trade Agricultural Export and Import (US dollars) Export Import Commodity 13-14 14-15 15-16 Commodity 13-14 14-15 15-16 Rice 6.2 7.8 7.9 Pulses 2.4 1.8 2.8 Meat and meat 3.3 4.5 4.9 Cashew 1.0 0.8 1.1 preparations Processed foods 2.8 2.7 2.7 Vegetable oils 9.9 7.2 10.6 Spices 2.8 2.5 2.4 Fresh fruits 1.1 1.3 1.6 Oil meals 3.0 2.8 1.3 Spices 0.5 0.6 0.7 Sugar 1.6 1.2 0.9 Sugar 0.6 0.4 0.6 Wheat 1.9 1.6 0.8 Cocoa products 0.2 0.2 0.3 Pulses 0.2 0.3 0.2 Natural Rubber 0.8 0.9 0.8 Agriculture exports 32.0 33.0 30.1 Agriculture 16.8 14.9 15.9 Imports Food grain production trends in India India is estimated to produce 273.38 million tonnes (MT) of foodgrain in the 2016-17 crop year (July-June) over 8 MT more than the previous record of 265.04 MT in 2013-14. Anticipating good monsoon this year too, the ministry had last month set a target of foodgrain production at 273 MT for the 2017-18 crop year and expressed confidence of maintaining farm sector growth rate of over 4% during the period. Table 1: Production of Foodgrains and Other major Crops Crop 2004-05 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 Rice 83.1 96.0 105.3 105.2 106.7 Wheat 68.6 86.9 94.9 93.5 95.9 Coarse Cereals 33.5 43.4 42.0 40.0 43.3 Pulses 13.1 18.2 17.1 18.3 19.3 Total Food Grain 198.4 244.5 259.3 257.1 265.0 Oilseeds 243.5 324.8 298.0 309.4 327.5 (lakh tonnes) Sugacane 2370.9 3423.8 3610.4 3412.0 3521.4 (lakh tonnes) Cotton (Lakh bales) 164.3 330.0 352.0 342.2 359.0 Table 2:Production of Milk, Eggs, Wool, Meat and Fish- All India Year Milk Eggs Wool Meat Fish (Million (Million Nos.) (Million Kgs.) (Million Tonnes) (000’ Tonnes) Tonnes) 1950-51 17 1832 27.5 - 752 1980-81 31.6 10060 32 - 2442 1990-91 53.9 21101 41.2 - 3836 2000-2001 80.6 36632 48.4 1.9 5656 2010-2011 121.8 63024 43 4.8 8231 2013-2014 137.7 74752 47.9 6.2 9574 8. Importance of agriculture and agriculture available in India Development of Agricultural Departments, ICAR and SAUs in India A fundamental department of agriculture in India was started in the year 1871. Although the chief function of the department named ‘Department of Revenue, Agriculture and Commerce’ remained revenue and there was no work on agricultural development. Primarily, the department was established by the Government with a view to supply cotton to the textile industries of Manchester, and not to feed the famine- ravished India. Based on the reports of the Famine Commissions of 1880, 1898 and 1900, the Government of India (GoI) was determined to set up a central ‘Department of Agriculture’ controlled by the Imperial Secretariat and agriculture departments were to be set up in the provinces to primarily look after agricultural enquiry, agricultural development and famine relief in the country. However, the key duty of the agriculture departments both in the centre and the provinces lingered on famine relief. In 1892, an agricultural chemist and an assistant chemist were allotted to look after research and teaching in India, which manifested the first scientific staff in the Department of Revenue and Agriculture. Eventually, in 1901, an Inspector General of Agriculture was appointed to advise the imperial and the provincial governments on agricultural matters. An imperial mycologist was appointed in the same year, and an entomologist was appointed in 1903. During the severe famines of 1899–1900, Lord Curzon, the then Viceroy of India, was convinced that the GoI must urgently concentrate on the agricultural sector to overcome the damages caused by frequent famines. As a consequence, Agriculture Research Institute (now the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), together with a college for advanced agriculture training, was established at Pusa in the year 1905 and its director was the agriculture adviser to the GoI till 1929. Today, IARI is one of the premier national institutes for agricultural research, education and extension in India. The Agricultural School at Saidapet, Chennai, which was established as early as 1868, was later relocated to Coimbatore during 1906. Likewise, a branch for teaching agriculture in the College of Science at Pune (established in 1879) was subsequently developed into a separate College of Agriculture in 1907. Similar agricultural colleges were established at Kanpur, Sabour, Nagpur and Lyallpur, now in Pakistan, between 1901 and 1905. An All-India Board of Agriculture was established in 1905 with a view to bring the provincial governments more in touch with one another and making suitable recommendations to the GoI. The Indian Agriculture Service was constituted in 1906. Establishment of the Imperial Council of Agricultural Research (the present-day ICAR). The Royal Commission on Agriculture (Linlithgow Commission), which was appointed in the year 1926, authoritatively reviewed the position of agriculture in India and reported the same in 1928. According to the proposal of the Royal Commission on Agriculture, the GoI, Department of Education, Health and Lands set-up the Imperial Council of Agricultural Research (now ICAR) on 16 July 1929. The Commodity Committee Several semi-autonomous Central Commodity Committees were set up by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture. The Indian Central Cotton Committee was the first one to be established in 1921 on the recommendation of the Indian Cotton Committee (1917–18). The chief function of the Central Cotton Committee was cotton improvement with special focus on the development of improved methods of growing and marketing cotton. The Committee’s support led to the development of 70 improved varieties and considerably improved fibre quality. The achievement by the Indian Central Cotton Committee led to the setting up of commodity committees on crops such as lac, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, coconut, oilseeds, spices, cashewnut and arecanut. These apprehensions led to the formulation of the Project for Intensification of Regional Research on Cotton, Oilseeds and Millets (PIRRCOM), which was the first step in the country towards coordinated approach to agricultural research. The Central Commodity Committees were abolished in 1965 and the research institutes under their control were transferred to ICAR. Plantation research in colonial India Though the experimental farms were established in 1884, the provincial agricultural departments could seldom go beyond the collection of revenue data and famine relief operations PIRRCOM With the initiatives for agricultural research development, there was a need to coordinate the research on various crops, especially cotton, oilseeds and millets. Moreover, a need was felt to conduct research work in different agro- climatic regions of the country. The first coordinated research work on regional basis was initiated in 1956 in the form of a joint venture by ICAR and the Indian Central Commodity Committees on Oilseeds and Cotton. Eventually, 17 centres were established across the country to perform research on cotton (Gossypium species), castor ( Ricinus communis), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), taramira (Eruca vesicaria), jowar (Sorghum bicolor), bajra (Pennisetum glaucum), etc. A regional research station with of full-fledged sections of plant breeding and genetics, agronomy, agricultural chemistry and soil science, plant pathology and entomology was established. Initiation of All-India Coordinated Research Projects The conception of coordinated projects was first initiated for hybrid maize. It was under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The Ministry of Food and Agriculture under the GoI, signed an agreement with the Rockefeller Foundation in 1956, according to which the latter was to assist in the development of: (i) The postgraduate school of IARI, New Delhi, and (ii) Research programmes on the improvement of some crops (maize, jowar and bajra, initially). The coordinated maize project in India had proven to be the defining moment in research planning in agriculture in the country. As a result of the coordinated project, new high-yielding maize hybrids became available by 1961. Encouraged by the success of the maize project, in 1965 ICAR decided to initiate coordinated projects on other crops as well as in other areas of research, e.g. animal husbandry, soil sciences, etc. Seventy coordinated projects on various subjects were launched within 3 years of this decision and these accounted for 40% of the total expenditure for agriculture in the Fourth Five-Year Plan. However, the advancement of the coordinated projects was critically analysed in the Fifth Five-Year Plan. Accordingly, some projects were terminated, some were merged with other projects, some were elevated to the level of Project Directorates and some projects were changed to Coordinated Programmes. As a result, the number of coordinated projects decreased to 49 in the Fifth Five- Year Plan. Reorganization of ICAR In 1963, the Ministry of Food and Agriculture appointed the Agricultural Review Team headed by Marion W. Parker of USDA (United States Department of Agriculture), to scrutinize the organization of agricultural research in India. The team submitted its report in March 1964 and based on the recommendation of the team, ICAR was reorganized in 1966 and made an entirely autonomous organization. The ICAR was proffered the control for various research organizations under the Department of Food and Agriculture and under the Central Commodity Committees. Eventually, a policy was formulated suggesting that an agricultural scientist would be appointed as the chief executive of ICAR with the designation of Director General. Accordingly, B. P. Pal was appointed as the first Director General of ICAR in May 1965. In June 1972, the GoI appointed a committee headed by P. B. Gajendragadkar (retired Chief Justice of India) to review the enrollment and personnel policies of ICAR and its institutes, and to recommend actions for the enhancement of the same. The committee submitted its report in January 1973. A Department of Agricultural Research and Education was created in the Ministry of Food and Agriculture in December 1973 according to the recommendations made by the committee. The Director General, ICAR was made secretary to the new department. The Minister of Agriculture was designated as the President of the Council, while the Director General of ICAR was made the Chairman of the Governing Body of the Council. Under the Agricultural Scientists’ Recruitment Board (ASRB), an Agricultural Research Service (ARS) was initiated for the recruitment of scientific personnel. Development of agricultural universities One of the important and premier institutes of the pre-independence era was the Imperial Agricultural Research Institute established at Pusa in 1905. Eventually, IARI has become one of the premier institutes for agricultural research, education and extension in the country. During the years 1948–49, the University Education Commission headed by S. Radhakrishnan, suggested that the country should focus on the establishment of rural universities. H. S. Singh and A. N. Jha (Chief Secretary and Development Commissioner, Uttar Pradesh (UP) visited Land-Grant Universities of United States in 1950 and after coming back, advised the then Chief Minister of UP, Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant, to set up such a university in the state. The Chief Minister accepted their recommendation. This event may be regarded as the one which led to the initiation of agricultural universities in the country. In 1955, the first Joint Indo-American Team was set up. The team suggested the founding of rural universities in each of the states in India. Accordingly, the team identified UP (Tarai), West Bengal (Haringhatta), Bihar (Patna), Odisha (Bhubaneshwar), Travancore-Cochin and Mumbai (Anand, now in Gujarat) to be apposite for starting such universities. In 1956, a blueprint for agricultural universities was prepared and this provided the root for the proposal by the Government of UP to the Central Government (in September 1956) for starting an agricultural university near Rudrapur in the Tarai region of UP. The Central Government also agreed to the proposal on an experimental basis. In 1959, the second Joint Indo-American Team was setup, which submitted its report in 1960. The Team suggested that the agricultural universities should be autonomous; should consist of colleges of agriculture like veterinary, animal husbandry, home science, technology and basic sciences under them; should have interdisciplinary teaching programme; and should integrate teaching, research and extension. GoI appointed a committee, headed by R. W. Cummings, for providing a model for the essential legislation by the states for the establishment of agricultural universities. The committee submitted its report in 1962 and on the basis of this report, ICAR prepared the model act for the development of agricultural universities. During the period of the Fourth Five-Year Plan between the years 1960 and 1965, seven agricultural universities were established in UP, Odisha, Rajasthan, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka. The Review Committee on Agriculture Universities (1977–78), headed by M. S. Randhawa, made many useful recommendations for the development of agricultural universities. It noted that the quality of leadership and financial support from the state were cru-cial factors in the development of agricultural universi-ties. The committee suggested, among other things, that the Director General, ICAR, and Chairman, University Grants Commission, should be members of the selection committee that appoints Vice- Chancellors for agricultural universities. The agricultural universities have contributed a great extent to agricultural education, research and development in the country. Many improved varieties of crops, feed and animal stocks have been developed in the agriculture universities. In other words, it could be concluded that the ICAR is identical to agricultural research and education in the country. The role played by the council in the development of agricultural research and education has been quite extraordinary. Important State, National and International Institutes 1. AICRP on Nematodes, New Delhi 2. AICRP on Maize, New Delhi 3. AICRP Rice, Hyderabad 4. AICRP on Chickpea, Kanpur 5. AICRP on MULLARP, Kanpur 6. AICRP on Pigeon Pea, Kanpur 7. AICRP on Arid Legumes, Kanpur 8. AICRP on Wheat & Barley Improvement Project, Karnal 9. AICRP Sorghum, Hyderabad 10. AICRP on Pearl Millets, Jodhpur 11. AICRP on Small Millets, Bangalore 12. AICRP on Sugarcane, Lucknow 13. AICRP on Cotton, Coimbatore 14. AICRP on Groundnut, Junagarh 15. AICRP on Soybean, Indore 16. AICRP on Rapeseed & Mustard, Bharatpur 17. AICRP on Sunflower, Safflower, Castor, Hyderabad 18. AICRP on Linseed, Kanpur 19. AICRP on Sesame and Niger, Jabalpur 20. AICRP on IPM and Biocontrol, Bangalore 21. AICRP on Honey Bee Research & Training, Hisar 22. AICRP -NSP(Crops), Mau 23. AICRP on Forage Crops, Jhansi 24. AICRP on Fruits, Bangaluru 25. AICRP Arid Zone Fruits, Bikaner 26. AICRP Mushroom, Solan 27. AICRP Vegetables including NSP vegetable, Varanasi 28 AICRP Potato, Shimla 29. AICRP Tuber Crops, Thiruvananthapuram 30. AICRP Palms, Kasaragod 31. AICRP Cashew, Puttur 32. AICRP Spices, Calicut 33. AICRP on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants including Betelvine, Anand 34. AICRP on Floriculture, New Delhi 35. AICRP in Micro Secondary & Pollutant Elements in Soils and Plants, Bhopal 36. lAICRP on Soil Test with Crop Response, Bhopal 37. AICRP on Long Term Fertilizer Experiments, Bhopal 38. AICRP on Salt Affected Soils & Use of Saline Water in Agriculture, Karnal 39. AICRP on Water Management Research, Bhubaneshwar 40. AICRP on Ground Water Utilisation, Bhubaneshwar 41. AICRP Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad AICRP on Agrometeorology, Hyderabad including Network on Impact adaptation & Vulnerability 42. of Indian Agri. to Climate Change 43. AICRP Integrated Farming System Research, Modipuram including Network Organic Farming 44. AICRP Weed Control, Jabalpur 45. AICRP on Agroforestry, Jhansi 46. AICRP on Farm Implements & Machinery, Bhopal 47. All India Coordinated Research Project on Ergonomics and Safety in Agriculture 48. AICRP on Energy in Agriculture and Agro Based Indus.,Bhopal 49. AICRP on Utilization of Animal Energy (UAE), Bhopal 50. AICRP on Plasticulture Engineering and Technologies, Ludhiana 51. AICRP on PHT, Ludhiana 52. AICRP on Goat Improvement, Mathura AICRP- Improvement of Feed Sources & Nutrient Utilisation for raising animal production, 53. Bangalore 54. AICRP on Cattle Research, Meerut 55. AICRP on Poultry, Hyderabad 56. AICRP-Pig, Izzatnagar 57. AICRP Foot and Mouth Disease, Mukteshwar 58. AICRP ADMAS, Bangalore 59. AICRP on Home Science, Bhubaneshwar Network Projects 1 All India Network Project on Pesticides Residues, New Delhi 2 All India Network Project on Underutilised Crops, New Delhi 3 All India Network Project on Tobacco, Rajahmundry 4 All India Network Project on Soil Arthropod Pests, Durgapura 5 Network on Agricultural Acarology, Bangalore 6 Network on Economic Ornithology, Hyderabad 7 All India Network Project on Rodent Control, Jodhpur 8 All India Network Project on Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore 9 Network project on Improvement of Onion & Garlic, Pune 10 Network Bio-fertilizers, Bhopal 11 Network Project on Harvest & Post Harvest and Value Addition to Natural Resins & Gums, Ranchi 12 Network project on Animal Genetic Resources, Karnal 13 Network Project on R&D Support for Process Upgradation of Indigenous Milk products for industrial application Karnal 14 Network Programme on Sheep Improvement, Avikanagar 15 Network Project on Buffaloes Improvement, Hisar 16 Network on Gastro Intestinal Parasitism, Izatnagar 17 Network on Haemorrhagic Septicaemia, Izatnagar 18 Network Programme Blue Tongue Disease, Izatnagar 19 Network Project on Conservation of Lac Insect Genetic Resources, Ranchi 20 Network Project on Agricultural Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, New Delhi Deemed Universities 1. ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 2. ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal 3. ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 4. ICAR-Central Institute on Fisheries Education, Mumbai Institutions 1. ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research Institute , Port Blair 2. ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur 3. ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar 4. ICAR-Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpore 5. ICAR-Central Institute Brackishwater Aquaculture, Chennai 6. ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Hissar 7. ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom 8. ICAR-Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal 9. ICAR-Central Institute for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner 10. ICAR-Central Institute of Cotton Research, Nagpur 11. ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin 12. ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Bhubneshwar 13. ICAR-Central Institute of Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai 14. ICAR-Central Institute of Sub Tropical Horticulture, Lucknow 15. ICAR-Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar 16. ICAR-Central Institute on Post harvest Engineering and Technology, Ludhiana 17. ICAR-Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi 18. ICAR-Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasargod 19. ICAR-Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla 20. ICAR-Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore 21. ICAR-Central Research Institute of Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad 22. ICAR-National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack 23. ICAR-Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar, Rajasthan 24. ICAR- Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Dehradun 25. ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal 26. ICAR-Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry 27. ICAR-Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Trivandrum 28. ICAR-ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna 29. ICAR-ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Barapani 30. ICAR-Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Ela, Old Goa, Goa 31. ICAR-Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, New Delhi 32. ICAR-Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi 33. ICAR-Indian Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Ranchi 34. ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru 35. ICAR-Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums, Ranchi 36. ICAR-Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur 37. ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Sciences, Bhopal 38. ICAR-Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut 39. ICAR-Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow 40. ICAR-Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi 41. ICAR-National Academy of Agricultural Research & Management, Hyderabad 42. ICAR-National Institute of Biotic Stresses Management, Raipur 43. ICAR-National Institue of Abiotic Stress Management, Malegaon, Maharashtra 44. ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bengaluru 45. ICAR-National Institute of Research on Jute & Allied Fibre Technology, Kolkata ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics, 46. Hebbal, Bengaluru 47. ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore 48. ICAR-Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan, Almora 49. ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Cattle, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh 50. ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, Bhopal 51. ICAR-Indian Institute of Maize Research,New Delhi 52. ICAR- Central Agroforestry Research Institute , Jhansi 53. ICAR-National Institute of Agricultural Economics and Policy Research, New Delhi 54. ICAR- Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal 55. ICAR- Indian Institute of Farming Systems Research, Modipuram 56. ICAR- Indian Institute of Millets Research, Hyderabad 57. ICAR- Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research, Hyderabad 58. ICAR- Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research, Pedavegi, West Godawari 59. ICAR- Indian Institute of Water Management, Bhubaneshwar 60. ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research, Hyderabad 61. ICAR- Central Institute for Women in Agriculture, Bhubaneshwar 62. ICAR-Central Citrus Research Institute, Nagpur 63. ICAR-Indian Institute of Seed Research, Mau 64. ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, , Hazaribag , Jharkhand National Research Centres 1. ICAR-National Research Centre for Banana, Trichi 2. ICAR-National Research Centre for Grapes, Pune 3. ICAR-National Research Centre for Litchi, Muzaffarpur 4. ICAR-National Research Centre for Pomegranate, Solapur 5. ICAR-National Research Centre on Camel, Bikaner 6. ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar 7. ICAR-National Research Centre on Meat, Hyderabad 8.. ICAR-National Research Centre on Mithun, Medziphema, Nagaland 9. ICAR-National Research Centre on Orchids, Pakyong, Sikkim 10. ICAR-National Research Centre on Pig, Guwahati 11. ICAR-National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, New Delhi 12. ICAR-National Research Centre on Seed Spices, Ajmer 13. ICAR-National Research Centre on Yak, West Kemang 14. ICAR-National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi 15. National Research Centre on Integrated Farming (ICAR-NRCIF),Motihari National Bureaux 1. ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetics Resources, New Delhi ICAR-National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Micro-organisms, Mau, Uttar 2. Pradesh 3. ICAR-National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources, Bengaluru 4. ICAR-National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur 5. ICAR-National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, Karnal 6. ICAR-National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow Directorates/Project Directorates 1. ICAR-Directorate of Groundnut Research, Junagarh 2. ICAR-Directorate of Soybean Research, Indore 3. ICAR-Directorate of Rapeseed & Mustard Research, Bharatpur 4. ICAR-Directorate of Mushroom Research, Solan 5. ICAR-Directorate on Onion and Garlic Research, Pune 6. ICAR-Directorate of Cashew Research, Puttur 7.. ICAR-Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, Anand 8. ICAR-Directorate of Floricultural Research, Pune, Maharashtra 9. ICAR-Directorate of Weed Research, Jabalpur 10. ICAR-Project Directorate on Foot & Mouth Disease, Mukteshwar 11. ICAR-Directorate of Poultry Research, Hyderabad 12. ICAR-Directorate of Knowledge Management in Agriculture (DKMA), New Delhi 13. ICAR-Directorate of Cold Water Fisheries Research, Bhimtal, Nainital Agricultural Universities 1 Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 2 Agriculture University, Jodhpur 3 Agriculture University, Kota 4 Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat 5 Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam 6 Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal 7 Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, Bihar 8 Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, Jharkhand 9 Central Agricultural University, Imphal, Manipur 10 Chandra Shekar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 11 Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana 12 CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh 13 Chhattisgarh Kamdhenu Vishwavidyalaya, Durg, Chhattisgarh 14 Dr Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli Distt, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra 15 Dr Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, Maharashtra 16 Dr Yashwant Singh Parmar Univ of Horticulture & Forestry, Nauni, Himachal Pradesh 17 Dr YSR Horticultural University, West Godavari Dist., Tadepalligudem, Andhra Pradesh 18 Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttaranchal 19 Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University, Ludhiana, Punjab 20 Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh 21 Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh 22 Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, Gujarat 23 Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar, Karnataka 24 Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, Kerala 25 Kerala University of Fisheries & Ocean Studies, Kochi, Kerala 26 Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 27 Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Hisar, Haryana 28 Nanaji Deshmukh Veterinary Science University, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh 29 Maharana Pratap Univ. of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur, Rajasthan 30 Maharashtra Animal Science & Fishery University, Nagpur, Maharashtra 31 Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, Maharashtra 32 Manyavar Shri Kanshiram Ji University of Agriculture and Technology, Banda, Uttar Pradesh 33 Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh 34 Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat 35 Orissa Univ. of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneshwar, Orissa 36 Prof. Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 37 Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab 38 Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner, Rajasthan, 39 Rajendra Agricultural University, Samastipur, Bihar 40 Rajmata Vijayraje Sciendia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior, MP 41 Rani Laxmi Bai Central Agricultural University, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh 42 Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Modipuram, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh 43 Sardarkrushinagar-Dantiwada Agricultural University, Distt Banaskantha, Gujarat 44 Sher-E-Kashmir Univ of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Jammu, J&K 45 Sher-E-Kashmir Univ of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir, Shrinagar, Jammu & Kashmir 46 Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner 47 Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati 48 Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner,Rajasthan 49 Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 50 Tamil Nadu Fisheries University, Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu 51 Tamil Nadu Veterinary & Animal Science University, Chennai, Tamilnadu 52 University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka 53 University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka 54 University of Agricultural Sciences, Shimoga, Karnataka 55 University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot, Karnataka 56 University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka 57 UP Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhaya Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwa Vidhyalaya evam Go Anusandhan Sansthan, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh 58 Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand 59 Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Coach Bihar,West Bengal 60 Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani, Maharashtra 61 West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, West Bengal 62 Sri Konda Laxman Telangana State Horticultural University, Rajendra Nagar Campus, Hyderabad 63 Kamdhenu University, Gandhinagar, Gujarat INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT CIAT International Centre for Tropical Agriculture: Cali, Columbia CIFOR Center for International Forestry Research: Jakarta, Indonesia CIMMYT International Centre for Wheat and Maize Improvement: Baton, Mexico CIP International Potato Centre: Lima, Peru IBPGR International Board for Plant Genetic Resources: Rome, Italy ICARDA International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas: Beruit, Lebanon ICGES International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology: Triesta, Italy ICRAF International Centre for Research in Agro forestry: Nairobi, Kenya ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics: Hyderabad, India IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute: Washington, USA IITA International Institute of Tropical Agriculture: Ibadan, Nigeria IIMI International Irrigation Management Institute: Colombo, Srilanka ILRI International Livestock Research Institute: Nairobi, Kenya INSFFER International Network on Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Evaluation on Rice: New Delhi, India IPGRI International Plant Genetic Resource Institute: Rome, Italy ISNAR International Service for National Agricultural Research: Netherlands IRRI International Rice Research Institute: Manila, Phillipines IWMI International Water Management Institute: Columbo, Sri Lanka WFC World Fish Centre : Bayan Lepas, Malaysia WARDAWest African Rice Development Association: Monrovia, Liberia 9. Crop significance and classification A crop is "a plant or animal or plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence." Crop may refer either to the harvested parts or to the harvest in a more refined state (husked, shelled, etc.). Most crops are cultivated in agriculture or aquaculture. Most crops are harvested as food for humans or livestock (fodder crops). Some crops are gathered from the wild (including intensive gathering, e.g. ginseng). Important non-food crops include horticulture, floriculture and industrial crops. Horticulture crops include plants used for other crops (e.g. fruit trees). Floriculture crops include bedding plants, houseplants, flowering garden and pot plants, cut cultivated greens, and cut flowers. Industrial crops are produced for clothing (fiber crops), biofuel (energy crops, algae fuel), or medicine (medicinal plants). Animals and microbes (fungi, bacteria or viruses) are rarely referred to as crops. Animals raised for human or animal consumption are referred to as livestock and microbes as microbiological cultures. Microbes are not typically grown for food itself, but are rather used to alter food Classification of Crop Plants Importance of classifying the Crop Plants: 1. To get acquainted with crops. 2. To understand the requirement of soil & water different crops. 3. To know adaptability of crops. 4. To know the growing habit of crops. 5. To understand climatic requirement of different crops. 6. To know the economic produce of the crop plant & its use. 7. To know the growing season of the crop 8. Overall to know the actual condition required to the cultivation of plant. Classification based on climate: 1. Tropical: Crops grow well in warm & hot climate. E.g. Rice, sugarcane, Jowar etc 2. Temperate: Crops grow well in cool climate. E.g. Wheat, Oats, Gram, Potato etc. Classification Based on growing season: 1. Kharif/Rainy/Monsoon crops: The crops grown in monsoon months from June to Oct-Nov, Require warm, wet weather at major period of crop growth, also required short day length for flowering. E.g. Cotton, Rice, Jowar, bajara. 2. Rabi/winter/cold seasons crops: require winter season to grow well from Oct to March month. Crops grow well in cold and dry weather. Require longer day length for flowering. E.g. Wheat, gram, sunflower etc. 3. Summer/Zaid crops: crops grown in summer month from March to June. Require warm day weather for major growth period and longer ay length for flowering. E.g. Groundnuts, Watermelon, Pumpkins, Gourds. Use/Agronomic classification: 1. Grain crops: may be cereals as millets cereals are the cultivated grasses grown for their edible starchy grains. The larger grain used as staple food is cereals. E.g. rice, Jowar, wheat, maize, barley, and millets are the small grained cereals which are of minor importance as food. E.g. Bajara. 2. Pulse/legume crops: seeds of leguminous crops plant used as food. On splitting they produced dal which is rich in protein. E.g. green gram, black gram, soybean, pea, cowpea etc. 3. Oil seeds crops: crop seeds are rich in fatty acids, are used to extract vegetable oil to meet various requirements. E.g. Groundnut, Mustard, Sunflower, Sesamum, linseed etc. 4. Forage Crop: It refers to vegetative matter fresh as preserved utilized as food for animals. Crop cultivated & used for fickler, hay, silage. Ex- sorghum, elephant grass, guinea grass, berseem & other pulse bajara etc. 5. Fiber crops: crown for fiber yield. Fiber may be obtained from seed. E.g. Cotton, steam, jute, Mesta, sun hemp, flax. 6. Roots crops: Roots are the economic produce in root crop. E.g. sweet, potato, sugar beet, carrot, turnip etc. 7. Tuber crop: crop whose edible portion is not a root but a short thickened underground stem. E.g. Potato, elephant, yam. 8. Sugar crops: the two important crops are sugarcane and sugar beet cultivated for production for sugar. 9. Starch crops: grown for the production of starch. E.g. tapioca, potato, sweet potato. 10. Dreg crop: used for preparation for medicines. E.g. tobacco, mint, pyrethrum. 11. Spices & condiments/spices crops: crop plants as their products are used to flavor taste and sometime color the fresh preserved food. E.g. ginger, garlic, chili, cumin onion, coriander, cardamom, pepper, turmeric etc. 12. Vegetables crops: may be leafy as fruity vegetables. E.g. Palak, mentha, Brinjal, tomato. 13. Green manure crop: grown and incorporated into soil to increase fertility of soil. E.g. sun hemp. 14. Medicinal & aromatic crops: Medicinal plants includes cinchona, isabgoli, opium poppy, senna, belladonna, rauwolfra, iycorice and aromatic plants such as lemon grass, citronella grass, palmorsa, Japanese mint, peppermint, rose geranicem, jasmine, henna etc. Classification based on life of crops/duration of crops: 1. Seasonal crops: A crop completes its life cycle in one season- Kharif, Rabi. summer. E.g. rice, jowar, wheat etc. 2. Two seasonal crops: crops complete its life in two seasons. E.g. Cotton, turmeric, ginger. 3. Annual crops: Crops require one full year to complete its life in cycle. E.g. sugarcane. 4. Biennial crops: which grows in one year and flowers, fructifies & perishes the next year E.g. Banana, Papaya. 5. Perennial crops: crops live for several years. E.g. Fruit crops, mango, guava etc. Classification based on cultural method/water: 1. Rain fed: crops grow only on rain water. E.g. Jowar, Bajara, Mung etc. 2. Irrigated crops: Crops grows with the help of irrigation water. E.g. Chili, sugarcane, Banana, papaya etc. Classification based on root system: 1. Tap root system: The main root goes deep into the soil. E.g. Tur, Grape, Cotton etc. 2. Adventitious/Fiber rooted: The crops whose roots are fibrous shallow & spreading into the soil. E.g. Cereal crops, wheat, rice etc. Classification based on economic importance: 1. Cash crop: Grown for earning money. E.g. Sugarcane, cotton. 2. Food crops: Grown for raising food grain for the population and & fodder for cattle. E.g. Jowar, wheat, rice etc. Classification based on No. of cotyledons: 1. Monocots or monocotyledons: Having one cotyledon in the seed. E.g. all cereals & Millets. 2. Dicots or dicotyledonous: Crops having two cotyledons in the seed. E.g. all legumes & pulses. Classification based on photosynthesis’ (Reduction of CO2/Dark reaction): 1. C3 Plants: Photo respiration is high in these plants C3 Plants have lower water use efficiency. The initial product of C assimilation in the three ‘C’ compounds. The enzyme involved in the primary carboxylation is ribulose-1,-Biophospate carboxylose. E.g. Rice, soybeans, wheat, barley cottons, potato. 2. C4 plants: The primary product of C fixation is four carbon compounds which may be malice acid or acerbic acid. The enzymes responsible for carboxylation are phosphoenol Pyruvic acid carboxylose which has high affinity for CO2 and capable of assimilation CO2 event at lower concentration, photorespiration is negligible. Photosynthetic rates are higher in C4 than C3 plants for the same amount of stomatal opening. These are said to be drought resistant & they are able to grow better even under moisture stress. C4 plants translate photosynthates rapidly. E.g. Sorghum, Maize, napter grass, sesame etc. 3. Cam plants: (Cassulacean acid metabolism plants) the stomata open at night and large amount of CO2 is fixed as a malice acid which is stored in vacuoles. During day stomata are closed. There is no possibility of CO2 entry. CO2 which is stored as malice acid is broken down & released as CO2. In these plants there is negligible transpiration. C4 & cam plant have high water use efficiency. These are highly drought resistant. E.g. Pineapple, sisal & agave. Classification based on length of photoperiod required for floral initiation: Most plants are influenced by relative length of the day & night, especially for floral initiation, the effect on plant is known as photoperiodism depending on the length of photoperiod required for floral ignition, plants are classified as: 1. Short-day plants: Flower initiation takes plate when days are short less then ten hours. E.g. rice, Jowar, green gram, black gram etc. 2. Long day’s plants: require long days are more than ten hours for floral ignition. E.g. Wheat, Barley, 3. Day neutral plants: Photoperiod does not have much influence for phase change for these plants. E.g. Cotton, sunflower. The rate of the flowering initiation depends on how short or long is photoperiod. Shorter the days, more rapid initiation of flowering in short days plants. Longer the days more rapid are the initiation of flowering in long days plants. 10. National agricultural setup in India ICAR The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is an autonomous organization under the Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE), Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Government of India. Formerly known as Imperial Council of Agricultural Research, it was established on 16 July 1929 as a registered society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 in pursuance of the report of the Royal Commission on Agriculture. The ICAR has its headquarters at New Delhi. With 101 ICAR institutes and 63 agricultural universities spread across the country this is one of the largest national agricultural systems in the world. The ICAR has played a pioneering role in ushering Green Revolution and subsequent developments in agriculture in India through its research and technology development that has enabled the country to increase the production of food grains by 5 times, horticultural crops by 9.5 times, fish by 12.5 times , milk 7.8 times and eggs 39 times since 1951 to 2014, thus making a visible impact on the national food and nutritional security. As of June 2017 ICAR has following institutions Four Deemed Universities 64 ICAR Institutions Six National Bureaux 13 Project Directorates 15 National Research Centres 138 Substations of ICAR Institutes 59 AICRPs (All India Coordinated Research Projects) 10 Other Projects 19 Network Projects Eight Zonal Project Directorates 665 Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) (660 as of 2017) Milestones Initiation of the first All-India Co-ordinated Research Project on Maize in 1957 Status of Deemed University accorded to IARI in 1958 Establishment of the first State Agricultural University on land grant pattern at Pantnagar in 1960 Placement of different agricultural research institutes under the purview of ICAR in 1966 Creation of Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE) in the Ministry of Agriculture in 1973 Opening of first Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) at Puducherry (Pondicherry) in 1974 Establishment of Agricultural Research Service and Agricultural Scientists' Recruitment Board in 1975 Launching of Lab-to-Land Programme and the National Agricultural Research Project (NARP) in 1979 Initiation of Institution-Village Linkage Programme (IVLP) in 1995 Establishment of National Gene Bank at New Delhi in 1996 The ICAR was bestowed with the King Baudouin Award in 1989 for its valuable contribution in ushering in the Green Revolution. Again awarded King Baudouin Award in 2004 for research and development efforts made under partnership in Rice Wheat Consortium. Launching of National Agricultural Technology Project (NATP) in 1998 and National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP) in 2005 As of July, 2006 it has developed a vaccine against bird flu. The vaccine was developed at the High Security Animal Disease Laboratory, Bhopal, the only facility in the country to conduct tests for the H5N1 variant of bird flu. It was entrusted with the task of developing a vaccine by the ICAR after the Avian Influenza outbreak in February. The ICAR was provided Rs. 8 crore for the purpose. 2009: In December 2009, it announced that it was considering a policy to provide open access to its research. 2010: In March 2010, ICAR made its two flagship journals (Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Indian Journal of Animal Sciences) as Open Access Journals. 2013: On 13 September 2013, it announced the Open Access Policy and committed for making all the public funded scholarly research outputs openly available via open access repositories. ICAR scientists were the first in the world to sequence the pigeon pea genome. it was a purely indigenous effort by 31 scientists led by Nagendra Kumar Singh of NRCPB. Mandate Plan, Undertake, Coordinate and Promote Research and Technology Development for Sustainable Agriculture. Aid, Impart and Coordinate Agricultural Education to enable Quality Human Resource Development. Frontline Extension for technology application, adoption, knowledge management and capacity development for agri-based rural development. Policy, Cooperation and Consultancy in Agricultural Research, Education & Extension. Organization Union Minister of Agriculture is the ex-officio President of the ICAR Society Secretary, Department of Agricultural Research and Education, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India and Director General, ICAR is the Principal Executive Officer of the Council Governing Body is the policy-making authority Agricultural Scientists' Recruitment Board Deputy Directors-General (8) Additional Secretary (DARE) and Secretary (ICAR) Additional Secretary and Financial Advisor Assistant Directors-General (24) National Director, National Agricultural Innovation Project Directorate of Knowledge Management in Agriculture ICAR Awards 2016 The Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi announces the following ICAR Awards: 1. ICAR Challenge Award To find a solution for any immediate or long-standing problem, or limitation in agriculture, which is coming in the way of agricultural development and/ or enhancing productivity in any major agricultural, horticultural or animal/fish product, ICAR has instituted a Challenge Award. 2. Sardar Patel Outstanding ICAR Institution Award In order to recognize outstanding performance by the ICAR institutes, DUs of ICAR, CAU and State Agricultural Universities 3. Chaudhary Devi Lal Outstanding All India Coordinated Research Project Award In order to recognize outstanding performance of the AICRP and its cooperating centers and to provide incentive for outstanding performance in terms of linkages and research output and its impact. 4. Jawaharlal Nehru Award for P.G. Outstanding Doctoral Thesis Research in Agricultural and Allied Sciences In order to promote high quality doctoral thesis research in priority/frontier areas of agriculture and allied sciences, ICAR has instituted 18 awards of Rs. 50,000/- in cash plus a citation and silver medal (gold polished) each to be awarded annually for the outstanding original research work in agriculture and allied sciences. 5. Panjabrao Deshmukh Outstanding Woman Scientist Award All women scientists engaged in research in agricultural and allied subjects /extension in a recognized institutions are eligible for this award. 6. Vasantrao Naik Award for Outstanding Research Application in Dry Land Farming Systems In order to promote outstanding research and application in priority aspects of dry land farming systems & water conservation. 7. Jagjivan Ram Abhinav Kisan Puruskar /Jagjivan Ram Innovative Farmer Award (National/Zonal) In order to recognize the outstanding contributions of innovative farmers for initiatives in development adoption, modification and dissemination of improved technology and practices for increased income with sustainability, following national and zonal awards are announced: (i) National: One annual national award (ii)Zonal: Eight annual awards 8. N.G. Ranga Farmer Award for Diversified Agriculture In order to recognize outstanding contribution of innovative farmers for diversified agriculture, one annual award of Rs 1.00 lakh in any of the areas of Diversified Agriculture is given by ICAR. 9. Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyay Antyodaya Krishi Puruskar (National & Zonal) In order to recognize the contributions of marginal, small and landless farmers for developing sustainable integrated models of farming, the ICAR has instituted Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyay Antyodaya Krishi Puruskar (National & Zonal) annually. 10. Haldhar Organic Farmer Award In order to recognize outstanding contribution of organic farmers ICAR has instituted an award titled Haldhar Organic Farmer Award 11. Chaudhary Charan Singh Award for Excellence in Journalism in Agricultural Research and Development Journalists for Print Media [Hindi Journalism/ English Journalism/ Journalism in Regional languages (four awards)] and Electronic media (two awards). 12. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed Award for Outstanding Research in Tribal Farming Systems The award is primarily meant for any person or team (with two or three associates, if any) engaged in applied research and its applications in tribal areas of the country aimed at improving the biological resources and livelihoods or in original work directly applicable to tribal farming system. 13. Bharat Ratna Dr C. Subramaniam Award for Outstanding Teachers 2016 In order to provide recognition to outstanding teachers and to promote quality teaching in the field of Agriculture, four outstanding teacher awards are given annually. 14. Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyay Krishi Vigyan Protshahan Puraskar ( National & Zonal) 2017 These awards promote healthy competition among Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) at Zonal and National Level for application of science and technology in agriculture. 15. Dr Rajendra Prasad Puruskar for technical books in Hindi in Agricultural and Allied Sciences 2016 These awards recognize to authors of original Hindi Technical books in agriculture and allied sciences & incentivize Indian writers to write original standard works in agricultural and allied sciences in Hindi. The award is meant for individuals as well as teams of authors. 16. Lal Bahadur Shastri Outstanding Young Scientist Award 2016 In order to recognize the talented young scientists who have shown extraordinary originality and dedication in their research programmes, four individual awards are to be given annually. 17. Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Award for Outstanding Research in Agricultural Sciences 2016 In order to recognize outstanding research in agricultural and allied sciences & provide incentives for excellence in agricultural research, this award is to be given to agricultural scientists for outstanding contribution in specified areas. A total of four awards are provided under the award. 18. Swami Sahajanand Saraswati Outstanding Extension Scientist Award 2016 The award is exclusively meant for individual extension scientist/teacher for excellence in agricultural extension methodology and education work. Two individual awards have been provided. 19. NASI-ICAR Award For Innovation and Research on Farm Implements -2016 In order to reduce drudgery of farm women by development of farm implements and to encourage researchers and innovators to develop farm implements for farm women, ICAR and NASI have instituted the NASI-ICAR Award For Innovation and Research on Farm Implements. 20. Hari Om Ashram Trust Award for the biennium 2014-2015 In order to recognize the outstanding research on long term problem in agricultural and allied sciences, four individual awards have been instituted. State Agricultural Universities Agricultural Universities or 'AUs' are mostly public universities in India that are engaged in teaching, research and extension in agriculture and related disciplines. In India, agricultural education has evolved into a large and distinct domain, often separately from other areas of higher education. Many of these universities are member of a registered society, the Indian Agricultural Universities Association. Indian Council of Agricultural Research is the main regulatory authority of agricultural education in India, while the disciplines of veterinary medicine and forestry are regulated by the Veterinary Council of India and Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education respectively. A SAU is usually a university established by an act of state legislature with a dedicated mandate of teaching, research and extension in agriculture and related disciplines. Deemed universities Deemed universities are not established by an act of independent legislation, but declared to function as universities by Government of India under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act 1956. As per this section, "The Central Government may, on the advice of the Commission, declare by notification in the Official Gazette, that any institution for higher education, other than a University, shall be deemed to be a University for the purposes of this Act, and on such a declaration being made, all the provisions of this Act shall apply to such institution as if it were a University within the meaning of clause (f) of section 2". Thus, the provision of deemed universities enables the central government to incorporate an agricultural university without the need of Parliamentary legislation, thus circumventing the complexities of federal division for legislative powers, which has put agriculture in the state list. Central agricultural universities There are currently 3 central agriculture university in India, and they are Central Agricultural University Imphal Rani Laxmibai Central Agricultural University Jhansi Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agriculture University, Samasthipur Bihar Upcoming or proposed central agricultural university Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar The Central Agricultural University was established by an act of Parliament, the Central Agricultural University Act 1992 (No.40 of 1992). The Act came into effect on 26 January 1993 with the issue of necessary notification by the Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE), Government of India. The university became functional with the joining of the first vice-chancellor on 13 September 1993. Other universities involved in agricultural education Central universities Central universities, including Banaras Hindu University, Aligarh Muslim University, Visva- Bharati University, Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University, Nagaland University and Sikkim University have distinct faculties in agriculture. A few central universities also have affiliated agricultural colleges. State universities Bundelkhand University, Lucknow University, Kanpur University, Gorakhpur University, Meerut University, Calcutta University and many other state universities have distinct agriculture faculties. Most of these have a number of affiliated agriculture colleges. Institute of national importance IIT Kharagpur has a very strong programme in agricultural engineering, while IIM A and IIM Lucknow have leading programmes in agribusiness. Central Food Technological Research Institute under AcSIR is the premier institute in food technology. Private universities Amity University has a programme in organic farming Annamalai University offers Undergraduate, Postgraduate and Diploma courses through Faculty of Agriculture Rai Technology University offers B.Sc and M.Sc programs in Ag riculture through its School of Agricultural Sciences and Forestry Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare (formerly Ministry of Agriculture), a branch of the Government of India, is the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules and regulations and laws related to agriculture in India. The 3 broad areas of scope for the Ministry are agriculture, food processing and co-operation. The agriculture ministry is headed by Minister of Agriculture Radha Mohan Singh. S S Ahluwalia, Sudarshan Bhagat & Parshottam Rupalai are the Ministers of State. The combined efforts of Central Government, State Governments and the farming community have succeeded in achieving record production of 244.78 million tonnes of foodgrains during 2010-11. Origins Department of Revenue and Agriculture and Commerce was set up in June 1871 to deal with all the agricultural matters in India. Until this ministry was established, matters related to agriculture were within the portfolio of the Home Department. In 1881, Department of Revenue & Agriculture was set up to deal with combined portfolios of education, health, agriculture, revenue. However, In 1947, Department of Agriculture was redesignated as Ministry of Agriculture. Structure & Departments The Ministry of Agriculture and farmers Welfare consists of the following three Departments. Department of Agriculture, Co-operation and Farmers Welfare. Department of Agriculture Research and Education. Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries. A leading program of the Ministry is the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana, which was launched in 2007 on the recommendations of the National Development Council of India. This program sought to improve the overall state of agriculture in India by providing stronger planning, better co-ordination and greater funding to improve productivity and overall output. The total budget for this program in 2009-10 was just over INR 38,000 crore. 11. Current scenario of Indian agriculture 1. Organic Farming Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. It relies on fertilizers of organic origin such as compost, manure, green manure, and bone meal and places emphasis on techniques such as crop rotation and companion planting. Biological pest control, mixed cropping and the fostering of insect predators are encouraged. In general, organic standards are designed to allow the use of naturally occurring substances while prohibiting or strictly limiting synthetic substances. For instance, naturally occurring pesticides such as pyrethrin and rotenone are permitted, while synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are generally prohibited. Synthetic substances that are allowed include, for example, copper sulfate, elemental sulfur and Ivermectin. Genetically modified organisms, nanomaterials, human sewage sludge, plant growth regulators, hormones, and antibiotic use in livestock husbandry are prohibited. Organic agricultural methods are internationally regulated and legally enforced by many nations, based in large part on the standards set by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), an international umbrella organization for organic farming organizations established in 1972. “Organic agriculture can be defined as: an integrated farming system that strives for sustainability, the enhancement of soil fertility and biological diversity whilst, with rare exceptions, prohibiting synthetic pesticides, antibiotics, synthetic fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, and growth hormones”. 2. Farming system, Definition Farming system is a resource management strategy to achieve economic and sustained agricultural production to meet diverse requirements of farm livelihood while preserving resource base and maintaining a high level of environment quality (Lal and Miller 1990). Key principles • Cyclic The farming system is essentially cyclic (organic resources – livestock – land – crops). Therefore, management decisions related to one component may affect the others. • Rational Using crop residues more rationally is an important route out of poverty. For resource-poor farmers, the correct management of crop residues, together with an optimal allocation of scarce resources, leads to sustainable production. • Ecologically sustainable Combining ecological sustainability and economic viability, the integrated livestock-farming system maintains and improves agricultural productivity while also reducing negative environmental impacts. Benefits or Advantages of Integrated Farming System 1) Productivity 2) Profitability 3) Potentiality or Sustainability 4) Balanced Food 5) Environmental Safety 6) Recycling 7) Income Rounds the year 8) Adoption of New Technology 9) Saving Energy 10) Meeting Fodder crisis 11) Solving Fuel and Timber Crisis 12) Employment Generation 13) Agro – industries 14) Increasing Input Efficiency 3. Precision Farming Precision agriculture (PA) or satellite farming or site specific crop management (SSCM) is a farming management concept based on observing, measuring and responding to inter and intra-field variability in crops. Precision agriculture aims to optimize field-level management with regard to: Crop science: matching farming practices closely to crop needs (e.g. fertilizer inputs); Environmental protection: reducing environmental risks (e.g. limiting leaching of nitrogen); Economics: boosting competitiveness through more efficient practices (e.g. improved management of fertilizer usage and other inputs). Precision agriculture also provides farmers with a wealth of information to: build up a record of their farm; improve decision-making; foster greater traceability enhance marketing of farm products improve lease arrangements and relationship with landlords enhance the inherent quality of farm products (e.g. protein level in bread-flour wheat) Emerging technologies Robots Self-steering tractors have existed for some time now, as John Deere equipment works like a plane on autopilot. Technology is advancing towards driverless machinery programmed by GPS to spread fertilizer or plow land. Agricultural robots, also known as AgBots, already exist, but advanced harvesting robots are being developed to identify ripe fruits, adjust to their shape and size, and carefully pluck them from branches. Drones and satellite imagery Advances in drone and satellite technology benefits precision farming because drones take high quality images, while satellites capture the bigger picture. Light aircraft pilots can combine aerial photography with data from satellite records to predict future yields based on the current level of field biomass. Aggregated images can create contour maps to track where water flows, determine variable-rate seeding, and create yield maps of areas that were more or less productive. The Internet of things The Internet of things is the network of physical objects outfitted with electronics that enable data collection and aggregation. For example, farmers can spectroscopically measure nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in liquid manure, which is notoriously inconsistent. They can then scan the ground to see where cows have already urinated and apply fertilizer to only the spots that need it. This cuts fertilizer use by up to 30%. 4. Micro irrigation Definition of Micro Irrigation: It can be defined as the application of water at low volume and frequent interval under low pressure to plant root zone. Besides the land, water also an important factor in the progress of Agriculture. In vast country like India with a geographical area of 328 million hectares less than 45% area is cultivated of this cultivated area only 35% i.e. 65 million ha gets irrigation. This could be achieved by introducing advanced and sophisticated methods of irrigation viz. drip irrigation, sprinkler, etc. Micro-sprayers/sprinklers is installed on a stake, wetting foliage and a larger surface area of 4-6 feet. Micro-bubblers are installed on short stakes, have solid spray and used to establish and maintain larger plants and have less evaporation than micro-sprayers/sprinklers. Drippers apply water directly to the soil resulting in minimal evaporation, attach to a distribution tube or spaghetti tubing and are used for widely spaced plants or containers. Drip tubing contains factory installed emitters inside the tubing that are pressure compensating, and has fewer parts/pieces than other types of microirrigation. 5. Conservation Agriculture Definition of Conservation Agriculture It is a way of farming that conserves, improves and makes more efficient use of natural resources through integrated management of available resources combined with external inputs. It contributes to environmental conservation as well as to enhanced and sustain agricultural production. It can also be referred to as resource efficient agriculture. Conservation agriculture has three basic principles: 1. Disturb the soil as little as possible: farmers plough and hoe to improve the soil structure and control weeds. But in the long term, they actually destroy the soil structure and contribute to declining soil fertility. 2. Mulching: cover crops protect the soil from erosion and limit weed growth throughout the year. 3. Mix and rotate crops with legume based cropping system 6. Nanotechnology It deals with the physical, chemical, and biological properties of matter considered at nanoscale (1–100 nm) and their implications for the welfare of human beings. Nanomaterial is an ingredient containing particles with at least one dimension that approximately measures 1–100 nm. It has the ability to control and/or manufacture matter at this scale which results in the development of innovative and novel properties like increase in the surface area of the particles that can be utilized to address numerous technical and societal issues Table 1: Classification of nanomaterials. Categories of nanomaterials Description Nanoparticles Submicron or even ultramicron size particles obtainable as high performance radiant resistant materials, magnetic materials, solar battery materials, packaging materials, and magnetic fluid materials Nanotubes and nanofibers Nanometer size long linear material, optical materials, micro conductors, microfibers, nanotubes of PEEK, PET and PTFE Nanofilm Films utilized as gas catalyst materials Nanoblock Nanometer crystalline materials produced by substantial accuracy, developing controlled crystallization or nanoparticles Nanocomposites Composite nanomaterials, which use nanosize reinforcements instead of conventional fibers or particulates Nanocrystalline solids Polycrystals with the size of 1 to 10 nm and 50% or more of solid consists of inherent interface between crystals and different orientations. The clusters that formed through homogenous nucleation and grow by coalescence and incorporation of atoms Table 2: Commercial uses of nanoparticles Type of Product name & Nano Purpose product manufacturer content Nano-agrochemicals Super” combined Pakistan-US Science Nano-clay capsule Slow release of active fertilizer and and Technology contains growth ingredients, Reducing pesticide Cooperative Program stimulants and application rates biocontrol agents Herbicide Tamil Nadu Agricultural Nano-formulated Designed to attack the seed coat University (India) and of weeds, destroy soil seed Technologico de Monterry banks and prevent weed (Mexico) germination Pesticides, Australian Common Nano-encapsulated Very small size of nanocapsules including wealth Scientific and active ingredients increases their potency and may herbicides Industrial Research enable targeted release of active Organization ingredients Nano-materials Nutritional Nanoceuticals „mycrohydrin‟ Molecularcaes 1-5 Nano-sized mycrohydrin has supplement powder, RBC Life sciences nm diameter made increased potency and from silica mineral bioavailability. Exposure to hydride comple moisture releases H- ions and acts as a powerful antioxidant. Nutritional drink Oat Chocolate 300nm particles of Nano-sized iron particles have Nutritional Drink iron (SunActive Fe) increased reactivity and Mix, Toddler Health bioavailability. Food Adhesive for 50-150nm starch These nanoparticles have 400 packaging McDonald‟s burger nanospheres times the surface area of natural containers, starch particles. When used as Ecosynthetix an adhesive they require less water and thus less time and energy to dry. Food additive Aquasol preservative, Nanoscale micelle Surrounding active ingredients AquaNova (capsule) of lipophilic within soluble nanocapsulesb or water insoluble increases absorption within the substances body (including individual cell) Plant growth Primo Maxx, 100nm particle size Nano-sized particles increases treatment Syngenta emulsion the potency of active ingredients, potentially reducing the quantity to be applied Place of Indian Agriculture in Indian Economy The agriculture sector employs nearly half of the workforce in the country. However, it contributes to 17.5 % of the GDP ( at current prices in 2015-16). Over the past few decades, the manufacturing and services sectors have increasingly contributed to the growth of the economy, while the agriculture sector‟s contribution has decreased from more than 50% of GDP in the 1950s to 15.4% in 2015-16. India‟s production of food grains has been increasing every year and India is among the top producers of several crops such as wheat, rice, pulses, sugarcane and cotton. It is the highest producer of milk and second highest producer of fruits and vegetables. In 2013, India contributed 25% to the world‟s pulses production, the highest for any one country, 22% to the rice production and 13% to the wheat production. It also accounted for about 25% of the total quantity of cotton produced, besides being the second highest exporter of cotton for the past several years. However, the agricultural yield (quantity of a crop produced per unit of land) is found to be lower in the case of most crops, as compared to other top producing countries such as China, Brazil and the United States. Agricultural growth has been fairly volatile over the past decade, ranging from 5.8% in 2005-06 to 0.4% in 2009-10 and -0.2% in 2014-15. Total production of food grains increased from 51million tonnes in 1950-51 to 252 million tonnes in 2015-16. According to the second advance estimate by the Ministry of Agriculture, food grains production is estimated to be 272 million tonnes in 2016-17. The production of wheat and rice took off after the green revolution in the 1960s, and as of 2015-16, wheat and rice accounted for 78% of the food grains production in the country. Importance Of Agriculture Agriculture plays a crucial role in the life of an economy. It is the backbone of our economic system. Agriculture not only provides food and raw material but also employment opportunities to a very large proportion of population. The following facts clearly highlight the importance of agriculture in this country. 1. Source of Livelihood: In India the main occupation of our working population is agriculture. About 70 per cent of our population is directly engaged in agriculture. In advanced countries, this ratio is very small being 5 per cent in U.K., 4 per cent in USA., 16 per cent in Australia, 14 per cent in France, 21 per cent in Japan and 32 per cent in USSR. 2. Contribution to National Income: Agriculture is the premier source of our national income. According to National Income Committee and C.S.O., in 1960-61, 52 per cent of national income was contributed by agriculture and allied occupations. This was further reduced to 28 per cent in 1999-2000. 3. Supply of Food and Fodder: Agriculture sector also provides fodder for livestock (35.33 crores). Cow and buffalo provide protective food in the form of milk and they also provide draught power for farm operations. Moreover, it also meets the food requirements of the people. 4. Importance in International Trade: It is the agricultural sector that feeds country's trade. Agricultural products like tea, sugar, rice, tobacco, spices etc. constitute the main items of exports of India. If the development process of agriculture is smooth, export increases and imports are reduced considerably. 5. Marketable Surplus: The development of agricultural sector leads to marketable surplus. As agricultural development takes place, output increases and marketable surplus expands. This can be sold to other countries. 6. Source of Raw Material: Agriculture has been the source of raw materials to the leading industries like cotton and jute textiles, sugar, tobacco, edible and non-edible oils etc. All these depend directly on agriculture. Apart from this, many others like processing of fruits and vegetables, dal milling, rice husking, gur making also depend on agriculture for their raw material. 7. Importance in Transport: Agriculture is the main support for railways and roadways which transport bulk of agricultural produce from farm to the mandies and factories. Internal trade is mostly in agricultural products. Besides, the finance of the govt, also, to the large extent, depends upon the prosperity of agricultural sector. 8. Contribution to Foreign Exchange Resources: Agricultural sector constitutes an important place in the country's export trade. According to an estimate, agricultural commodities like jute, tobacco, oilseeds, spices, raw cotton, tea and coffee accounted for about 18 per cent of the total value of exports in India. 9. Vast Employment Opportunities: The agricultural sector is significant as it provides greater employment opportunities in the construction of irrigation projects, drainage system and other such activities. With the fast growing population and high incidence of unemployment and disguised unemployment in backward countries, it is only agriculture sector which provides more employment chances to the labour force. 10. Source of Saving: Improvement in agriculture can go a long way in increasing savings. It is seen that rich farmers have started saving especially after green revolution in the country. This surplus amount can be invested in agriculture sector for further; development of the sector. 11. Source of Government Income: In India, many state governments get sizeable revenue from the agriculture sector. Land revenue, agricultural income tax, irrigation tax and some other types of taxes are being levied on agriculture by the state governments. 12. Basis of Economic Development: The development of agriculture provides necessary capital for the development of other sectors like industry, transport and foreign trade. In fact, a balanced development of agriculture and industry is the need of the day. Challenges Three agriculture sector challenges will be important to India‟s overall development and the improved welfare of its rural poor: 1. Raising agricultural productivity per unit of land: Raising productivity per unit of land will need to be the main engine of agricultural growth as virtually all cultivable land is farmed. Water resources are also limited and water for irrigation must contend with increasing industrial and urban needs. 2. Reducing rural poverty through a socially inclusive strategy that comprises both agriculture as well as non-farm employment: Rural development must also benefit the poor, landless, women, scheduled castes and tribes. Moreover, there are strong regional disparities: the majority of India‟s poor are in rain-fed areas or in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic plains. Reaching such groups has not been easy. While progress has been made-the rural population classified as poor fell from nearly 40% in the early 1990s to below 30% by the mid-2000s (about a 1% fall per year) –there is a clear need for a faster reduction. Hence, poverty alleviation is a central pillar of the rural development efforts of the Government and the World Bank. 3. Ensuring that agricultural growth responds to food security needs: The sharp rise in food- grain production during India‟s Green Revolution of the 1970s enabled the country to achieve self- sufficiency in food-grains and stave off the threat of famine. However agricultural growth in the 1990s and 2000s slowed down, averaging about 3.5% per annum, and cereal yields have increased by only 1.4% per annum in the 2000s. The slow-down in agricultural growth has become a major cause for concern. Priority areas for support 1. Enhancing agricultural productivity, competitiveness, and rural growth Promoting new technologies and reforming agricultural research and extension 2. Improving Water Resources and Irrigation/Drainage Management: 3. Facilitating agricultural diversification to higher- value commodities: 4. Developing markets, agricultural creditand public expenditures: 5. Poverty alleviation and community actions 6. Sustaining the environment and future agricultural productivity 12. Indian agricultural concerns and prospects A. Ill effects of Green Revolution 1. Degradation of land: Due to change in land use pattern and employing two and three crop rotation every year land quality has gone down and yield has sufferred. 2. Degradation of land part: Due to heavy chemical fertilizer inputs land has become hard and carbon material has gone down. 3. Weeds have increased: Due to heavy crop rotation pattern we do not give rest to land nor we have time to employ proper weed removal system which has increased weeds. 4. Pest infestation has gone up: Pests which we used to control by bio degradable methods have become resistant to many pesticides and now these chemical pesticides have become non effective. 5. Loss of bio diversity: Due to heavy use of chemical pesticides, insecticides and fertilizers we have lost many birds and friendly insects and this is a big loss in long term. 6. Chemicals in water: These chemicals which we have been using in our farms go down and contaminate ground water which effect our and our children health. 7. Water table has gone down: Water table has gone down due to lack of water harvesting systems and now we have to pull water from 300 to 400 ft. depth which was 40 to 50 feet earlier. 8. Loss of old seeds: We have started using new seeds and lost old once since new once give better yield but due to this we have lost many important genes in these seeds. B. Soil retrogression and degradation Soil retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil. Retrogression is primarily due to soil erosion and corresponds to a phenomenon where succession reverts the land to its natural physical state. Degradation is an evolution, different from natural evolution, related to the local climate and vegetation. It is due to the replacement of primary plant communities (known as climax vegetation) by the secondary communities. This replacement modifies the humus composition and amount, and affects the formation of the soil. It is directly related to human activity. Consequences of soil regression and degradation Yields impact: Recent increases in the human population have placed a great strain on the world's soil systems. Slight degradation refers to land where yield potential has been reduced by 10%, moderate degradation refers to a yield decrease from 10-50%. Severely degraded soils have lost more than 50% of their potential. Natural disasters: Natural disasters such as mud flows, floods are responsible for the death of many living beings each year. Deterioration of the water quality: Soils particles in surface waters are also accompanied by agricultural inputs and by some pollutants of industrial, urban and road origin. Biological diversity: soil degradation may involve perturbation of microbial communities, disappearance of the climax vegetation and decrease in animal habitat. Economic loss: the estimated costs for land degradation are US $40 billion per year. Soil rebuilding and regeneration Rebuilding is especially possible through the improvement of soil structure, addition of organic matter and limitation of runoff. However, these techniques will never totally succeed to restore a soil (and the fauna and flora associated to it) that took more than 1000 years to build up. Soil regeneration is the reformation of degraded soil through biological, chemical, and or physical processes. Supplementing the farmer's usual practice with a single application of 200 kg bentonite per rai (6.26 rai = 1 hectare) resulted in an average yield increase of 73%. C. Soil contamination Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of Xeno Bionis (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals, or improper disposal of waste. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (such as naphthalene and benzo(a)pyrene), solvents, pesticides, lead, and other heavy metals. Contamination is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensity of chemical usage. Soil pollution can be caused by the following (non-exhaustive list) Oil drilling. Mining and activities by other heavy industries Accidental spills as may happen during activities, etc. Corrosion of underground storage tanks (including piping used to transmit the contents) Acid rain (in turn caused by air pollution) Intensive farming Agrochemicals, such as pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers Industrial accidents Road debris Drainage of contaminated surface water into the soil Waste disposal There are several principal strategies for remediation: Excavate soil and take it to a disposal site away from ready pathways for human or sensitive ecosystem contact. Aeration of soils at the contaminated site (with attendant risk of creating air pollution) Thermal remediation by introduction of heat to raise subsurface temperatures sufficiently high to volatize chemical contaminants out of the soil for vapour extraction. Bioremediation, involving microbial digestion of certain organic chemicals with commercially available microflora. Containment of the soil contaminants (such as by capping or paving over in place). Phytoremediation, or using plants (such as willow) to extract heavy metals. Mycoremediation (Fungus) to metabolize contaminants and accumulate heavy metals. Remediation of oil contaminated sediments with self-collapsing air microbubbles D. Water pollution Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater). This form of environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Causes Wide spectrum of chemicals, pathogens, and physical changes such as elevated temperature and discoloration. High concentrations of naturally occurring substances can have negative impacts on aquatic flora and fauna. Oxygen-depleting substances may be natural materials such as plant matter (e.g. leaves and grass) as well as man-made chemicals. Other natural and anthropogenic substances may cause turbidity (cloudiness) which blocks light and disrupts plant growth, and clogs the gills of some fish species. Control 1. Sewage treatment 2. Industrial waste water treatment 3. Agricultural waste water treatment 4. Erosion and sediment control from construction sites 5. Control of urban runoff E. Agricultural Labour Scarcity Definition and Classification The 2001 census of India, has defined agriculture labourer as “A person who works on another person’s land for wages in money or kind or share is regarded as an agricultural labourer. She or he has no risk in the cultivation, but merely works on another person’s land for wages.” The agricultural labourers can be classified mainly into two categories: 1. Landless agricultural labourers: i) Permanent labourers attached to cultivating households ii) Casual labourers. 2. Very small cultivators whose main source of earnings is wage employment, due to their small and sub-marginal holdings. Agriculture labour scarcity in India Even though India has the second largest man-power in the world, all the sectors of the economy have been affected by the scarcity of labourers, the impact being felt more in the agricultural sector. Labourers constitute a vital input in agricultural production, but they are migrating to different parts of the country for earning better livelihood adding to the existing imbalance between labour demand and supply of labourers. Till not very long ago, Indian agriculture was marked by abundant supply of farm labour. This gave rise to a negative relationship between labour productivity and labour absorption. This scenario of over-supply however has changed in recent years, particularly after the implementation of MGNREGA, expansion of public works and increased rural to urban migration owing to urbanization and generation of casual employment in the tertiary sector in towns and cities. In a typical village labour scenario, the common norm for the prevailing wage rate or labour charges are fixed by the simple relation between its demand and supply. Since Indian agriculture is predominantly rain-fed, the agricultural wages also respond to rainfall variability. This seasonal nature of agriculture employment has led to shift of agricultural labourers to non-farm sector for employment. The proportion of agricultural workers to the total work-force has been declining over the years, hence following impacts have been predominantly noticed in agriculture in recent years; reduction in crop yield, reduction in cropping intensity and changes in traditional cropping pattern. The scarcity of agricultural labourers may also cause delay in crop establishment, poor crop growth, no or untimely weeding, irrational use of fertilizers, insufficient irrigation to crops etc. These implications of labour scarcity if left unattended may discourage farmers who may leave their land fallow and shift to non-agricultural avenues for livelihood. Over the past couple of decades, there is a growing concern that the farm labour has been decreasing which has been caused by occupational changes, people’s mindset, Government policies and reforms making it imperative to investigate into the dynamics or scarcity of agricultural labour and its effect on agricultural economy. F. Minimum Support Price Minimum Support Price (MSP) is a form of market intervention by the Government of India to insure agricultural producers against any sharp fall in farm prices. The minimum support prices are announced by the Government of India at the beginning of the sowing season for certain crops on the basis of the recommendations of the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP). MSP is price fixed by Government of India to protect the producer - farmers - against excessive fall in price during bumper production years. The minimum support prices are a guarantee price for their produce from the Government. The major objectives are to support the farmers from distress sales and to procure food grains for public distribution. In case the market price for the commodity falls below the announced minimum price due to bumper production and glut in the market, government agencies purchase the entire quantity offered by the farmers at the announced minimum price. Determination of MSP Following factors are considered while fixing MSP:- Cost of production Changes in input prices Input-output price parity Trends in market prices Demand and supply Inter-crop price parity Effect on industrial cost structure Effect on cost of living Effect on general price level International price situation Parity between prices paid and prices received by the farmers. Effect on issue prices and implications for subsidy Minimum Support Price for 2016-17 SN Commodity MSP for 2016-17 Increase over previous year (q/ha) (Rs per quintal) (Rs per quintal) 1 Paddy 1470 60 2 Hybrid Jawar 1625 55 3 Bajra 1330 55 4 Maize 1365 40 5 Arhar 5050 425 6 Mung 5225 375 7 Cotton 3860 60 8 Groundnut in shell 4220 190 9 Wheat 1625 100 10 Gram 4000 500 11 Mustard 3700 350 12 Sugarcane (per tonne) 3000 -- G. Vision 2050 of ICAR Guiding Principles for Future Research and Education • Provide leadership in ensuring national food and nutritional security, farmers’ prosperity, consumer health and enhancing the natural resource base of agriculture for future generations • Ensure strategic competitive advantage of Indian agriculture to enable access to the existing and emerging markets, and address the emerging challenges • Leverage the advances in other sciences, engineering and social science to enhance agricultural research. • Nurture scientific excellence and promote interdisciplinary, systems-based, knowledge intensive, problem-solving research. • Promote economic opportunities for the rural community and society. • Promote complementary partnerships for value addition in agriculture and accelerate innovation. • Respond proactively to farmers, consumers, partners and policy makers • Promote ethical conduct, scientific integrity and accountability of performance and decisions • Promote organizational transformation to an efficient, effective, and responsive innovation system • Support higher education and create educational environments that foster continuous learning ICAR 2050: Focus Areas of Research Genetic potential enhancement of agricultural commodities. • Agricultural productivity, efficiency and profitability improvement • Resilience to climate change and abiotic and biotic stresses • Improve nutritional food, and health security • Risk management against climate change and market stressors • Agricultural value chains • Sustainability of natural resources base of agriculture • Valuation of ecosystem services • Agricultural markets, policies, and institutions • Bio-security, emerging from gene piracy and cross-border vector borne diseases • New products and uses (eg, bio-energy, new crops, synthetic foods, special foods) • New educational and learning systems and environments H. Protected cultivation In the present scenario of perpetual demand for better quality vegetables and continuously shrinking land holdings, protected cultivation is the best choice for quality produce and efficient use of land and other resources. Protected cultivation means some level of control over plant microclimate to alleviate one or more of abiotic stresses for optimum plant growth which can be achieved in naturally ventilated poly-house or net-/polynet-house. Crop yields can be several times higher than those under open field conditions, quality of produce is superior, higher input use efficiencies are achieved and vegetable export can be enhanced. Extreme weather conditions, in some countries, under the open field conditions are the major limiting factors for achieving higher yield and better quality of vegetables. Under such circumstances, protected cultivation is best option. Keeping these points in view, net-house and naturally ventilated poly-house technology has been recommended for the cultivation of different vegetables. Modified design of net-house - polynet-house Polynet-house is a framed structure consisting of GI pipes covered with ultra violet (UV) stabilized plastic film of 200-micron thickness at the top and UV stabilized net of 40-mesh size on the sides. Selection of site The site for the net house should be well drained and fairly shadow free. It should be away from the obstruction at least three times the height of the obstruction. Windbreaks are desirable and at least 30 m away on all sides to minimize the adverse effect of wind. Orientation Polynet-house should be constructed in the east–west direction to get the maximum benefit of the sunlight throughout the year and to minimize the adverse effect of wind. I. Conventional and Non conventional energy sources Conventional : Energy that has been used from ancient times is known as conventional energy. Coal, natural gas, oil, and firewood are examples of conventional energy sources. (or usual) Sources of energy (electricity) are coal, oil, wood, peat, uranium. Non-conventional (or unusual) sources of energy and use • Solar power • Hydro-electric power (dams in rivers) • Wind power • Tidal power • Ocean wave power • Geothermal power (heat from deep under the ground) • Ocean thermal power (the difference in heat between shallow and deep water) • Biomass (burning of vegetation to stop it producing methane) • Biofuel (producing ethanol (petroleum) from plants J. Agriclinics & Agribusiness Centres The M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) along with an international organisation called CABI jointly piloted a project called plant clinic (PC) in Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and Maharashtra. The main aim of setting up such clinics is to diagnose pests and diseases in any crop and render accurate knowledge to the farming community. Basically it is a community-driven model, conducted in a common location, accessible to all categories of farmers in a village. Need guidance Farmers need guidance to distinguish the difference between pest and infestations, understand harmful effects of red labelled/banned pesticides, pest resurgence, resistance to pesticides etc.“The clinic provides an array of technological solutions along with cultural, biological and chemical methods, which are nationally and internationally permissible, ecologically safe and environmentally sustainable for mitigating crop loss and enhancing plant health and economic benefit. Prescription Farmers bring their affected crop samples to the clinics to recognise the problem and get technological solutions. Every farmer is provided with a prescription, detailing the case history along with recommendations. The PC treats the crop samples with the help of the comprehensive factsheets in the local vernacular brought by the farmers. Presently about 37 plant doctors serve through 14 Plant clinics; 391 clinic sessions have been conducted till now across Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and Maharashtra, spanning 62 villages, in which more than 6,000 farmers including 992 women farmers have been reached. The Ministry of Agriculture and farmers welfare, Government of India, in association with NABARD has launched a unique programme to take better methods of farming to each and every farmer across the country. This programme aims to tap the expertise available in the large pool of Agriculture Graduate who can set up AgriClinic or AgriBusiness Centre and offer professional extension services to innumerable farmers. Committed to this programme, the Government is now also providing start-up training to graduates in Agriculture, or any subject allied to Agriculture like Horticulture, Sericulture, Veterinary Sciences, Forestry, Dairy, Poultry Farming, and Fisheries, etc. Those completing the training can apply for special start-up loans for venture. Earn money and prestige by becoming a consultant to farmers Agribusiness Centres would provide paid services for enhancement of agriculture production and income of farmers. Centres would need to advice farmers on crop selection, best farm practices, post-harvest value-added options, key agricultural information (including perhaps even Internet-based weather forecast), price trends, market news, risk mitigation and crop insurance, credit and input access, as well as critical sanitary and phyto-sanitary considerations, which the farmers have to keep in mind. Free Training to set up your Agriclinic or Agribusiness Centre As an integral part of this nationwide initiative, specialised training will be provided to Agriculture Graduates interested in setting up such a centre. Being provided free of cost, the 2-month training course will be offered by select institutes across the country. Bank loans available for Agriclinics and Agribusiness Centres Ceiling of project cost for subsidy has been enhanced to Rs.20 lakhs for an individual project (25 lakhs in case of extremely successful individual projects) and to Rs.100 lakhs for a group project. K. Information and communication technology (ICT) It is an extended term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communications. The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. Information and communication technology in agriculture (ICT in agriculture), also known as e-agriculture, is developing and applying innovative ways to use ICTs in the rural domain, with a primary focus on agriculture. ICT in agriculture offers a wide range of solutions to some agricultural challenges. In this context, ICT is used as an umbrella term encompassing all information and communication technologies including devices, networks, mobiles, services and applications; these range from innovative Internet-era technologies and sensors to other pre-existing aids such as fixed telephones, televisions, radios and satellites. More specifically, e-agriculture involves the conceptualization, design, development, evaluation and application of innovative ways to use ICTs in the rural domain, with a primary focus on agriculture. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has been assigned the responsibility of organizing activities related to the action line under C.7 ICT Applications on E-Agriculture. Many ICT interventions have been developed and tested around the world, with varied degrees of success, to help agriculturists improve their livelihoods through increased agricultural productivity and incomes, and reduction in risks. Some useful resources for learning about e-agriculture in practice are the World Bank’s e-sourcebook ICT in agriculture – connecting smallholder farmers to knowledge, networks and institutions (2011). ICT tools can help in meeting the challenges in agricultural development in the following ways: Agriculture Information, Awareness and Education using ICT. Advanced information about adverse weather condition, so that farmers can take precautionary measures. Real time and near real times pricing and market information. Information dissemination about various government schemes. Information regarding agrifinance, agriclinicls and agribusiness. Online Farmer Communities Government Initiatives on ICT in agriculture Key Government initiatives to promote use of ICT in agriculture include National e- Governance Plan in Agriculture (NeGP-A), various Touch Screen Kiosks, Krishi Vigyan Kendras, Kisan Call Centres, Agri-Clinics, Common Service Centers, mKisan, Kisan TV and various other applications.