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          Lecture Note
      Course No.: Agron. 1.1
   Title: Agricultural Heritage

As per Fifth Dean Committee by 2017

              Prepared by
Dr. Nitin N. Gudadhe and Dr. J. D. Thanki
         Department of Agronomy
       N. M. College of Agriculture
     Navsari Agricultural University
              Navsari-396 450
L.          Title of topic                                Sub topics to be taught                             Text /Ref.       Publisher,      Remarks
N.                                                                                                              Book          Edition and
                                                                                                                             page number
1.   Introduction      of  Indian    Definition of agriculture, heritage, agricultural heritage            Glimpses of      Y. L. Nene,
     agricultural heritage           Preamble of agricultural heritage                                     Agricultural     Munshiram
                                     Agriculture heritage in India                                         heritage of      Manoharlal
                                     Ancient literature on agriculture e.g. Rigveda, KrishiParashar        India            Publishers Pvt.
2.   Ancient          agricultural  Traditional farming practices in India, weather forcasting and         Glimpses of      Y. L. Nene,
     practices                        drought prediction                                                    Agricultural     Munshiram
                                     Local farming knowledge in India and Gujarat with examples            heritage of      Manoharlal
                                     Indigenous seed conservation and preservation                         India            Publishers Pvt.
                                     Traditional fore fathers knowledge of agriculture                                      Ltd
3.   Relevance of heritage to  KautilyasArthasastra                                                        Glimpses of      Y. L. Nene,
     present day agriculture, past  Physical geography of Indian sub-continent past and present            Agricultural     Munshiram
     and present status of  Indus valley civilization, vedic civilization and pastoralism                  heritage of      Manoharlal
     agriculture and farmers in  Harappa, Buddhist, Maurya, Gupta and Sangam period of                     India            Publishers Pvt.
     society                          agriculture                                                                            Ltd
4.   Journey       of       Indian  Period, events and ages of development of civilized agriculture        History of       Randhava N.
     Agriculture      and       its  Development of Scientific agriculture in world                        Agriculture in   S., ICAR
     development from past to  Advanced agriculture in 19th and 20th century                               India Vol III    Publication
     modern era
5.   Plant     production      and  Traditional tillage, cultivation, grain preservation, seed treatment   Indian Journal NISCAIR,
     protection           through     technology and weed, disease and pest management practices            of Traditional New Delhi
     indigenous        traditional                                                                          Knowledge
6.   Crop voyage in India and  Description of Indian civilization and agriculture by different             Principles of    Reddy and
     world                            travelers from China, Europe and USA                                  of Agronomy      Reddi, Kalyani
                                     Old and new world crop in detail with origin, country, introducer                      Publication
7.   Agriculture scope               Detail scope of animal husbandry and crop production                  Principles of    S. R. Reddy,
                                     Food production, supply, demand, export                               Agronomy         Kalyani
8.   Importance of agriculture  Development of SAUs and ICAR with detail history                           Principles of    S. R. Reddy,
     and agricultural available in  Important State, National and International agriculture institutes     Agronomy         Kalyani
     India                                                                                                                   Publication
9.   Crop      significance   and  Classification of field crops according different criteria's            Hand Book of     ICAR,
     classifications                                                                                        Agriculture      Publication
10. National agricultural setup  Structure of ICAR, SAUS, CAUs and Ministry of Agriculture               Hand Book of   ICAR,
    in India                       (India and State)                                                      Agriculture    Publication
11. Current Scenario of Indian  Agriculture technology available in today's context e.g. Organic         Current        Bhopal,
    Agriculture                    farming, Farming system, Precision farming, Microirrigation,           Agriculture    Madhya
                                   Conservation Agriculture etc.                                          Research       Pradesh
                                  Place of Indian agriculture in Indian economy                          Journal
12. Indian agricultural concerns  Ill effects of Green Revolution, soil degradation, pollution (soil +   Indian         ICAR, New
    and future prospects           water + air), malnutrition, water crisis, labour crisis, escalating    Farming        Delhi
                                   input cost and produce prices and minimum support price of crop
                                  Vision of future agriculture in India, ecofriendly and low cost
                                   technology, protected cultivation, non conventional energy sources
                                   and its use, setting of agri/plant clinics and agri business centre,
                                   Use of ICT in crop production
   1. Introduction of Indian agricultural heritage
   Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS), as defined by the FAO
(Food and Agriculture Organization of the UNO), are: "Remarkable land use systems and
landscapes which are rich in globally significant biological diversity evolving from the co-
adaptation of a community with its environment and its needs and aspirations for sustainable
development". Worldwide, specific agricultural systems and landscapes have been created,
shaped and maintained by generations of farmers and herders based on diverse natural
resources, using locally adapted management practices. Building on local knowledge and
experience, these ingenious agricultural systems reflect the evolution of humankind, the
diversity of its knowledge, and its profound relationship with nature. These systems have
resulted not only in outstanding landscapes, maintenance and adaptation of globally
significant agricultural biodiversity, indigenous knowledge systems and resilient ecosystems,
but, above all, in the sustained provision of multiple goods and services, food and livelihood
security for millions of local community members and indigenous peoples, well beyond their
borders. For millennia communities of farmers, herders, fishers and forest people have
developed complex, diverse, and locally adapted agricultural systems. These systems have
been managed with time-tested, ingenious combinations of techniques and practices that have
usually led to community food security, and the conservation of natural resources and
biodiversity. Agricultural heritage systems can still be found throughout the world covering
about 5 million hectares, which provide a vital combination of social, cultural, ecological and
economical services to humankind. These “Globally Important Agricultural Heritage
Systems-GIAHS” have resulted not only in outstanding landscapes of aesthetic beauty,
maintenance of globally significant agricultural biodiversity, resilient ecosystems and a
valuable cultural heritage. Above all these systems sustainabley provide multiple goods and
services, food and livelihood security for millions of poor and small farmers. The existence of
numerous GIAHS around the world testifies to the inventiveness and ingenuity of people in
their use and management of the finite resources, biodiversity and ecosystem dynamics, and
ingenious use of physical attributes of the landscape, codified in traditional but evolving
knowledge, practices and technologies. Whether recognized or not by the scientific
community, these ancestral agricultural systems constitute the foundation for contemporary
and future agricultural innovations and technologies. Their cultural, ecological and
agricultural diversity is still evident in many parts of the world, maintained as unique systems
of agriculture. Through a remarkable process of co-evolution of Humankind and Nature,
GIAHS have emerged over centuries of cultural and biological interactions and synergies,
representing the accumulated experiences of rural peoples.
Indian Agriculture
       Indian agriculture began by 9000 BC as a result of early cultivation of plants and
domestication of crops and animals. Settled life soon followed with implements and
techniques being developed for agriculture. Double monsoons led to two harvests being
reaped in one year. Indian products soon reached the world via existing trading networks and
foreign crops were introduced to India. Plants and animals—considered essential to their
survival by the Indians—came to be worshiped and venerated. The middle ages saw irrigation
channels reach a new level of sophistication in India and Indian crops affecting the
economies of other regions of the world under Islamic patronage. Land and water
management systems were developed with an aim of providing uniform growth. Despite
some stagnation during the later modern era the independent Republic of India was able to
develop a comprehensive agricultural program.
Need and importance for studying Agricultural Heritage
       Our agriculture has lot of inherited sustainable practices passed from one generation
to other generation. And also agriculture in India is not an occupation; it is a way of life for
many Indian populations. Hence the present day generation should be aware about our
ancient and traditional agricultural systems and practices. This will enable us to build the
future research strategy also. India has made tremendous progress in agriculture and its allied
fields, but the emphasis on intensive use of inputs without considering their adverse impact of
long term basis has created several problems related to sustainability of agriculture. Irrational
use of chemical fertilizers, insecticides and exploration of natural resources is threatening the
agro eco systems. Soil is getting impoverished, water and air getting polluted and there is an
increasing erosion of plant and animal genetic resources. Therefore, attention in now shifting
to sustainable form of agriculture. The indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) provides
insight into the sustainable agriculture, because these innovations have been carried on from
one generation to another as a family technology. There are several examples of valuable
traditional technologies in India but unfortunately these small local systems are dying out. It
is imperative that we collect, document and analyze these technologies so that the scientific
principle/basis behind them could be properly understood. Once this done, it will be easier for
us to further refine and upgrade them by blending them with the modern scientific
Agriculture Heritage in India
        Our heritage is unique than any other civilization. As a citizen of India, we must feel
proud about our rich cultural heritage. Agriculture in India is not of recent origin, but has a
long history dating back to Neolithic age of 7500-4000 B.C. It changed the life style of early
man from nomadic hunter of wild berries and roots to cultivator of land. Agriculture is
benefited from the wisdom and teachings of great saints. The wisdom gained and practices
adopted have been passed down through generations. The traditional farmers have developed
the nature friendly farming systems and practices such as mixed farming, mixed cropping,
crop rotation etc. The great epics of ancient India convey the depth of knowledge possessed
by the older generations of the farmers of India.
Objective of the course

Agriculture in India - Way of life and not an occupation
To increase awareness of the rich heritage of Indian agriculture which is unique than any
other civilization.
To implant a sense of pride amongst the people, particularly agricultural students as our
agriculture has sustainable practices for generations.
To stimulate scientific research based on traditional technology.

HISTORY : Continuous record of past events
HERITAGE : Inherited values carried from one generation to other generation
AGRICULTURAL HERITAGE : Values and traditional practices adopted in ancient India
which are more relevant for present day system.
        History denotes the continuous record of past events, where as heritage indicates the
inherited values carried from one generation to other generation. Agricultural heritage
denotes the values and traditional practices adopted in ancient India, which are more relevant
for present day system.

List of available documents on agriculture during ancient and medieval period
    1. Rigveda (c.3700 BC)
        Agricultural practices in the Vedic period presumably started from c.1500 BC and
ended in c.500 BC, corresponds to last phase of the Chalcolithic period and Iron Age in India.
The possible sites stretched from north-western parts of India to the entire alluvial of the river
Ganges. The associated factors with agricultural practices in Vedic India to be included in the
present study are: (i) Soil, land and village settlement; (ii) Manure and manuring; (iii) Crop
husbandry inclusive of plant protection measures, agricultural technology and agricultural
implements; (iv) Irrigation system; (v) Animal husbandry and (vi) Meteorological
observations in relation to crop prospects. The entire account has no treatise like approach but
projected mostly through sacerdotal matters. The Vedic Aryans pursued pastoralism and
agriculture as the mainstay of their livelihood. According to Max Muller the term Arya,
derived from the root, ar, to stir, i.e., stirring of soil by means of stick or plough, shows
Aryans were cultivators1 before separation as Indo-Iranian and Indo-Aryan. The Vedic
Aryans for their existence on Indian soil had to fight against many obstacles. Appeasement of
natural phenomena in form of anthropomorphic deities for existence and prosperity made
them close to nature and natural objects. Analysis of related data on agriculture contained in
the Vedic texts shows three prominent phases. The early phase shows struggle for fertile
field. The twin god Dya–va–-pr. thivi– is extolled for snatching fertile field from the dasyus
or Non-Aryans and granting to the Aryan people.2 Agricultural pursuits were thus not very
easy for the Vedic Aryans at the early stage. Prayer to different godheads for copious rain and
other favourable conditions congenial for raising of food crops (anna) and animal resources
is frequent in the Rigvedic mantras. Agriculture occupied such an important place that Su–rya
was conceived as having three bonds in three lokas. His bond in water, i.e. habitable world,
explained by commentator Sa–yana are tillage, rain and seed.3 Thus in this hymn Vedic idea
on three essentials of Kr.s.i (agriculture) is presented through this imagery of Su–rya in form
of Asƒva. A very few grain-crops are mentioned in the R. gveda. Yava (barley) is one among
them. Obviously this shows the particular settlement area of the people at that time was
favourable for cultivation of yava. Divinity was imposed on every conditions of nature. The
entire agricultural operations were given a spiritual domination. This is found in the idea of
Ks.etrapati, presiding deity of agriculture, indicating either Rudra or Agni, supervising all the
agricultural activities.

    2. Atharvaveda (c. 2000 BC)
     The late Vedic period introduced manuring of yava (barley) seeds with clarified butter
and honey as pre-sowing treatments of seeds. The mantras uttered for this practice are laid
down in the Atharvaveda. Yava (barley) was the only cultivated crop in the R. gvedic period.
According to the story contained in the Atharvaveda , yava, the sweet corn was first
cultivated by the gods on the bank of river Sarasvati– for the benefit of mankind. The great
Indra was the furrow master and the Maruts were the ploughmen. Association with Indra and
Maruts suggests it as a rain-growth corn. Excepting bird no other pestiferous agents were
known in the preceding period. A host of such elements infesting grains in the field and
unfavourable natural phenomena causing harm to crops came to be known during the
Atharvavedic period. The pests inclusive of natural phenomena were.
a) Borer (tarda) indicating either insect or bird, hooked insect (saman.ka),
noxious insect (upakvasa) and locust (patan . ga),
b) Rodents (vyadvaras) and rats (a–khu)
c) Reptiles
d) Natural phenomenon like lightening and sun. Charms and spells formed the preventive and
remedial measures.
       The late Vedic period introduced weed as pest in addition to those recognized in the
Atharvaveda. Weed was particularly wheat-pest. Preventive and remedial measures were
charms and spells in association with some substances appear to have pesticidal effects.
These include: a) spreading of lead after furrowing, b) burying in field the metabolic product
(grass) from the bowels of sacrificed cattle and some parts of particular plant substances.
Weed control was also recommended by burying of several plant substances in the fields
before sowing of seeds. The Atharvaveda refers winnowing fan (sƒu–rpa) in this connection.
Grains (here barley) were stored in a vessel (urdara). The next phase of the Vedic period, i.e.,
period of the Atharvaveda gave more stress on rain-water for irrigation. Utilization of river-
water by diverting its course in channel became prominent. Green-manuring in soil fertility is
a process that has continued from the Atharvavedic period till today.
3. Ramayana (c.2000 BC)

4. Mahabharata (c.1400 BC)
       Mahabharata refers different names of river Sarasvati in its flows in different
directions. There is mention of seven Sarasvatis indicating seven branches of river. The
valley below Pehowa was known as Sapta Sarasvati i.e. the place where the river divided
itself in seven streams. Saraswati disappeared in the desert at Vinasana before its meeting
with Indus drainage. Its reappearance took place at Camasodbheda. Final union of Saraswati
with sea has been mentioned in Rigveda and Mahabharata.
5. Krishi-Parashara (c.400 BC)
       Krishi-Parashara (c. 400 BC) gives details of the design of the plow with Sanskrit
names for different parts. This basic design has hardly undergone any change over centuries.
A bamboo stick of a specific size was used to measure land. Vedic literature and Krishi-
Parashara also mention disc plow, seed drill, blade harrow (bakhar), wooden spike tooth
harrow, plankers, axe, hoe, sickle, supa for winnowing and a vessel to measure grain (udara).
Pairs of bullocks used for plowing in ancient days varied from one to eight. Krishi-Parashara
(c. 400 BC) and Brhat Samhita give, what today one could describe as, simple astrological
models for predicting rains in a particular season. Parashara’s main technique of forecasting
rain was based on the positions of the Moon and the Sun in the sky. In Krishi-Parashara, it is
stated that crops grown without manure will not give yield and a method of preparing manure
from cowdung is described. In Krishi-Parashara (c. 400 BC), a description of a cattle shed is
found. Cleanliness of the shed was emphasized. To protect animals from diseases, cattle
sheds were regularly fumigated with dried plant products that contained volatile compounds.

6. Kautilya’s Artha-sastra (c.300 BC)
7. Amarsimha’s Amarkosha (c.200 BC)
8. Patanjali’s Mahabhasya (c.200 BC)
9. Sangam literature (Tamils) (200 BC-100 AD)
10. Agnipurana (c.400 ?)
11. Varahamihir’s Brhat Samhita (c. 500 AD)
12. Kashyapiyakrishisukti (c.800Ad)
13. Surapala’s Vrikshayurveda (c.1000 AD)
14. Lokopakaram by Chavundaraya (1025 AD)
15. Someshwardeva’s Manasollasa (1131 AD)
16. Saranghara’s Upavanavioda (c.1300 AD)
17. Bhavaprakasha-Nighantu (c.1500 AD)
18. Chakrapani Mistra’sViswavallbha (c.1580 AD)
19. Dara Shikoh’s Nuskha Dar Fanni-Falahat (c.1650 Ad)
20. Jati Jaichand’s dairy (1658-1714 AD)
21. Anonymous Rajasthani Manuscript (1877 AD)
22. Watt’s Dictionary of Economic Products of India (1889-1893 AD)
2. Ancient agricultural practices
Traditional farming practices in India
Soil Classification
       In ancient times geographical distribution by Surapala was jangala (arid), anupa
(marshy) and samanya (ordinary). It is further divided by colour into black, white, pale, dark,
red and yellow by taste into sweet, sour, salty, pungent, bitter and astringent. Samanya land
was suitable for all kinds of trees. Rig-veda identified productive and non-productive soils.
There were 12 classification based on soil fertility, irrigation and physical characteristics.
These soil classifications are as follows :
1. Urvara (fertile)
2. Ushara (barren)
3. Maru (desert)
4. Aprahata (fallow)
5. Shadvala (grassy)
6. Pankikala (muddy)
7. Jalaprayah (water)
8. Kachchaha (land contiguous to water)
9. Sharkara (full of pebbles)
10. Sharkaravari (sandy)
11. Nadimatruka (land water from river)
12. Devamatruka (rainfed)

Another classification based on crops suitable
a. Vrdiheyam (rice (rainfed) / corn)
b. Shaleyam (kamala (wet) rice)
c. Tilyam (sesamum)
d. Mashyam (blackgram)
e. Maudginam (mung bean)
Sangam, Tamil literature classified soils as mullai (forest), Kuringi (hills), marudham
(cultivable) and neithal (coastal).
Maintenance of soil productivity
       Traditional soil management practices are the product of centuries of accumulated
knowledge, experience and wisdom refined and perpetuated over generations. These practices
were evolved within the framework of local technical possibilities. They enlivened the soil,
strengthened the natural resources diversify and maintained the production levels in
accordance with the carrying capacity of agro-ecosystem without damaging it. Ancient
farmers mostly relied on crop residues, manures, legumes and neem for enriching soil
fertility. In Kirishi - parashara, it is stated that crops grown without manure will not give
yield and stressed the importance of manures. He also recommended compost preparation
from cow dung. The dried, powdered cow dung is placed in pit for decomposition where
weed seeds are destroyed. The time duration for composting is two weeks. Kautilya
mentioned the use of cowdung, animal bones, fishes, milk as manure. Surapala describes the
ancient practice of preparing liquid manure (kunapa) prepared by boiling a mixture of animal
excreta, bone marrow, flesh, dead fish in an iron pot and then add it to sesame oil cake, honey
and ghee. This is clearly evident that present day Panchakavya is prepared in the same way
and used in all crops.

Liquid manure (Kunapa) : Preparation of kunapa involves boiling flesh, fat, and
marrow of animals such as pig, fish, sheep or goats in water, placing it in earthen pot,
and adding milk, powders of sesame oil cake, black gram boiled in honey, decoction of
pulses, ghee and hot water. There is no fixed proportion of ingredients. The pot is put
in a warm place for two weeks. This fermented liquid manure is called kunapa.
Green manures :
In Rajasthan : Prosopis cineraria - brings up moisture and nutrients from the underground and
leaves used as green manure.
In Tamil Nadu : Calotropis gigantiea, Mortinda tinctoria Theprosia purpurea, Jatropha,
Ipomoea Adathoda
In North India : A traditional weed Kochia indica used as green manure. Ancient farmers
adopted crop rotation and inter cropping to restore soil fertility. Mixed or inter cropping with
legumes in cereal and oil seed cultivation were widely practices. All these practices adopted
in ancient time are now being recommended today under organic farming concept.
     Water harvesting and irrigation developments during different periods – water storage
     – distribution and relevance to modern agriculture.
            The need for continuous supply of water for irrigation whether from canal, well, pond
     or lake is realized as the most important for agriculture in ancient period. The different
     irrigation principles adopted in ancient period are :
         Construction of large mud embankment on a stone foundation for diverting flood
         Building of small tanks.
         Severe penalty was imposed when water is let out other than sluice gate.
         Extensive tank irrigation systems were adopted in Sri Lanka and later in South India.
            In Sri Lanka ancient kings practiced that not even a drop of rainfall should go to sea
            without benefiting man.
         The topography of Telengana region of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka is ideally
            suited for the construction of tanks. A special feature of tanks in Telengana tank
            construction in series, by bunding the same valley at several points and surplus water
            from lower elevation and so on. Even now the tanks constructed by chola king in the
            same way exist today in Tamil Nadu.
         It is also suggested that preference of the use of water should be in the order of food
            crop, vegetables and flowers.

        Table 1: History of irrigation development in India
SN Period                                            Irrigation development
1. Ancient Period          2500 - 1000 BC            People settled near the banks of river / tanks for the
                                                     purpose of getting water for drinking and irrigation.
2.    Chalcolithic         3000 - 1700 BC            Practice of irrigation to crops was evolved.
3.    Vedic period         1500 - 1600 BC            People employed craftsman to dig channels from rivers
                                                     to their fields. Well irrigation through kuccha and
                                                     puccha wells and were practiced
4.    Pandyas / Cholal     (1st Century 300 AD)      Irrigated rice cultivation started during this period.
      chera‟s Period                                 Dams and Tanks were constructed for irrigation.
5.    Medieval period      (1200      -1700          Irrigated agriculture was developed during Mogul
                           AD)                       period. Canals, Dams and Tanks were constructed
                                                     1. Construction of western yamuna canal
                                                     2. Constructions of Anantaraja sagar.
Methods of conserving rain water
       In ancient days itself, people, especially Indians, know the methods of conservation of
rain water. There are evidences that, even during Harappan period, there was very good
system of water management as could be seen in the latest excavation at Dholavira in
Kachch. Rain water harvesting structures in the low rainfall areas of Rajasthan, harvesting
springs in hilly areas and mountainous region and percolation ponds and tanks in southern
India. In Tamil Nadu, the ancient people stored rainwater in public, placed separately one for
drinking purposes and another for bathing and other domestic purposses and called them as
Ooranies. The various methods of rainwater harvesting are classified below under two
category, Traditional and Modern methods. Traditional rainwater harvesting, which is still
prevalent in rural areas, was done in surface storage bodies like lakes, ponds, irrigation tanks,
temple tanks etc. In urban areas, due to shrinking of open spaces, rainwater will have to
necessarily be harvested as ground water, Hence harvesting in such places will depend very
much on the nature of the soil viz., clayey, sandy etc. The below listed are the various kinds
of traditional rainwater harvesting methods. The Modern methods of rainwater harvesting are
categorised under two, they are Artifical Recharging and Rain Water Harvesting. The former
is classified into Absorption Pit Method, Absorption Well Method, Well cum Bore Method
and Recharge trench cum injection well. The later is categorised into Individual Houses and
Grouped Houses which are further classified into Percolation Pit Method, Bore Well with
Settlement Tank, Open Well Method with filter bed Sump and percolation Pit with Bore
Bamboo method of rainwater harvesting
       In Meghalaya, an indegenious system of tapping of stream and springwater by using
bamboo pipes to irrigate plantations is widely prevalent. It is so perfected that about 18-20
litres of water entering the bamboo pipe system per minute gets transported over several
hundred metres and finally gets reduced to 20-80 drops per minute at the site of the plant.

Kunds of Thar Desert
       In the sandier tracts, the villagers of the Thar Desert had evolved an indegenious
system of rainwater harvesting known as kunds or kundis. Kund. Usually constructed with
local materials or cement, kunds were more prevalent in the western arid regions of
Rajasthan, and in areas where the limited groundwater available is moderate to highly saline.
Groundwater in Barmer, for instance, in nearly 76 per cent of the district‟s area, has total
dissolved salts (TDS) ranging from 1,500-10,000 parts per million (ppm). Under such
conditions, kunds provide convenient, clean and sweetwater for drinking.
Traditional Rain water harvesting
       The traditional rainwater harvesting methods in North India is surface water
harvesting methods are viz., Tanka, Nada, Nadi, Talai, Talab, Khadin Sar, Sagar and Samend.
Tanka: It is constructed of on farm, country yard and fort. The shape is normally circular /
square. Dimension is 2 m dia. 3 m deep capacity 10000 lit
Talai: Similar to Tanka, still deeper (2-3cm depth). Special attention paid for selection of
location such that there is adequate flow of rain water into Talai
Nada: In this method, low lying areas in between hillocks is excavated as pit and provided
embankment to arrest rain water from these hillocks.
Nadi: Compared to Nada. the Nadi is bigger in size. A village or group of Villages uses the
run off water collected in the Nadi.
Talab: It is relatively shallow and spread over to more area compared to Nadi. It is generally
constructed in rangeland. The catchment area of Talab is 480 ha., can lost for many years.
Khadin: Accumulation of run off water in between hillocks is known as Khadin. Khadin
means cultivation crops. The khadin water is generally used for crop cultivation and animals.
Sar, Sagar and Samand: It is used to harvest rainwater for irrigation purpose. Even today
this structure provides excellent source of reservoir and also tourist spot.

Weather forcasting
Astronomy – Prediction of rains:
       Modern scientific knowledge of methods of weather forecasting have originated
recently. But ancient indigenous knowledge in unique to our country. Indian had glorious
scientific and technological tradition in the past. A scientific study of meteorology was made
by our ancient astronomers and astrologers. Even today, it is common that village astrologers
(pandits) are right in surprisingly high percentage of their weather predications. Observation
coupled with experience over centuries enhanced to develop meteorology.
       The ancient / indigenous method of weather forecast may be broadly classified into
two categories.
   1. Observational method
         • Atmospheric changes
         • Bio-indicators
         • Chemical changes
         • Physical changes
         • Cloud forms and other sky features

   2. Theoretical methods ( or) Astrological factors ( or) planetary factors
         • Computation of planetary positions and conjunctions of planets and stars
         • Study of solar ingress and particular date of months
         • Study of Nakshatra Chakras
         • Study of Nadi Chakras
         • Dashatapa Siddhanta

Almanacs in Indian astronomy and astrology ( Panchangs)
       According to the Encyclopedia Britannica ( 1969), “ an almanac is a books or table
containing a calendar of the days, weeks and months of the year, a register of ecclesiastical
festivals and saint‟s day and a record of various astronomical phenomena, often with weather
prognostications and seasonal suggestions for countrymen”.
       In India, the classical Hindu almanac is known as „Panchang‟. This book published
yearly, and is the basic book of the people all over India. For astrologers, it is one daily basis
and is extensively used by the people all over India. For astrologers, it is one of the basic
books for making astrological calculators, casting horoscopes, and for making predictions.
For farmers, it is an astrological guide to start any farming activity.
       The word „panchang‟ has it‟s roots in two Sanskrit words, viz., „panch‟ and „ang‟,
which means „five‟ and „body part/limb‟ respectively. These parts are
   1. Tithi (or) Lunarday – Total of thirty tithes in a lunar month, fifteen in each fortnight.
   2. Vara or week day – seven varas, (Monday-
   3. Nakshatra ( or) asterism ( or) constellation – Total of twenty seven nakshtras named
       according to the yagataras (or) identifying stars of each of the twenty seven equal
       parts of the ecliptic ( or) solar path.
   4. Yoga ( or) time during which the joint motion of the sun and the moon covers the
       space of the nakshatra ( there are twenty seven yogas).
   5. Karana (or) half of a lunar day (or) half – tithi.
The other items considered for astrological prediction are

   1.   Rashi ( or) twelve equal parts of the Zodic belt, hence twelve rashis
   2.   Planets
   3.   Solar months and solar year
   4.   Lunar months and lunar year
   5.   Era

Theoretical basis of weather forecasting in ancient literature and panchangs
        According to varahamihira and other scholars, the formation of clouds (or)
garbhadharana takes place 195 days before their birth ( or) delivery (or) garbhaprasava.
During his period clouds were grouped as Abartak ( Avartak), Sambartak ( Samvartak),
Pushkara and Drona. It abartak is dominating one year, rain will be received in certain
places in that year; if sambartak, rain will be received in all of the country; if pushkara, the
quantity of will be very less; and if drona, that year will receive abundant rain water.
        It is also true even today, the cloud classification indicates Cirrus, Cirrostratus, Cirro
Cumulus, Altostratus, Altocumulus, Stratocumulus, Stratus, Nimbo Stratus, Cumulus and
Cumulonimbus. Among this Nimbostratus and Cumulonimbus gives rainfall to the earth.
        According to the ruling planet of a year, overall rainfall of that particular year should
be anticipated as follows:
S.No.        Ruling planet                               Rainfall
1.           Sun                                         Moderate
2.           Moon                                        Very heavy
3.           Mars                                        Scanty
4.           Mercury                                     Good
5.           Jupiter                                     Very good
6.           Venus                                       Good
7.           Saturn                                      Very low ( Stormy wind)

        For predicting the monsoon and its subsequent effects on weather, all panchang
makers consider three different Nadi Siddhantas (Capsular theories) commonly known as
Nadi charkas. These are :
   1. Dwinadi charks
   2. Trinadi charks
   3. Saptanadi charks
   Table 2:Arrangement of nakshatras in Saptanadis and its associated effect on
                   Seven nadis                                Effect on weather
   Chanda                                         Bright sunshine, no rainfall
   Vata                                           Sunshine and wind, normal rainfall
   Vanhi                                          Strong hot wind ( Westerlies)
   Soumya                                         Normal rainfall
   Meera                                          Very good rainfall
   Jala                                           Abundant rainfall
   Amrita                                         Heavy to very heavy rainfall causing flood

Prediction analysis and discussion
       The analysis indicates that rainfall predictions made in panchangas based on ancient
astrological theories are, on an average, better than and in some cases at par with the
predictions made by Govt. meteorological department through modern techniques and
       (E.g.) The yearly fully corrected predictions of rainfall made during 1946-1955 were
75,78,74 and 75% respectively for different panchangam. The seasonal prediction also
indicated that it was 89% for summer, 55% for rainy, 90% for winter and 78% for overall.
Method for measurement of rainfall
       The method of measurement of rainfall is described by Varahamihira. A circular
vessel with a diameter equal to one (human) arm or the distance measured by the width of 20
(human) fingers and with a depth equal to the distance measured by the width of eight fingers
should be accepted for measurement of rainfall. When this vessel is completely filled with
rainwater, the rainfall should be equal to 50 palas or one adhaka. This method has been
explained by the Parashara.
       According to Parashara, the basic unit of rainfall is adhaka.
       1 adhaka = ¼ drona                    (eq.1)

       1 drona = 4 adhakas = 6.4 cm                                             (eq.6)
Krishi – Panchang
       The researcher developed the Krishi panchang ( or) Agroalmanac ( or) Agro-
panchang. It may be defined as basic astro-agricultural guide book/calendar published
annually, giving calendrical information on various aspects of agricultural and allied,
activities, basically suggesting region wise, seasonwise and cropwise. Crop strategy based on
astro – meteorological prediction, giving auspicious time for undertaking various farm related
operations, along with a list for performing religious rites, festivals, observing fasts and some
non-astrological agricultural guidance, primarily useful for the farming communities and
persons having interest in agricultural development.
           The contents of the proposed Krishi-Panchang can broadly be categorized into two
kanor groups as fallows :
    1. Information which changes every year

              •   Annual date and Holiday calendar
              •   Month – wise daily guide for the whole year
              •    “Rashiphal”, i.e., month-wise forecasting of persons having different zodiac
              •   Daily/monthly/annual weather forecasting for the particular year
              •   Crop prospects of that year based on planetary positions
              •   Season-wise crop strategy based on anticipated weather

    2.     Information which remains same irrespective of any particular year

              •   Theories relating to agricultural and meteorological forecasting
              •   Auspicious moments for agricultural and allied activities
              •   Some general agricultural guidance

           The content and coverage of the proposed Krishi-Panchang, indicate that only
qualified astrologers cannot prepare the whole content on their own, rather an editorial board
comprising of both qualified astrologers and crop specialists can do justice. While preparing
the Panchang, the – editional board members should keep in mind the following important
points :
    •  The Krishi-Panchang is largely meant for the local farming communities, having
       very low educational status. Hence, it must be in the local colloquial language to
       facilitate reading and comprehension.
   • Care should be taken to make the Krishi-Panchang easily understandable and clear in
       its meaning.
   • It should be very comprehensive in its content and coverage with proven predictive
       information only.
   • It should not contain any astrological details or complexities which would go beyond
       the understanding capability of our less educated farmers and agriculturists.
   • It should be attractive in colour, and presentation of information should be systematic
       according to season (kharif, rabi, and summer) and crops.
   • It must be low-priced/nominal-priced, within the affordable range of small and
       marginal farmers.
More important, is, the must be made available to the farmers and needy persons sufficiently
in advance, i.e., at least 1-2 months before the start of the agriculture year (July-June).
Local knowledge used to predict drought and weather pattern

Table 3:Drought prediction and mitigation

SN Predictors/Signs            Description
1    Pigeon feathers           Pigeon lying on the ground by spreading its feathers, the
                               indication of drought
2    Sound of wild cat         If the wild cat make sound with Dhul/Mul and people as to
                               the wild cat and response with dhul then drought may occur
3    Ants upward movement      If ant starts to move upward from down, rain may come
4    Red colour in the west If the sky shows bright red colour in the west sky during
     sky                       sunset, drought may ome in the following year
5    Sun lights kid            If sunny days show illusion like roder bachha, drought may
6    Thunder in the east sky   If frequent thunder happen in the east sky at night. This
                               indicates drought in the next year
7    Abundance of termites     When large number of termites found in the mound, drought
                               is the immense issue for the year
8    Visibility of black ant   Appearance of black ants and storing grain and eggs in safer
                               places indicate that the rain follows for the couple of days
9    Hoppers fly               If hopper fly randomly, drought may occur
10   Dark clouds in the west The appearance of dark clouds on the west, the immediate
     sky                       hail storm accompanied by thunder, lighting and kalboishakh
11   Chirping of Fatik bird    The chirping of Fatik bird during October to April is a sign
                               of rainfall
12   Rainbow                   If rainbow come in the eastern sky, there would be chance of
                               drought and if it comes in the western sky that indicates sure
Table 4. Local knowledge used to reduce drought impact and extreme weather

SN Practice            Description
1  Frogs marriage      Arrange marriage for the frog to invite immediate rainfall to end the
2    Use mulch         Farmers were used straw and water hyacinth as the mulch materials
                       in the horticultural production at their homestead to protect drought
                       impact on production
3    Orchard           Farmers were established mango orchard at their homestead and the
     establishment     crop field to mitigate drought impacts as a whole
4    Planting trees    Long back peoples in the area were planted trees especially palm
                       trees to protect drought and its impacts as a whole
5    Short        term Farmers alone or along with family members were migrated to the
     mitigation        urban areas for livelihoods and return to the home after drought
6    Home ardening     Peoples started vegetable gardening in their homestead to protect
                       drought impact on agricultural production

Local Farming Knowledge in India

       Presently, the loss of biological diversity and erosion of traditional knowledge
systems (TKS) are issues of great concern. Most of these systems of knowledge are unique
and are often known only to a few individuals or communities. This traditional knowledge
includes mental inventories of local biological resources, animal breeds, local plant, and crop
and tree species. Traditional knowledge may include information about trees and plants that
grow well together, about indicator plants that show the soil salinity, or are known to flower
at the beginning of the rains. It includes practices and technologies, such as seed treatment
and storage methods, and tools used for planting and harvesting. Traditional knowledge
encompasses belief systems that play a fundamental role in people's livelihood, maintaining
their health, and protecting and replenishing the environment. and value which include
traditional knowledge.

    The following traditional agro ecosystems were adapted to minimize crop loss due to
 insect and pests:
    (a) Ploughing, hoeing and basin preparation to influence soil inhabiting pests through
 “microclimate manipulation”, e.g. goat droppings burnt along with dried Euphorbia spp. to
 maintain a smoke blanket layer throughout the night arresting the pathogenic activity,
    (b) Intercropping of diverse plant species to provide habitats for the natural enemies of
    insect pests as well as alternative host plants for pests, and also to prevent competition of
    crops from weeds,
      (c) Shifting cultivation that helped the easy migration of natural pest predators from the
    surrounding forest,
      (d) Genetic diversity of cropping systems followed to delay the onset of diseases and
    reduce the spread of disease-carrying spores, and modify environmental conditions less
    favorable to the spread of certain diseases,
      (e) Practice of integrated crop-livestock systems to balance the biomass and nutrient
    inputs and outputs.

      Examples of traditional knowledge and practices
    Animal healthcare practices

   Hot soup of Cumin and garlic being analgesic and antipyretic fed to animals affected by
    fever and cold.
   Use of bark of belly tree/crushed leaves of karnu tree as antiseptic for speedy healing.
   Mixture of ash of Burning grass (Jawanlari) and black cloth along with oil fed to cows to
    cure dysentery.
   Mixture of sulphur and mustard oil for prevention and control of skin diseases.
   Use of bamboo leaves and bark boiled with paddy husk and fed to cows for expulsion of
   Treatment of diarrhea with leaves of Leucas lanata (Safeda) and bamboo leaves.
   Traditional moulting practices - Dipping in water, applying ash and mud, quarantine the
    birds to dark locations in separate mini huts, fixing feathers on to the beak followed for
    shedding and regrowth of feathers and rejuvenation of poultry birds.
   Use of garlic (Allium sativum) and vinegar for deworming.
   Juice of marigold/ Annona squamosa leaves to kills maggots and heal wound.
    Plant protection and Post-harvest management

   Packaging of food commodities using containers made of bamboo sticks and internally
    lined with cow dung for grains, potato, maize cobs, etc or lime and sand for millets.
   Use of neem/mint/walnut/sweet flag leaves/Pongamia pinnata as antimicrobial agent for
    grain storage.
   Storage of pulses by mixing with turmeric powder or mustard oil.
       Storage for seed crops in under ground pits dug in fields with a pitcher and covering the
        top of pit with ash and soil to create zero energy cool chambers.
       Pickled mango, lime, etc. packed in sterilized earthen pots using fumes generated from
        burning red chilies along with Asafoetida and mustard oil.
       Storage of cabbage, ginger was done under ground pits which provided cool condition for
        storage ensuring freshness for prolonged use.
       Storage of sugar/jaggery in large earthen pots with top cover made of wood.
       Enhancement of shelf life of fruit and vegetables by wrapping in moist gunny bags.
       Use of smoke for protection of fruit crops from frost damage.
       Practice of applying a thin paste of cow dung, clay and cow urine to pruned ends of twigs
        and cuts to prevent access to pathogens.
       Use of wood ash on vegetables to ward off pests and to enhance nutrient status of soil.
       Use of kerosene oil to kill stem and shoot borers.
       Use of powder of leaves and pods of Mucuna prurita to reduce rat damage to the crop.
       Use of crushed seeds/extracted oil of castor against Rhinoceros beetle, Nematodes
        infestation in coconut, Pulses and cereal seeds.
       Use of chilies and other hot peppers powder against caterpillars, flies, aphids, ants and other
        pests of vegetables.
       Use of Pulses soaked in whey to prevent wilting.
       Euphorbia neriifolia milk for seed protection of various crops like paddy, castor, pearl
        millet, maize and Sorghum.
        Weather forecasting

       Presence of visible spectrum with a greater diameter around the sun than around the moon,
        indicates rainfall after a day or two.
       On a hot summer day cry of the bird called Nailu for water brings rainfall.
       If centipedes emerge from their holes carrying their eggs in swarms an early rainfall is
       If Dragon fly swarm in a large group over water surface a dry weather is predicted, if
        they swarm over open dry lands then early rainfall is predicted.
       If the first 10-15 of the month May-June are very hot a good rainfall is predicted.
        Sustainable natural resources management

       Indigenous techniques of harvesting honey and beeswax from bees, using various
    indigenous styles of hives.
   Polygonum hydropiper Linn. (Smart weed) used as fish toxicant for catching fish
    from natural aquatic resources as well as for removal of uneconomical fishes from the
    aquaculture pond.

   Mollusc shells-Anadara granosa (Khola), Meritrix meritrix (Gondhi), Meritrix
    casta. (Pati) and Ceritidea cingulata (Genda) traditionally used for lime preparation.
   Inhibition of bacterial growth in milk by keeping under the pyramids made out of natural
    materials as wood.
   Use of indigenous fishing instrument Polo for capturing fishes in low water raising.
   Alnus nepalensis cultivated in Jhum in Nagaland has multiple usages as a nitrogen fixing
    tree, as fodder and timber, and retains soil fertility.
    Soil and water management

   Construction of kuhls/wooden water channels/ Virdas/Khadins for irrigation.
   Drip and pitcher irrigation in areas with scanty rainfall.
   Use of bamboo channels with small holes made at the internodes for water trickling.
   Roof water harvesting and collection of water in dug out structures (Wells, Bawdi).
   Sorangas in Karnataka in the lateritic regions to tap the moisture trapped in the large
    sand depositions, Ahar-pyne traditional irrigation system in Bihar
   Harvesting of dew and fog water.
   Conservation of soil moisture by mulching: Wet soil mixed with seeds of rye
    (Brassica nigra) is placed inside the holes left between the stones of terrace risers for
    minimization of water need for germination and use of the unused space of terrace
    riser for vegetable cultivation.
   Earthen bunds made of different materials like stones and sticks, Kana bundi using the
    crop residue, Vetiver zizaniodes grass for controlling soil erosion.
   Methods used for improvement in soil fertility by burning Butea monosperma and
    Madhuca indica) leaves and branches, cultivation of crops with trees such as
    Sesbania grandiflora, Leucaena lecocephala or other leguminous plants, local
   Indicators to assess the fertility of soils by better growth of weeds like Setaria tomentosa in
    light soil, vigorous growth of Desmostachya bipinnata and Cenchrus spp, Echinochloa
    colonum growth for better paddy yield.
Indigenous seed conservation and preservation
     Conservation of seed is the conservation of planet (Srishti). Seed contains the basic
DNA, which is capable to produce the plant of the same kind. For protection of seed material,
the practices of our ancestors are evident from pre-historic, historic and vedic periods.
Storage of seed in cylindrical pits dug in earth or in granaries or in containers made of ropes
and plastered with mud or in well baked clay pots, scaring away birds with sling balls,
initiation of mixed cropping technique, controlled use of water irrigation in fields, etc. are the
some specific practices found in use during these periods. Many examples of crop and seed
protection such as making din and noise for bird scaring in maize fields, setting traps or
digging pits and fix traps in the fields to keep away the wild animals. Use of cow dung, milky
juice of Solanum indicum, coconut water, Emblica ribes, cow urine and ghee (butter oil), etc.
for treatment of seed material were practiced during vedic era. For control of pulses bruchid
(Callosorbruchus chinensis) the oil of Mentha spicata, or M. arvensis or M. piperita was
found very useful. Gunny bags are used for bulk storage of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)
seeds. For prophylactic treatment, these bags are soaked in 15% concentration of leaf extracts
of Pongamia pinnata or Justicica gendarussa.
       The use of wooden and cow dung ash and red baked soil as seed dresser because the
quantity of silica in these might have deterred the egg formation and larvae feeding. The use
of ash and soil as indigenous pesticides is reported in so many literatures. Similarly the uses
of Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eucatyplus are very common and effective treatments.
The uses of various plant parts as storage pesticides, because these plant parts emit a pungent
type smell. This is because of availability of essential oil in the plant parts. The emission of a
kind of smell acts as a repellent of insect and deters their survival. Neem (Azadirachta indica
A. Juss) contains meliacin, nimbin, nimbinene, nimbandiol and azadiractin, walnut (Juglens
regia L.) leaves contains ascorbic acid, carotene and juglone. Bakayan (Melia azadirachta L.)
contains meliacin, turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) contains phenolic compound known as
curcuminoides, lemon (Citrus limon L.) contains lemon oil, citric acid and pectin and mustard
oil contains allyal isothiocynate. All these substances found in the above plant materials have
been reported to be antifeedants against several pests.
Table 5: Plant parts and other materials used for seed/grain protection
 S     Materials used for pest control                   Crops                            Types of material
 1     Bach (Acorus calamus L.); rhizome and leaves      Cereals and pulses               Seeds and grains
 2     Peach (Prunus persica L.);leaves                  Cereals and pulses               Seeds and grains
 3     Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss); leaves         Cereals, oil seeds and pulses    Seeds and grains
 4     Timur (Zanthozylum armatum DC.); leaves           Cereals, pulses and oils seeds   Seeds and grains
 5     Walnut (Juglens regia L.); leaves                 Cereals and pulses               Seeds and grains
 6     Bakayan (Melia azadiracta L.); leaves             Cereals and pulses               Seeds and grains
 7     Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.); leaves               Cereals and pulses               Seeds and grains
 8     Lemon (Citrus limon L.); leaves                   Cereals and pulses               Seed and grains
 9     Wooden ash                                        Wheat, barley and                Seeds
                                                         rice seed material
 10    Cow dung ash                                      Cereals                          Seeds
 11    Cow dung + cow urine                              Cereals and pulses               Seeds
 12    Kerosene oil                                      Pulses                           Seeds
 13    Lime powder                                       Pulses                           Seeds
 14    Mustard oil                                       Pulses                           Seeds and grains
 15    Red roasted soil                                  Cereals and pulses               Seeds

      Local farming knowledge in Gujarat

      Traditional knowledge in food and fibre

              Tribals in south Gujarat region use more than 43 species as fodder plants. Fibers are
      extracted from varied sources by the tribals. The people of the coastal region extract fibers
      from palms. In forest areas, fiber-yielding trees like Combretum ovalifolium, Butea parviflora
      and Derris scandens are used for ropes. Roots of palash are also woven into ropes. In Dangs,
      ropes made from fibers extracted from the leaves of Ketki are durable and used for tying
      cattle, as these ropes do not hurt their skin. Kotwalia community is specialised in making
      decorative bamboo artifacts.

      Traditional Grain Storage Structures in Gujarat

      Kothi: These storage containers, mostly known as Kothi are made out of leaner bamboo
      strips. Weaving patterns depend upon thesize of the grain to be stored. They are known by
      different names in different parts of the state such as Mosti (pic. h) in Vadodara and
      Chhotaudepur districts, Porsi and Porso in Panchmahal and Dahod districts, Kothi in
      Sabarkantha, Vadodara, Narmada, Tapi, Surat, Valsad and Dang districts. The outer surface
      of the storage structure is generally covered with fine mixture of loam, cow dung and husk. It
      prevents spillage and strengthens the storage structure.
Folding Kothi: A few communities in Dang district use folding grain storage containers.
They look like carpets weaved using leaner bamboo strips only. These carpets are rectangular
in shape but they have two bamboos weaved at their ends, what seems like these bamboos are
knotted together, which makes a cylinder to store grains . This kind of grain storage
structures are almost 6 feet tall and 200 kg to 250 kg grain storage capacity and have no
permanent base or lid. Just like other Kothi, it is also covered entirely with fine mixture of
loam, cow dung and husk. Top is also covered with dry Tectona grandis L leaves and sealed
with fine mixture of loam, cow dung and husk.

Nagli ni kothi (Kothi for Eleusine coracanaL): Nagli (Eleusine coracana L) and Vara
(Panicum sumatranse Roth) are lesser known cereal crops planted mostly in central and south
Gujarat. These grains are very small in size hence, stored in very complexly woven storage
containers. These containers are smaller in size, almost 2 feet tall, and dome shaped with flat
base, movable and light weight.

Kanthi ni Kothi (Kothi made of Nyctanthes arbortristis L): All the above mentioned storage
containers are made either from Dendrocalamus strictus (Nees) or from Bambusa arudinacea
(Willd). But there are a few locations where the local inhibitors use plants apart from bamboo
to make grain storage containers. Bhils from Sabarkantha district use Nyctanthes arbortristis
L to make almost 8 feet tall cylindrical grain storage containers.

Dudhi ni Kothi (Kothi made of Wrightia tinctoria RBr): Some tribes of Vadodara,
Chhotaudepur and Narmada districts use Wrightia tinctoria R Br twigs to make huge
cylindrical grain storage structures. Due to the high amount of latex present in the plant
makes the containers termite resistant. These Kothi are usually 5 feet tall and mounted on a
platform made of mud and interwoven fresh twigs of Wrightia tinctoria R Br.

Gara ni Kothi (Kothi of Mud): Kutch is the far North-Eastern district of the state with
diffused scrub forest and arid to semiarid climatic conditions. It is difficult to find resources
like Dendrocalamus strictus Nees or Bambusa arudinacea (Retz) Willd naturally in Kutch
due to the climatic conditions. Hence, residents of this district have come up with a solution
of storage structures majorly made of mud. These storage structures are made of loam,
donkey dung, wheat husk, and yellow salty clay typically found in Kutch.

Gara ni char-paiee Kothi (Four legged Kothi of Mud): Dwellers of Sabarkantha district use
this kind of storage structures which are difficult to make as compared to the structures made
of Bamboo. They are entirely made of loam, cow dung, and wheat husk and very heavy in
weight yet movable. These structures are cylindrical in shape, almost 5 feet tall with a huge
intake at the top to pour grains in and four legs at the bottom which keep the storage
container elevated from the ground. These storage structures are highly durable and used for

Dangar ni Kundi (Kundi for Paddy storage): These storage structures are reported form
Sabarkantha district which are used to store paddy. They look like char-paiee Kothi and
made of loam, cow dung, and wheat husk but small in size with a huge intake at the top and
three or four legs at the bottom which keeps the storage elevated from the ground. They are
1-1.5 feet tall, movable and long-lasting.

Methods of Grain Preservation
Many domestic grain storage practices are followed in Gujarat. Most of them have one or
more ecofriendly natural resource used to store grains round the year.
Castor Oil: It is the most common practice followed in which sundried grains are smeared
with a little amount of castor oil. Wheat, Rice, and a variety of pulses are stored using castor
oil. Excess amount of castor oil changes the natural taste of grain and so it is made sure that
the seeds are just smeared with oil. Almost 1kg oil is needed to preserve 100kg of grains.

Leaves of Azadirachta indica A Juss: Dried leaves of Azadirachta indica A Juss are mixed
with sundried grains and stored into traditional storage containers. This practice is common in
most areas of the state. Aspiration cleaning is must before using seeds. Bhils of Central
Gujarat use Azadirachta indica A Juss leaves in a different way, by adding dried leaves of
Azadirachta indica A Juss to the mixture of loam, cow dung and husk which is used to cover
inner and outer surfaces of storage containers which provides protection against pest.

Leaves of Calotropis procera (Ait): Fresh leaves of Calotropis procera (Ait) are collected
and dried in shed. These leaves are spread on the inner surface of the storage containers such
a way that they cover the whole inner surface of the container.

Para ni Thepli (Dice made of Mercury)
This is an interesting technique which includes a heavy metal – Mercury. Take 100gm of
Fuller‟s earth (Multani Mitti), 200gm of clay and 200gm of dried cow dung powder. Mix it
well and add 10ml of Mercury in it. Then add some water and make dough. Make small
round shaped thepli (dices) out of this dough and sundry them. Put almost 50 of such thepli
with every 100 kg of grains. This thepli can be used for 10 to 15 years.

Cow dung ash
        Cow dung is burned on a clean surface and ash is collected. This ash is mixed with
grains while storing them in the storage containers. For that a 3 inch layer of ash is made at
the bottom of the container. On which, almost 10 inch of layer is made of the grains. Then
againa 3 inch layer of ash is spread over. Whole structure is filled with grains and ash
likewise, layer by layer. Aspiration cleaning is must before using seeds.
Other Storage practices
Bamboo shoots preservation
Hibiscus sabdariffa L leaves preservation
Earthen vegetable preservation
Preservation in Salt
Fruit preservation in saltwater
Fishing ITK in Gujarat

        Saurashtra peninsula is the major fishing area of the state. It consists of seven districts
namely Amreli, Bhavnagar, Jamnagar, Surendranagar, Junagadh, Rajkot and Porbandar.
Saurashtra region occupies about 50 percent of state,s coastline, and accounts for more than
70 percent of fish production of Gujarat state. Fishing has therefore become a flourshing
industry in this area . The detailed description of the ITK‟s collected from Saurashtra region
of Gujarat are given below.
Catching whale shark by trawlers: This method is known to all trawlers from Porbandar to
Jaffrabad. The shark fins, oil from liver, and flesh had fetched good returns for these

Wooden wada fish catching technique: This is an age old technique in vogue by the
traditional fishermen of Jamnagar district. Mostly the catch consists of Sciaenids.

Fish harvesting by stone wada: This is an age old technique for catching fish. The catch
comprises miscellaneous varieties, and ensures fish for family and the surplus is sold in the
local market. The bigger varieties are iced and sold in nearby cities.

Mechanically shocking the fishes: Wherever there are rocky coasts with puddles, traditional
fishermen usually go for single line hooking. If the place does not fetch any hooking, then the
fishermen move to the next nearby area. While walking through intertidal areas, he may come
across such puddles in which fishes may be there. Usually children of these fishermen scout
these areas, & they have been observed to carry out this operation. For the poor fishermen,
catching of these fishes does add to their bread basket.

Indian Sea bass catch from underneath boulders on coast: The fishermen who operate
hook & line carry out this operation when they move along a rocky coast line. This operation
has been observed in Beyt Dwarka & Mithapur. Indian sea bass being a priced fish, and the
fish usually caught being of a big size, this method cannot be avoided by the scouting

Extracting Solen from muddy coast: When wooden wada fishermen go for collection of
fish in the wada, both to & fro, they need to walk on such areas, where these Razor Clams are
found. By this method, they can remove the animal from its daily fishing path, & forms their

Catching sand crab Description of the ITK: Sand crabs live in sandy beaches often digging
burrows in sand move quite fast and bigger ones which is to be caught when gets inside
burrows with sandy beaches is packed with dry sand. When excavated, the dry sand can be
distinguished from wet sand which when dug up and then the crab can be found at the end of
the dry sand channel.
Cast netting of inshore sepia: This technique has been in use by Veraval fishermen and the
same technique (without the use of petromax) is used by Miyani fishermen for cast netting oil
sardines from near shore waters through dugout canoes.
Natural thermal fatality: Fishermen know that at particular time of the year, the air as well
as the seawater temperature gets to higher levels by mid day, and this kills the fish near costal

Traditional water harvesting techniques

        In Gujarat, the traditional water harvesting techniques has been revived and 35 other
Villages of Amreli district are known for their hard, rocky terrain on account of their
peculiar geological features. These areas could not conserve rain water. However, the
situation has been changed by raising dykes to check rain water along with the putting up of
check dams and percolation tanks. Water and famine in these perpetually drought prone
rural areas of Gujarat has become a thing of the past with flourishing green farmland fields
one from all side.

The Tanka of Bharuch.

       The Zoroastrians are believed to have brought the concept of harvesting water from
ancient Iran to Bharuch. The „Tanka‟ is an underground tank, accommodated inside the
house, made of chiseled blocks of stone, in lime mortar. It is made waterproof by an
indigenous herbal mix, which seals minor cracks and prevents bacteriological growth inside
the Tanka. The size of the Tanka is large enough to store sufficient drinking water for a
family for six to eight months. An average storing capacity of the Tanka is around
25,000litres. When required to be cleaned, Tankas must be emptied manually, they are large
enough for people to enter and work inside.

        The Tanka feeds on the rainwater collected through roof runoff. A simple system of
collection, via a 3″ to 4″ pipe, depends on successive sumps whose water is collected, while
settled impurities are flushed out through an overflow pipe. The Tanka has a hatch cover,
which is kept closed except for the time when water is needed. The water retention capacity
of these Tankas is seen in the form of a particular „danger level‟ indicated inside the tank by
the depiction of a sculptured „fish‟. Filling above this mark was considered dangerous as the
hydraulic pressure inside may well exceed the retaining capacity of the tank wall. Most
owners clean the Tanka only once in 5 to 10 years. The water quality of the Bharuch Tankas
has been tested and found to be potable by W.H.O. standards.

       Virdas yield fresh water in the region where the groundwater and soil are highly
saline with salinity levels reaching as high as 98000 ppm. Virda is a traditional water
harvesting system found in the Banni area of Kutch‟s district and in the Northern-western
Banaskantha and Sabarkantha‟s districts as well as in some places of the Northern Gujarat.
The region is characterized by arid conditions with a day temperature‟s range going from 10°
C to 50° C, meaning an annual rainfall of about 300 mm in short and intensive spells.
         Virda yields fresh water for two up to three months per day and yields about 1000
liters. It is abandoned when the water gets salty. The Virda‟s durability depends on the
intensity of its exploitation as well as water holding capacity of an open tank. The duration of
use varies from 20 days to four months. It gradually becomes saline. When tanks are full
during monsoon, these Virda get plugged by silt and debris, but can be easily revived by
clearing these. Runoff water collected in the natural depressions and artificially excavated
tanks provide pastoral-communities with water during and after the monsoon. Water stays in
these tanks for a maximum period of three months.

Lime treated Drinking Water
        In Parwada and Gorimja (Jamnagar) such a traditional technology has been serving
more than 10000 people for the last 300 years. Indigenous people used lime for water
treatment. For this, they used pots made of soil powder filled with lime and covered the
mouth with a piece of cloth. Then, they used to put the pots in tank and the lime used to leach
out slowly through the pores of the vessel and, thus, purifying the water. Nowadays, some
people put 3-4 lime packets of 1-2 kilogram each depending upon the size of the underground
tank. These packets are lightly pierced so that lime leaches out slowly. The packets are
replaced by fresh ones for more effectiveness and sometimes chlorine, too, is used for the
same purpose. According to those analyses on drinking water treated with lime, two sources
in Parwada village were selected; i.e. Tank water and pot water. Two water samples were
tested on the same parameters.
3. Relevance of heritage to present day agriculture, past
   and present status of agriculture and farmers in society
Kautilyas Arthasastra
       Kautilya (also known as Vishnugupta or Chanakya) (321-296 BC) was a great scholar
of time. He wrote a treatise titled, Artha-sastra, which deals with the management of
resources. During Kautilya’s time agriculture, cattle breeding and trade were grouped into a
science called varta. Kautilya gave great importance to agriculture and suggested a separate
post of head of agriculture and named it as Sitadhakashya. Agriculture today receives prime
importance, by policy and administrative support from government officials. eg. i) Supply of
good seeds and other inputs ii) Provision of irrigation water iii) prediction of rainfall by IMD
iv) Assistance in purchase of machineries v) Marketing and safe storage. All the important
aspects are mentioned by kautilya in his book. He suggested many important aspects in
agriculture which are highly relevant today.
1. The superintendent of agriculture should be a person who is knowledgeable in agriculture
and horticulture. There was a provision to appoint a person who was not an expert but he was
assisted by other knowledgeable person. This is applicable even today, appointment of the
directors of agriculture, horticulture are sometimes civil servants assisted by technical
2. Anticipation of labours by land owners before sowing. Slaves and prisoners were
organised to sow the seeds in time. He also emphasized that thorough ploughing provides
good soil texture required for a particular crop. Even today farmers in Punjab hire labours
from Bihar at times of heavy demand period.
3. Timely sowing is very important for high yield particularly for rainfed sowing for which,
all the implements and accessories have to be kept ready. Any delay in these arrangements
received punitive action.
4. Kautilya suggested that for getting good yield of rainfed crop, a rainfall of 16 dronas (one
drona=40 mm to 50 mm) was essential and 4 dronas rainfall is sufficient for rice. It is very
significant to note that rain gauge was used during Kautilya’s period. It was apparently a
circular vessel (20 fingers width, 8 fingers width depth) and the unit to measure rain was
adhaka (1 adhaka=12 mm approx.)
5. He also stressed the optimum distribution of rainfall during crop growing season one third
of the required quantity of rainfall falls both in the commencement and closing months of
rainy season (July/Aug; October/Dec) and 2/3 of rainfall in the middle (August/ Sept.;
October) is considered as very even. This concept is applicable even today i.e. even
distribution is essential for rainfed crop.
6. The crops should be sown according to the change in the season. eg. Sali (transplant rice),
Virlu (direct sown rice), till (Sesame), millets should be sown at the commencement of rain.
Pulses to be sown in the middle of season. Safflower, linseed mustard, barley, wheat to be
sown later. It is clear that even today our scientific results prove that cereals, millets were
sown early and oilseeds, wheat, barley require less water which could be sown at last or as
post rainy season.
7. He also stressed that rice crop require less labour expense vegetables are intermediate, and
sugarcane is worst as it requires more attention and expenditure. It is true even today after
2000 years the situation has never changed that sugarcane requires heavy labour and
8. The crops like cucurbits are well suited to banks of rivers, Long-peper, sugarcane and
grapes do well where the soil profile is well charged with water. Vegetable require frequent
irrigation, borders of field suited for cultivation of medicinal plants. Even today the practice
of growing cucurbit (Watermelon, pumpkin) on river banks continue from river Ganges north
to Pamba river in south. This is an outstanding example of sustained practice, which ensures
utilization of moisture available in river bank.
9. Some of the biocontrol practices suggested by Kautilya has got relevance even today.
They are:
a) Practice of exposing seeds to mist and heat for seven nights. These practices are followed
even now in wheat to prevent smut diseases. Soaking of seed in water to activate fungal
mycelia and drying the seed under hot sun to kill the fungal.
b) Cut ends of sugarcane are plastered with the mixture of honey, ghee and cowdung.
Recently evidences proved that honey has widely an antimicrobial property. Ghee could seal
off the cut ends prevent loss of moisture and cowdung facilitated biocontrol of potential
10. He also suggested that harvesting should be done at proper time and nothing should be
left in the field not even chaff. The harvested produce should be properly processed and
safely stored. The above ground crop residues were also removed from fields and fed to
Trade and Marketing (Economic policies)
          All the industries were categorized into two groups according to their ownership. One
group of key industry was covered by state and another group by private. It is interesting to
note that this policy resembles today’s model mixed economy. The production, distribution
and consumption of agricultural produces were well controlled by the king. Agriculture was
placed in the category of privately owned industries. The state Government should control
and regulate all the economic aspects and evade the influence of market forces and private
interests. These practices suggested by Kautilya were followed by Indian farmers for over
centuries which are more sustainable and relevance to scientific agriculture.

Physical geography of Indian Sub Continent past and present

       Geologically, the Indian subcontinent was first a part of so-called "Greater India", a
region of Gondwana that drifted away from East Africa about 160 million years ago, around
the Middle Jurassic period. The region experienced high volcanic activity and plate
subdivisions, creating Madagascar, Seychelles, Antartica, Austrolasia and the Indian
subcontinent basin. The Indian subcontinent drifted northeastwards, colliding with the
Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene. This geological
region largely includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
The zone where the Eurasian and Indian subcontinent plates meet remains one of the
geologically active areas, prone to major earthquakes. The English term mainly continues to
refer to the Indian subcontinent. Physiographically, it is a peninsular region in south-central
Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese
in the east. It extends southward into the Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea to the southwest
and the Bay of Bengal to the southeast. Most of this region rests on the Indian Plate and is
isolated from the rest of Asia by large mountain barriers. Whether called the Indian
subcontinent or South Asia, the definition of the geographical extent of this region varies.
Geopolitically, it had formed the whole territory of Greater India, and it generally comprises
the countries of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Prior to 1947, most of the Indian
subcontinent was part of British India. It generally includes Nepal, Bhutan, and the island
country of Sri Lanka and may also include the island country of Maldives.                   The
geopolitical boundaries of Indian subcontinent, according to Dhavendra Kumar, include
"India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and other small islands of the Indian
Ocean". Maldives, the small archipelago southwest of the peninsula, is considered part of the
Indian subcontinent. Parts of Afghanistan are sometimes included in Indian subcontinent as,
states Ira M. Lapidus – a professor of History, it is a boundary territory with parts in Central
Asia and in Indian subcontinent. Given the passage difficulty through the Himalayas, the
sociocultural, religious and political interaction of Indian subcontinent has largely been
through the valleys of Afghanistan in its northwest, the valleys of Manipur in its east, and by
maritime over sea. More difficult but historically important interaction has also occurred
through passages pioneered by the Tibetans. These routes and interactions have led to the
diffusion of Hinduism and Buddhism, for example, out of the Indian subcontinent into other
parts of Asia, while Islam arrived into the Indian subcontinent through Afghanistan and to its
coasts through the maritime routes.

Following is the history of India through the Ages
The Pre Historic Era
The Stone Age:
       Began 500,000 to 200,000 years ago and recent finds in Tamil Nadu indicate the
presence of the first anatomically humans in the area. Tools crafted by proto-humans that
have been dated back to two million years have been discovered in the North-western part of
the country.
The Bronze Age:
       3300 BCE with the early Indus Valley Civilisation. One of the world's earliest, urban
civilisations, along with Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. Inhabitants of this era developed
new techniques in metallurgy and handicraft and produced copper, bronze, lead and tin.

Early Historic Period
Vedic Period: The Aryans were the first to invade the country. They came out of the North
in about 1500 BC and brought with them strong cultural traditions. Sanskrit, one of the most
ancient languages spoken by them, was used in the first documentation of the Vedas. The
Vedic era in the subcontinent lasted from about 1500-500 BCE, laying down the foundation
of Hinduism and other cultural dimensions of early Indian society. The Aryans laid down
Vedic civilisation all over North India, particularly in the Gangetic Plain.

Mahajanapadas: This period saw the second major rise in urbanisation in India after the
Indus valley Civilisation. The word "maha" means great and the word "janapada" means
foothold of a tribe. In the later Vedic Age, a number of small kingdoms or city states had
mushroomed across the subcontinent and also find mention in early Buddhist and Jain
literature as far back as 1000 BCE. By 500 BCE, sixteen "republics" or Mahajanapadas has
been established, namely; Kasi, Kosala, Anga, Magadha, Vajji (or Vriji), Malla, Chedi, Vatsa
(or Vamsa), Kuru, Panchala, Matsya, Surasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhara, and Kamboja.
Persian and Greek Conquests: Much of the Northwest subcontinent (currently Afghanistan
and Pakistan) came under the rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire in C. 520 BCE under
the rule of Darius the Great and remained so for two centuries. In 326 BCE, Alexander the
Great conquered Asia Minor and the Achaemenid Empire, when he reached the Northwest
frontier of the Indian subcontinent he defeated King Porus and conquered most of Punjab.

Maurya Empire: The Maurya Empire, ruled by the Mauryan Dynasty from 322-185 BCE
was a geographically extensive and mighty political and military empire in ancient India,
established in the subcontinent by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha (present-day Bihar) and
it further thrived under Ashoka the Great.

Ancient India Timeline
Prehistoric Period: ( 400000 BC - 1000 BC ): The period when man, basically a food
gatherer, discovered fire and wheel.
Indus Valley Civilisation: (2500 BC - 1500 BC): Derived its name from the river Indus and
thrived on agriculture and worshipped natural forces.
Epic Age: (1000 BC - 600 BC): The period saw the compilation of the Vedas, distinction of
Varnas in terms of Aryans and Dasas (slaves).
Hinduism and Transition: (600 BC - 322 BC): As caste system became more rigid, the
period saw the advent of Mahavira and Buddha who rebelled against casteism.
Mahajanapadas were formed - Magadha under Bimbisara and Ajat Shatru and Shisunanga
and                                        Nanda                                   dynasty.
The Mauryan Age: (322 BC - 185 BC): Founded by Chandragupta Maurya, the empire
encompassed the entire North India and Bindusara further extended it. After fighting the
Kalinga war, Ashoka embraced Buddhism.
The Invasions: (185 BC - 320 AD): The period saw the invasion of Bactrians, Parthians,
Shakas & Kushans, opening of Central Asia for trade, issuance of GOLD coins and
introduction of the Saka era.
Deccan and South India: (65 BC - 250 AD): The southern part was ruled by Cholas, Cheras
and Pandyas This period is known for construction of Ajanta and Ellora cave temples,
Sangam literature, and arrival of Christianity to India.
The Gupta Dynasty: (320 AD - 520 AD): The Gupta dynasty founded by Chandragupta I,
ushered in classical age in north India with Samudragupta extending his kingdom and
Chandragupta II fighting against Shakas. Shakuntalam and Kamasutra were written during
this period, Aryabhatta achieved feats in Astronomy and Bhakti cult emerged.
Age of Small Kingdoms: (500 AD - 606 AD): The period saw migrations from Central Asia
and Iran as Hunas moved to north India. There was rise of many small kingdoms as the North
was divided into warring kingdoms.
Harshavardhana: (606 AD - 647 AD): The famous Chinese traveller Hieun Tsang visited
India during Emperor Harshawardhana's reign. But his kingdom disintegrated into small
states even as Hunas invaded . It was a period when the Deccan and the south became
The Southern Kingdoms: (500 AD - 750 AD): Empire of Chalukyas, Pallavas & Pandya
flourished. Zoroastrians (Parsis) came to India.
Chola Empire: (9th Cent. AD - 13th Cent. AD): Founded by Vijayalaya, the Chola empire
adopted a maritime policy. Temples became cultural and social centres and Dravadian
languages                                                                          flourished.
The Northern Kingdoms: (750 AD - 1206 AD): The Rashtrakutas became powerful,
Pratiharas ruled in Avanti and Palas ruled Bengal. The period also saw emergence of Rajput
Temples at Khajuraho, Kanchipuram, Puri were built and miniature painting started. The
period witnessed invasion from the Turks.
The Mughal Empire: In 1526, Babur, a descendant of Timur and Gengis Kahn from
Fergana Valler (present-day Uzbekistan) swept across the Khyber Pass and established the
Mughal Empire which covered modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh.
The Mughal dynasty ruled most of the Indian subcontinent till 1600; after which it went into
decline after 1707 and was finally defeated during India's first war of Independence in 1857.
Colonial Era: From the 16th century, European powers from Portugal, Netherlands, France
and the United Kingdom established trading posts in India. Later, they took advantage of
internal conflicts and established colonies in the country.

The British Rule: The British Rule in India began with the coming of the British East India
Company in 1600 leading to the rule of Queen Victoria. It culminated in the First War of
Indian Independence in 1857.
Independence and Partition: Religious tension between the Hindus and Muslims had been
brewing over the years, especially in provinces like Punjab and West Bengal, accentuated by
the British policy of divide and rule. All through this Mahatma Gandhi called for unity
among the two religious groups. The British, whose economy had been weakened after
World War-II, decided to leave India and paved the way for the formation of an interim
government. Eventually, the British Indian territories gained independence in 1947, after
being partitioned into the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.

Post-Independence Period: As many civilizations the Greek, the Roman, and the Egyptian -
rose and fell, leaving only ruins, the Indian civilisation and culture remained unscathed. Even
wave after wave of invaders descended on the country, founded empires and ruled over its
different parts, the indomitable soul of Bharatvarsh could not be subjugated. Today, India
marches proudly as the most vibrant republic and largest democracy of the world, an
influential nation in South Asia and an emerging global superpower. India is the second
largest country in Asia and the seventh largest and second most populous country on Earth. It
comprises as much as one third of Asia and supports one seventh of humanity.
Indus valley civilization

       In the year 1922, archaeologists dug up a few places in the Indus valley and carried
out excavations at Mohenjodara (meaning a mound of dead) in Sind (in Pakistan) and at
Harappa on the river Ravi in Punjab. They found traces of a very ancient civilization, which
flourished more than five thousand years ago. They observed that the people utilized the pots,
utensils and ornaments. These cities were built along the river Indus and hence this
civilization is known as Indus valley civilization. It is also known as Harappan culture and
occupied the areas stretching from Delhi to Gujarat. During this period the people identified
the importance of ploughing for the proper sowing of crop (i.e) soil has to be stirred and seed
has to be covered. Ox-drawn wheel cart was used for transport. The people cultivated wheat,
barley, gram, peas, sesamum and rape. They also cultivated cotton and also devised methods
of ginning, spinning and weaving. Animal husbandry was also given more importance during
this period. They domesticated buffalo, cattle, camel, horse, elephant, ass and birds. They
utilized them in agriculture and also for transport. The most remarkable discovery in Harappa
is the Great Granary used for storing food grain. These grannaries, each 50x20 feet overall,
are arranged symmetrically in two rows of six in each row with central passage and 23 feet
wide. From the size of the granary it can be concluded that the peasants paid their dues to the
Government in kind, used the kinds in granary for payments to employees. The artisans,
carpenters and others received their wages in kind from the farmers.
The Vedic civilization
       The word “Veda” is derived from “Vid” which means “Knowledge” Veda is the only
literary source from which we know about the Aryans in India. Aryans were more prevalent
during Vedic time which extends from Eastern Afghanistan, Kashmir, Punjab and Parts of
Sind and Rajasthan. The land of Aryans was called land of seven rivers i.e., (Satlaj, Beas,
Ravi, Chennab, Jhelum, Indus and Saraswathi). The Rig-veda was the oldest book of Aryans.
       The Vedic Aryans were primarily pastrol. When they settled in the Punjab, they cut
the jungles and built their villages. They grazed the animals in jungles and cultivated barley
near the houses to protect from wild animals. Vedic people realized the importance of off-
season ploughing and they started ploughing as and when the rain was received. The first
ploughing of the season was inaugurated amidst much ritual. The plough used was large and
heavy. Bullocks and ox were used for ploughing. With regard to irrigation, channels were
dug from the rivers.Wells were in use for supply of drinking water and irrigation called kucha
wells, which were just holes dug in the ground. Even now such wells are in use in the river
rain areas of northern India.
Crops cultivated in Vedic period
       In early Vedic period there is no mention of rice and cotton though they were
cultivated in Harappa period. In the later Vedic period (1000 - 600 BC) agricultural
implements were improved and iron ploughshare also improved. The people possessed the
knowledge of fertility of land, selection of seed, seedtreatment, harvesting, manuring and
rotation of crops. Barley sesame and sugarcane were the main crops. Cucumber and bottle
gourd were also mentioned in Vedic period, Aryans were accustomed to barley diet. Barley is
good for men, cattle and horses. Barley is used in Hindu rituals even today. For cloths, wool
and cotton were used. The agriculture implements mentioned in vedic literature include the
plough (langala – a lase pointed type having smooth handle, Sira - a large and heavy
plough).Sickle was used for harvesting and sieves were used for cleaning.
Harappan period:
          The Indus Civilization had the first farming cultures in South Asia, which emerged in
the hills of what is now called Baluchistan, to the west of the Indus Valley. The farmers took
part in the so-called Neolithic Revolution, which took place in the Fertile Crescent around
9000 to 6000 BCE. These early farmers domesticated wheat and a variety of animals,
including cattle. In the "Era" terminology, the Neolithic is known as the "Early Food
Producing Era".
Early Harappan
          The development of these farming communities ultimately led to the formation of
larger settlements from the later 4th millennium. Indus valley civilization was composite
product of different races who lived and worked together in a particular environment.
Mohenjo daro had easy land and water communication; it was the meeting ground of people
for different parts of Asia. Farmers had, by this time, domesticated numerous crops, including
peas, sesame seeds, dates and cotton, as well as a wide range of domestic animals, including
the water buffalo.
Late Harappan
          By 2500 BCE, the Early Harappan communities had been turned into urban centers.
Thus far, six such urban centers have been discovered, including: Harappa, Mohenjo Daro
and Dicki in Pakistan, along with Gonorreala, Dokalingam and Mangalore in India. In total,
over 1052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the
Ghaggar-Florence River and its tributaries. By 2500 BCE, irrigation had transformed the
Vedic period:

          The most important people of the Vedic period are Vaishnava. There are four Vedic
periods viz., Rig, Sama, Yajur, and Atharvana Vedas. In Rig Vedas period, the farmers
occupied more number in the society. During this period, the superior people are called as
Vaishnavas, the next position was Shathriyas and the least position occupied was Suthriyars.
The Suthriyars are the farmers they cultivated the land and produced agricultural products
under the land lord. The farmers status was more in Atharva Vedic period. They cultivated
the crops based on the advice of the saints.
Buddhist period:
       A food producing economy emerged with the practice of agriculture on a wide scale
by using iron implements. There was pleasant proprietorship in rural areas and there were no
land lords. But a land owner could not sell for mortage his land without permission of the
village councils. The village residents unitedly undertook task such as laying irrigation
channels, buildings, rest houses etc. the women extended their full co operation in their works
(public utility). He whole of each village was self sufficient, life was simple.
Mauryan period:
       The economy was agrarian, majority of population were agriculturists. People were
also engaged in animal husbandry and cattle rearing which meant additional income to
peasants and the state. Gaha pathi were the term used for head of rich land owing family.
Gupta period:
       The cultivators were called by various terms called Krishihala or Kinars. They had
low social and economic life.
Sangam period:
       During Sangam literature, agriculture was the main occupation and hence the position
of the farmers in the society was also high during this period. Agriculture Sangam was
developed in Madurai. The farmers are called uzhavar (plough man) and also they are called
as Kalmar. The land owners called superior vellars and the farmers who plough the land are
called as inferior vellars. The farmers’ status was mainly determined by the holding of land
and animal population.
Thirukural period:
       Thiruvalluvar mentioned about importance of farmers in the society. In his statement,
“Farmers alone live an independent life. Others worship them and are second to them” “If
farmers stop cultivation, even Rishis (sages) can not survive”
4. Journey of Indian agriculture and its development from
   past to modern era
Development of human culture
It is supposed that man was evolved on earth about 15 lakh years ago. This man was
evolved from the monkey who started to move by standing erect on his feet. Such man has
been called Homo erectus (or) Java man. Later on Java man transformed into Cro-Magnon
and Cro-Magnon into modern man. The modern man is zoologically known as Homo
sapiens (Homo - Continuous, Sapiens - learning habit). In the beginning such man had been
spending his life wildly, but during the period 8700-7700 BC, they started to pet sheep and
goat, although the first pet animal was dog, which was used for hunting. The history of
agriculture and civilization go hand in hand as the food production made it possible for
primitive man to settle down in selected areas leading to formation of society and initiation of
civilization. The development of civilization and agriculture had passed through several
stages. Archeologist initially classified the stages as stone age, Bronze and Iron age.
Subsequently the scholars spilt up the stone age into Paleolithic period (old stone age),
Neolithic age (New stone age) and Mesolithic age (Middle stone age). Each of three ages,
saw distinct improvements. The man fashioned and improved tools out of stones, bones,
woods etc. to help them in day-to-day life. They started growing food crops and
domesticated animals like cow, sheep, goat, dog etc.

Paleolithic age (old stone age)
This period is characterized by the food gatherers and hunters. The stone age man started
making stone tools and crude choppers.
Mesolithic period
The transitional period between the end of the Paleolithic and beginning of the Neolithic is
called Mesolithic. It began about 10000BC and ended with the rise of agriculture. This period
is characterized by tiny stone implements called microliths. People lived as food gatherers
and hunters. The domestication of the dog was the major achievement of the Mesolithic
Neolithic Agricultural Revolution (7500 BC - 6500 BC)
Neolithic revolution brought a major change in the techniques of food production which gave
man control over his environment and saved him from the precarious existence of mere
hunting and gathering of wild berries and roots. For the first time, he lived in settled villages
and apart from security from hunger he had leisure time to think and contemplate.
The main features of Neolithic culture in India
1. Neolithic culture denotes a stage in economic and technological development in
2. Use of polished stone axes for cleaning the bushes
3. Hand made pottery for storing food grains
4. Invented textile, weaving and basketry
5. Cultivation of rice, banana sequence and yams in eastern parts of India
6. Cultivation of millets and pulses in south India
7. Discovery of silk
Chalcolithic culture (Bronze age) (3000-1700 BC):
The term Chalcolithic is applied to communities using stone implements along with copper
and bronze. In more advanced communities, the proportion of copper and bronze
implements is higher than that of stones. The chalcolithic revolution began in Mesopotamia
in the fourth millennium B.C. from this area it spread to Egypt, and Indus valley.

The significant features are
1. Invention of plough
2. Agriculture shifted from hilly area to lower river valley

3. Flood water were stored for irrigation and canals were dug
4. Irrigated farming started in this period
5. Sowing of seed by dibbling with a pointed stick
6. Salinity problem and water logging were noticed due to canal irrigation.

Beginning of Agriculture in India: Archeological and historical facts
12000 to 9500 years ago
Hunters and food-gathers stage existed.
Stone implements (microliths) were seen throughout the Indian subcontinent.
Domestication of dog occurred in Iraq.
Earliest agriculture was by vegetative propagation (e.g.,bananas, sugarcane, yam,
palms, and ginger).
9500 to 7500 years ago
Wild ancestors of wheat and barley, goat, sheep, pig, and cattle were found.
7500 to 5000years ago
Significant features were invention of plough, irrigated farming, use of wheel, and
metallurgy and in Egypt, seed dibbling.
5000to 4000years ago
Harappan culture is characterized by cultivation of wheat, barley and cotton; plough
agriculture and bullocks for drought.
Wheeled carts were commonly used in the Indus valley.

Harappans not only grew cotton but also devised methods for ginning / spinning /

4000 to 2000years ago
In North Arcot, bone / stone tools were found.
In Nevasa (Maharastra), copper and polished stone axes were used. First evidence of
the presence of silk was found at this location.
At Navdatoli on Narmada river (Nemar, Madhya Pradesh), sickles set with stone teeth
were used for cutting crop stalks. Crops grown were wheat, linseed, lentil, urd (black
gram), mung bean, and khesari.
In Eastern India, rice, bananas, and sugarcane were cultivated.

2000-1500 years ago
Tank irrigation was developed and practiced widely.
Greek and Romans had trade with South India; pepper, cloth, and sandal wood were
imported by Romans.
Chola King Karikala (190 AD) defeated Cheras and Pandyas, invaded Srilanka,
12000 men and used them as slaves to construct an embankment along the Cauvery,
160km along, to protect land from floods. He has built numerous irrigation tanks and
promoted agriculture by clearing forests.

1500-1000 years ago
The Kanauj Empire of Harshavardhana (606-647 AD)
Cereals such as wheat, rice and millets, and fruits were extensively grown. A 60-day
variety and fragrant varieties of rice are mentioned.

Ginger, mustard, melons, pumpkin, onion, and garlic are also mentioned.
Persian wheel was used in Thanesar (Haryana).
The kingdoms of South India
The kingdoms were of the Chalukyas (Badami), Rashtrakutas (Latur), Pallavas
(Kanchi), Pandyas, Hoysals (Helebid), and Kakatiyas (Warangal).
Cholas ushered in a glorious phase in South Indian in the 10th century AD.
New irrigation systems for agriculture were developed- chain tanks in Andhra in the 9th
century; and 6.4km Kaveripak bund.
Cholas maintained links with China, Myanmar, and Campodia.
The tank supervision committee (Eri-variyam) looked after the maintenance of a village
and regulated the water supply.

1000-700 years ago
Arab conquest of Sind was during 711-712 AD; Md bin Qaism defeated Dahir, the Hindu
king of Sind. Arabs were experts in gardening.
1290- 1320AD (Reign of Khiljis): Alauddin Khilji destroyed the agricultural prosperity of a
major part of India. He believed in keeping the farmers poor.

History of Agriculture:

       The earliest man, Homo erectus emerged around one and half million years ago
and by about a million years ago he spread throughout old world tropics and largely to
temperate zones. About 500 thousand years ago, he learnt to control and use fire. The
earliest man is distinguished from fellow animals by his intelligence and skill in making tools.

        Homo sapiens, the direct ancestor of modern man lived 250 thousand years ago.
Homo sapiens sapiens, the modern man, appeared in Africa about 35 thousand years ago.
He is distinguished from all other extinct species of genus Homo, by large brain, small teeth
and chin and capacity for making and using tools. He hunted a variety of animals and
cooked their meat on fire. The weapons for hunting were boulders and spears of wood
tipped with blades of flint. He also used stone-tipped arrows. Later he domesticated the dog
which greatly helped him in hunting. Apart from the meat of animals, he gathered a variety of
seeds, leaves and fruits from the jungle.

       It is estimated that most efficient hunting and gathering can hardly support one
person per square kilometer while pastoral life can support three and agriculture about a
hundred. He had no control over food supply and was unable to clothe and shelter
adequately. During the period 8700 BC to 7700 BC, he domesticated animals and turned a
herdsman. He first domesticated sheep and later goat. Between the period 7500 BC to 6500
BC, man gradually shifted from hunting and gathering to agriculture. Stone axes were used
for cutting trees and fire for burning forests. Grains of cereals were dibbled with the aid of
pointed sticks. Later on, stone-hoes with wooden handles were invented. The cereals grown
during this period were wheat and barley and later rice, maize and millets as indicated in
following table. Subsequently he domesticated cattle, pigs, horse and ass.

Period                       Events
Earlier than 10000 BC        Hunting & gathering
7500 BC                      Cultivation of crops- Wheat & Barley
3400 BC                      Wheel was invented
3000 BC                      Bronze used for making tools
2900 BC                      Plough was invented, irrigated farming started
2300 BC                      Cultivation of chickpea, cotton, mustard
2200 BC                      Cultivation of rice
1500 BC                      Cultivation of sugarcane
1400 BC                      Use of iron
1000 BC                      Use of iron plough
1500 AD                      Cultivation of orange, brinjal, pomegranate
1600 AD                      Introduction of several crops to India i.e potato, tapioca, tomato,
                             chillies,pineapple, groundnut, tobacco, rubber, american cotton

Development of scientific agriculture in World

        Experimentation technique was started (1561 to 1624) by Francis Bacon.             He
conducted an experiment and found that water is the principle requirement for plant. If
the same crop is cultivated for many times it loses its fertility.

        Jan Baptiste Van Helmont (1572 – 1644) was actually responsible for conducting a
pot experiment. The experiment is called as „willow tree experiment‟. He took a willow
tree of weight 5 pounds. He planted in a pot and the pot contained 200 pounds of soil and
continuously monitored for five years by only watering the plant. By the end of 5th year the
willow tree was weighing 16 q pounds. The weight of soil is 198 pounds. He concluded that
water is the sole requirement for plants. The conclusion was erroneous.

        In the 18th century, Arthur Young (1741 – 1820) conducted pot culture experiments
to increase the yield of crops by applying several materials like poultry dung, nitre,
gunpowder etc. He published his work in 46 volumes as „Annals of Agriculture‟.

        In the beginning of 19th century, a scientist Jean Senebier (1742 – 1809). He is a
Swiss naturalist, a historian. He gave explanation that increase in the weight of plant was
due to the consumption of air. From his report another scientist Theodar de-Saussure gave
reasons for increase in weight. The principle theme of photosynthesis was given by him.

        Justus Van Liebig (1840) a German scientist proposed a law „Liebig law of
minimum‟, according to which the growth of plants is limited by the plant nutrient present in
smaller quantity, all other being in adequate amount. It is also known as barrel concept. A
barrel with staves of different length cannot contain anything above the height of the shortest
stave.     In like manner, growth can be no greater than allowed by the factor lowest in
availability. He is considered as the father of agricultural chemistry.

G.R.Glanber (1604-1668 A.D)         Salt peter(KNO3) as nutrient and not water
Jethro tull (1674-1741 A.D)         Fine soil particle as plant nutrient
Priestly (1730-1799 A.D)            Discovered the oxygen
Francis Home (1775 A.D)             Water, air, salts, fire and oil form the plant nutrients
Thomas Jefferson (1793 AD)          Developed mould board plough
Theodore de-Saussure                Found that plants absorb CO2 from air & release O2; soil
                                    supply N2

Advance in Agriculture in 19th Century

          In pre-scientific agriculture, six persons could produce enough food for
themselves and for four other. In years of bad harvest, they could produce only enough for
themselves. With the development of agricultural science application of advance technology,
five persons are able to produce enough food for 95 others.

          Early knowledge of agriculture was a collection of experiences transmitted from
farmer to farmer verbally.

          Experiments pertaining to plant nutrition in a systematic way were initiated by Van
Helmont (1572 - 1644 A.D.). He concluded that the "main principle of vegetation" is

          Jethro Tull (1674 - 1741 A.D.) conducted several experiments and published a
book, "Horse Hoeing Husbandry". His experiments were mostly on cultural practices and
they led to the development of seed drill and horse-drawn cultivator.

          Soil science began with the formulation of the theory of humus in 1809. Field
experiments were started in Rothamsted Experiment Station, England in 1834 and soon
after in other places in Europe.

          Subsequently much development took place. In U.S. land grant colleges was started
in 19 century. Its objective was to meet the expenditure of the college from the land around
the colleges.

          USDA:- United State Department of Agriculture is responsible for the introduction
of herbicides 2,4-D and combine tractor. Under land grant college – teaching, research,
extension. Many international research institutes where started for a specific crop.
       Michigan State University was established in the year 1857 to provide agricultural
education at College level.

       Gregor Mendal (1866) discovered the laws of hereditary

       Charles Darwin (1876) published the results of experiments on cross and self
fertilization in plants.

    Thomas Malthus (1898) proposed Malthusian theory – states that humans would
     run-out of food for everyone in spite of rapid advance in agriculture due to limited land
     and yield potential of crops (i. e. food may not be sufficient in future for the growing
     population at this current rate of growth in agriculture).
    Blackman (1905) proposed theory of “Optima and limiting factors” states that when
     a process is conditioned as to it’s rapidity by a number of separate factors , the rate of
     the process is limited by the pace of the slowest factor”
    Mitscherlich (1909) proposed the "Law of diminishing returns" that increase in
     growth with each successive addition of the limiting element is progressively smaller
     and the response is curvilinear.
    Wilcox (1929) proposed “Inverse yield- nitrogen law”. It states that the power of
     growth or the yielding ability of any crop plant is inversely proportional to the mean
     nitrogen content in the dry matter.
    Macy (1936) proposed the theory of "Macy- Poverty Adjustment". It states that a
     relationship exist between sufficiency of a nutrient and its percentage content in plant.
     According to him there is a critical percentage of each nutrient in each kind of plant.
     Above that point, there is luxury consumption and below that point there is poverty
     adjustment. This poverty adjustment is proportional to the deficiency until a minimum
     percentage is reached.
Development of Scientific Agriculture in India

     The progress of scientific development in India was poor as compared to western
countries. In India, since in old time there was no change in methods of cultivation because
change in Government were taking place frequently and none of the Government took active
part in development of agriculture. Scientific agriculture began in India when sugarcane,
cotton and tobacco were grown for export purposes.
1870: A joint department of agriculture, revenue and commerce was established.

1880: Separate department of agriculture was started on the recommendation of             the
       Famine Commission with the object of increasing food production for local people
       and industrial raw materials for export.

1864-1900: India faced many famines. Hence famine commission was appointed and
       on the report of this commission Government of India took many steps for
       improvement of famine conditions.

1905: Imperial Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) was started at Pusa in Bihar after
       the earthquake in Bihar in 1934; it was shifted to New Delhi in 1936. It is popularly
       known as the “PUSA INSTITUTE” and also as IARI. Now it is Indian Agricultural
       Research Institute. It's main functions are (i) Basic and applied research in the
       major branches of agricultural sciences and (ii ) To impart post graduate education at
       the M. Sc. and Ph. D. levels. It has been accorded the status of Deemed University
       under the UGC Act of 1956.

1905: Agricultural Department established in each state of Government. Five colleges of
       Agriculture opened at following places. Coimbatore( Tamil nadu ), Nagpur ,Poona, (
       Maharashtra ),Kanpur( Uttar pradesh ) and Sabour (Bihar).

1912: Sugarcane Research Station (Breeding) was established at Coimbatore.

1923-24: Indian Central Cotton Committee came in to existence which started Institute of
       plant industries at Indore and Technological Laboratory at Matunga (Bombay).

1928: Royal Commission was appointed who's vice Roy was Lord Irwin and Chairman was
       Lord Linlithgo. This commission took survey of Indian agriculture and village
       economics problems and prepared a report and gave their recommendations to the
       Government. The Government of India established Indian Council of Agricultural
       Research at New Delhi (ICAR), to coordinate the work of agricultural research in
       this country.

Real development in Indian Agriculture took place after 1947 when India got independence,
       with the execution of FIVE YEAR PLAN in 1951.
ICAR had also started research institutes of its own in different centers in India for various

AICRIP All India Coordinated Rice Improvement Projects
ICAR is the sole body which controls all the Agricultural Research Institutes in India. It
       paved way for green revolution in India. After 1947, ICAR totally adapted to Land
       Grant Colleges.

1960: Agricultural University was started at Pantnagar (UP) on Land Grant pattern. It is the
       first university with 16,000 acres of land.

1965-67: Green revolution in India due to introduction of HYV –Wheat, rice, use of fertilizers,
       construction of Dams and use of pesticides. Green revolution took in wheat first, next
       in rice after the invention of Indo-Japanica variety.

1972: Gujarat Agricultural University was established at Sardarkrushinagar

2004: Gujarat Agricultural University divided into four agricultural universities at Navsari,
       Anand, Junagadh and Sardarkrushinagar
5. Plant production and protection through indigenous traditional
Traditional tillage and cultivation
Agricultural Technology
       Agricultural operations involving crop production comprised (i) soil preparation
inclusive of tillage and fertilization, (ii) cropping system, (iii) harvesting and crop processing
and (iv) preservation. All these technological aspects in Indian crop-husbandry are mainly
available to us from the Vedic chalcolithic period. Prior to this period agricultural implements
excavated from different sites envisage the processes of tilling. Likewise, in these records are
found the methods of preserving grains and irrigation of cultivated fields. An account of these
different processes excepting fertilization, reported separately, in different periods of history,
is summed up below:

Tillage: Tillage consisted of only digging of moist riverine mud by using digging stick.
Tillage: Hoeing for preparing field for cultivation is noticed in late neolithic period in Assam
and Bengal.
Cropping System: Terraced cultivation practised mainly in different sites of Southern India.
Crop Processing: The use of saddle quem for grinding of corn.
Chalcolithic Period
1. Pre-Harappan Chalcolithic
Tillage: Tilling by plough is believed to exist as evident from grid-patterned furrow-lines.
Cropping System: Twin crop (mustard and horse-gram) system is presumed from the
diagonal and horizontal furrow lines on the above grid pattern.
2. Harappa Chalcolithic
Soil-Preparation: Tillage: Two types of tilling, (a) by ploughing for making a necessary depth
in the field and (b) harrowing for stirring the soil at comparatively shalllow depth.
Preservation of Grains: The granaries in all the sites of Indus civilization are characterized,
by their well-built body of baked brick, having arrangement to keep the granaries in
comparunents built over platforms, well-ventilated to prevent sweating and mildew and vivid
provision of loading facilities from outside.
3. Mid-Chalcolithic
Soil Preparation: Tillage, Hoeing of fields was also practised in this period. Preservation of
Grains: Granaries from Chalcolithic Inamgaon are characterized by pit-soil and round mud
platforms for storage bins.
4. Vedic Chalcolithic and Iron Age
       Most of the technological aspects relating to ancient Indian crop husbandry are
available to us from the Vedic chalcolithic period.
Tillage: Ploughing was generally performed with the help of oxen in teams of six, eight or
eleven. In case of small field in mountainous region, it was done with the help of one sheep.
(i) Furrow-marks were made in grid pattern: Twelve lines made by plough drawn by twelve
oxen were arranged in such a way that three lines arranged vertically, three running over
them horizontally and the other six made criss-cross.
Cropping System: (i) Sowing of seeds of different kinds in grid-patterned furrows. (ii)
Rotation of crops. Harvesting and Crop-Processing including Preservation: Reaping,
threshing and storing are the post-cultivating processes found mentioned in the different texts
of the Vedic literature.

       The period is characterized by the practices of Jum cultivation, in Aryavarta in its
early part and of Kumari cultivation in its later part (c. 11th century A.D.) in South India. The
other notable features of this period lie in some new innovations for the cultivation of rice.
These include:
(i) Sowing of seeds in beds and transplantation of seedlings in water enclosures, the mention
of which is found to occur in the account of Aristobalus (c. 320 B.C.). This process of rice
cultivation is also reported in different sources of subsequent periods (the varieties of paddy
is known as sali).
(ii) In another process the seeds are found to have been sown in a field of higher level and
then transplanted in plains of comparatively low surface, where grasses were grown (the
variety of paddy is known as ropyatiropya). Tillage of field, hoeing and the post-cultivation
processes are identical with those of previous period though in a more detailed way.
Preservation of Grains
(i) Storing of grains was performed in receptacles made of straws and leaves with the inside
floor space coated with cowdung. The receptacle was sealed with cowdung and kept in
suitable place, screening with a screen of straw and bamboo.
(ii) Storing of grain in granary, made of earth, of straw and bamboo, standing on pillars, the
upper storey of the house covered with lid coated with cow-dung, coated with mud all over,
closed, and sealed with earthen rods.
(iii) In the later part of this period, storage of grains in well-built granary provided with all
necessary amenities for the protection of grains has been described in Viswakarma's vastu-
Agricultural implements
          All the agricultural operations were carried out by implements suited to them. The
artefacts and innovations were moulded according to the nature of soil, dimension of
cultivable field and above all techniques involved in particular operation. Vedic implements
show four types of implements. These are:
Forest-clearance tools: Axe (svadhiti, parasƒu) and axe type tools are mentioned as tool for
cutting wood in the R.gveda.
Soil-treatment:67 The R.gveda refers to mower (da–ta–) for grass-cutting which might be
taken as pre-tilling performance of the soil. The Taittiri–ya Sam. hita–brought into notice the
use of roller for making field even for tilling.
Tillage implements: The plough68 described in the R.gveda is characterized as traction
plough.69 The Vedic plough is distinguished by:
a) two types: la–n . gala (small plough) and si–ra (heavy plough).
b) four parts: plough i.e. indicating the rod (la–n . gala, si–ra), the rope (varatra), share
(pha–la), and yoke (yuga). The latter is however absent in some descriptions of plough which
indicates a particular type in which the plough itself is fastened to the animal body instead of
being tied to the yoke. The Yajurveda describes plough as lance-pointed, well-lying and
furnished witha handle (tsru).
(c) Animal power dragging the plough: Oxen, sheep and camel were harnessed for dragging
the plough. Number of animals varied according to the dimension of plough. Six, twelve,
twenty-four formed different animal strength in the dragging of plough. Mention is also made
of dragging of plough by one and by two sheeps.
Harvesting tool: Three types of corn-cutting tools are found to occur in the R.gveda. These
include: da–tra (a sort of sickle in the shape of crooked knife), sƒr.n.i– (sickle) and jeta–
(reaping hook).
Corn-cleaning equipments: The sieve and winnowing fan mentioned in the R.gveda, were
probably used for this purpose.
Transport for carrying agricultural products: Two types of carriers, viz ana–sa (carts)
and sƒakat.a (wagon) were for commercial types. The former was two-wheeled, made of
woods of Acacia and Dalbergia with bamboo poles and wheels rimmed with metal tyre
(pavi). The latter was also wooden body and especially meant for carrying agricultural
products from the field. The chariots, in addition to those two were used for carrying
agricultural products from the field. Animals employed for drawing these carriers were ox,
stallion, ram and dog.

Traditional Weed Control
Weed control and moisture conservation
      In hilly areas, crops like upland spring or jethi rice, finger millet, black soybean, horse
gram, etc. are raised on conserved moisture. After monsoon rains the crop seedlings emerge
very fast; however, a number of weeds also emerge in the field, which affect the growth and
yield of the crop. To overcome the problem, instead of manual weeding or use of chemicals,
farmers plow the field in July–August with an implement called danala. It breaks the soil
crust favoring moisture conservation and uprooting of many weeds.

Weed control in transplanted rice
       Dry leaves of pine (Pinus kesiya) are spread in mid June in the field where rice has to
be transplanted. The pine leaves are burnt before transplanting, i.e., in the first week of July.
This practice controls the germinating or prevailing weeds inthe field.
Use of common salt for weed control
       Age old practice of use of common salt for weed control under acidic conditions of
jhum paddy in north east India is not only effective in minimization of weed competition
with cultivated crop (paddy) but also results in comparatively high paddy productivity
without having any negative effect on growth, yield attributes of paddy. The practice of use
of salt for weed management is also cost effective compare to other popular practice of weed
management like hand weeding. The osmotic adjustment in paddy is an important
physiological adaptation, which might be the reason for selectivity of paddy plant to NaCl.
For osmotic adjustment, plants use inorganic ions such as Na and K and/or synthesize
organic compatible solutes such as proline, betaine, polyols, and soluble sugars. Besides the
target weed A. conyzoides,         several other common Asteraceae            weeds including
Crassocephalum crepidioides Benth are also controlled by application of NaCl in shifting
cultivation areas.
Traditional pest and disease management
Indigenous disease and pest management practices in traditional farming system
      In recent years there is a resurgence of interest in reviving the age old farming system
through scientific approach which is known by modern man as organic farming, because of
hazardous effect of excessive chemicals in agricultural system, environment and human
health. Irrespective of ethnic groups practicing jhum, interesting features of the system is that
it has inbuilt pest and disease management mechanisms as reflected in their cultural practices
such as mixed /multiple cropping , zero tillage , clean cultivation, slash and burning , green
manuring, sequential cropping and harvesting, fallowing, flooding etc. Use of plants and
animal parts and products are the important components of indigenous knowledge in the
management of pest and diseases of crops in jhum system.

Traditional Pest Management

White grub :White grub constitutes a major pest of field crops in Western Himalayas.
Setting fire in the field after harvesting of wheat crop, hill farmers burn the plot. For burning,
they collect pine leaves from the forest and distribute those evenly in the field to dry. If they
are already dried, they are put to fire to destroy the hibernating stage of white grubs.
Scientists did not consider it a good practice because micro-organisms are also burnt and
Use of table salt: For controlling white grub, common salt is broadcasted at the rate of 1
kg/Nali. Naliis an area measurement used in hills. One Nali is equal to one by 20 acre. They
finely grind salt stone and mix it with chullahash to make it bulky. This mixture is
broadcasted in the field after first ploughing which is done after wheat harvest. Broadcasting
is generally done in the morning hours. Just after broadcasting, wherever possible, land is
preferred to be irrigated.
Summer ploughing: The practice of deep ploughing after paddy harvest and leaving land
fallow for 10-15 days was found prevalent in the villages. In the month of May–June, farmers
plough land with the help of indigenous plough. Depth of ploughing is kept around 30 cm.
After deep ploughing, land is left fallow so that sunlight can reach at the deepest layer
possible. Plant protection scientists considered it a rational practice as a majority of damaging
insect pests pathogens harbour in soil.
Ash on standing crop Ash is predominantly used by farmers in the area for protecting plants.
In hilly areas, wood obtained from forest has been major fuel. Ash dust is a product after the
burning of fuel wood. The kitchen ash, thus obtained is mixed with the farmyard manure or in
pure form applied in the fields and onto plants. It is very effective for insects having chewing
and biting mouth parts. When insects come to feed on ash broadcasted plants, ash sticks to
their mouth parts and damages them because of which later insects are dead.
Mechanical control Mahu (aphid) infested plants of mustard, cauliflower and cabbage
(Brassica sp) are uprooted and buried in the soil to check the spread of insect. For reducing
the alternate hosts of pests/pathogens and also breeding spaces for rat cleanliness is
maintained around field and bunds are trimmed specially during summers. For avoiding
greening of potato tubers, earthen up is done up to one feet height at second weeding. It
checks the exposure of tubers to sunlight.
Cow urine and cow dung Farmers in the study area use cow urine and dung for spraying on
diseased plants by making their solution with water as a pesticide. Whenever plants in
kitchen garden show wilting symptoms, farmers spray cow urine on them. Some farmers use
cowdung solution for controlling onion blight.
Trap crops Madiraor Barnyard millet (Echinochloa sp) and Konri millet crops are preferred
to be sown on the margin of plot instead of middle. Farmers think they attract certain pests
when sown on the margin of plot and main crop of paddy is protected. But scientists are
undecided about its rationality, they say it provides a fall back option to farmers if paddy
fails. It is also reported that for harnessing the benefit of intercropping, some farmers grow a
few plants of mustard and thus, leave the ragi alone. In addition to this, intercropping of
mustard acts as a fall option for farmers if ragi fails.
Control of diseases in vegetable crops
About 4–8 kg of widely available bicchu booti (Urtica dioica) is soaked in 8–10 L cow urine
for 24 hours. The herb is then taken out and the solution is sprayed on vegetable crops. The
solution is used as an organic fungicide against many fungal diseases of vegetables mainly
tomato, capsicum, onion, radish, cucurbits, etc. Some common diseases that are controlled by
this practice are anthracnose in capsicum, late blight and fruit rot in tomato, and alternaria
blight in cucurbits. The following precaution should be taken while cutting the herb: one
should not touch the grass as it causes painful itching for 2–4 hours.

Grain preservation

 Traditional storage practices
    A detailed description of the indigenous technologies being followed by farmers in dry
 tracts of Tamil Nadu for storing grains and seeds were collected and presented below:

 Red gram storage with common salt

   Farmers with their indigenous knowledge used common salt in red gram (Cajanus cajan)
 grains storage. In this practice, about 200 gm of salt was mixed for a kg of red gram grains
 manually. Due to this practice, insects were kept away from the stored grains.
 Ash seed treatment in sorghum

   Ash was mixed with the sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) seeds at the ratio of 1:4. After the
 ash treatment, sorghum seeds were tied airtight in the jute gunny bags. Farmers strongly
 believed that ash application controlled losses considerably    up to an extent of 80%.
Farmers using this technology stored the sorghum grains for 6 months without any storage
pest problems.

Ragi storage with neem and thumbai leaves

The strong odour of these leaves keep the storage pests like lesser grain borers
(Rhyzopertha dominica), saw toothed beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamemsis) and flat grain
beetle (Cryptolestes minutus) away. Neem leaves and thumbai being organic repellants
were also safe to use.

Paddy storage

       Farmers constructed the granary rooms with perfect plan during the construction of
house itself. The platform of this granary room was made of wooden boards while its sides
had brick and cement walls. It has an opening or a net protected door like structure for
ventilation. The grains to be stored were spread in the wooden platform and an earthen
pot ¾ of its volume filled with water was kept inside the granary rooms. This would attract
and kill the rice moth. Since, this structure was at 243.84 cm height from the ground,
rodents and other pest damages were found to be comparatively less and also the grains
were found moisture free.

Storage of grains using camphor

       In this practice, about 1gm of camphor piece per 5 kg of grains was placed as such
in the jute gunny bags. This practice of placing camphor inside the grain storage bag
repelled the storage pests due to the strong odour emanated from camphor. A short-term
storage of grains up to 3 months was possible with this traditional storage method.

Storage of seeds with lime

        Farmers traditionally followed a practice of storing pulse grains along with lime
powder. In this practice, farmers dusted about 10 gm of lime per kg of grains. After
thorough mixing they stored them in jute gunny bags. The lime had a property of emitting
irritating odour that repelled insects and prevented the grains from damage. By this way,
grains could be stored for even one year.

Gingelly seeds storage
   In gingelly seeds storage, mixing a handful of (nearly 100gm) paddy (Oryza sativa) in
storage container significantly reduced the infestation of Indian meal moth (Plodia
interpunctella) and prevented the damage of seeds for the next three month storage period.
This was possible because the larvae of Indian meal moth had a habit of webbing the
gingelly seeds with its secretion. Hence, these pests avoid the feeding of gingelly seeds
stored along with paddy.

Neem oil in seed storage

     For 1 kg of pulses seed 20 ml of neem oil was used. Manually farmers applied the
neem oil over the seeds to coat the seeds uniformly. Neem oil acted as repellent against
 several insects such as weevils, red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum), Long headed flour
 beetle (Latheticus oryzae) and fig moth (Ephestia cautella), etc. Some farmers used neem
 oil mixed with coconut oil/castor oil (1:1) for treating the seed materials against the storage

 Storage of vegetable seeds with cow dung

        After proper drying, the seeds were stored in cow dung. Farmers collected fresh cow
 dung and made plate like round shaped structures by tapping it with hand locally called
 varati. Vegetable seeds were then embedded in the cow dung and then dried under sun for
 2-3 days. After drying, the seeds get sticked on to the Varati. These Varaties were then stored
 in open / inside wooden boxes. The farmers stored the vegetable seeds by this method even
 up to one year. Farmers believed that cow dung has pesticidal property, which would keep
 the seeds away from storage pests. Also believed that cow dung’s immunostimulant
 properties increased the germination (90%) and viability of the seeds considerably. Fresh
 cow dung has to be used for effective storage.

 Pungam leaves in paddy storage

   These leaves acted as a repellent against Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella)
 and rice weevils (Sitophilus oryzae). The strong odour released from pumgam leaves
 avoided the pest attack. Some farmers placed these pungam leaves directly in the gunny
 bags and stored the grains.
 Paddy husk in managing storage pests

   Farmers stored the paddy grains in earthen pods and placed paddy husk in top layer
 (5cm) above it. Farmers had found that storage pests unpreferred these earthen pots stored
 with paddy husk.

 Oil storage practices

Farmwomen practiced an indigenous method of storing groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) oil by
placing tamarind (Tamarindus indicus) in the oil storage container. In this practice, for
storing 5 L of groundnut oil, about ¼ kg of tamarind was placed inside the oil container.
The mouth of the container/vessel was then tightly closed with cotton cloth. Some farmers
also sealed the small opening in the oil container with the help of tamarind. use of
coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds and salt in oil storage. In this practice, for a litre of
oil, farmers placed 100 gm of coriander seeds and a spoon of salt inside the oil stored tin
container. The oil was exposed to sun for few hrs and kept closed in airtight condition.
Coriander seeds produced pleasant odour in the oil, whereas salt was believed to reduce
rancidity and spoilage of oil.
Table 1: Indigenous traditional pest and disease management techniques of different

S   Name of            Details of ITK                                          Rationale
N   indigenous
1   Management          (i) Collection of healthy seeds before general         Rationale:        Unsuitable
    of seed health     harvest                                                 environment is created to
    free from pest     (ii) hanging over fire furnace/ kitchen for constant    inhibit the growth and
    and diseases       smoking                                                 proliferation of pest and
    in       jhum,     (iii) mixing with ashes of fire wood                    other       microorganisms.
    terrace,           (iv)smoking well dried healthy seeds with edible        Aromatic plants act as
    sedentary and      and non- edible oils                                    repellent or fumigant e .g;
    home garden        (v) Mixing with neem seed powder etc and storing        Leguminous              seeds
    traditional        the same in a seed bin.                                 ,vegetable seeds, maize etc.
    farming            (vi) using aromatic plants such as citronella grass,
    system.            lemon grass, peels of pomelo etc against maize
                       weevil by mixing /placing these plants over maize
                       grains granary.
2   Methods       of   Seeds of maize and leguminous crops are often kept      Rationale: Open air mixed
    keeping seeds      intact along with their outer husk and hang over the    with smoke seemed to
    free from pest     kitchen/ furnace. Here, maize cobs are tied up in       inhibit the pest and
    and diseases       bunches of 10 - 12 cobs by folding their next to        pathogen as well as the
    for use in         outermost husk and hang over the wooden beams of        entry of this pest take time
    traditional        kitchen and sometimes roof beam in the periphery        through hard husk of maize
    farming            of the house.                                           and beans.
3   Storage            Specially prepared bamboo granaries plastered with      Rationale: Well plastering
    method        of   mixture of fresh cowdung and mustard oil cakes are      of bamboo crevices inhibits
    paddy         in   in use for storing paddy on the top of which            the entry of pest and
    traditional        branches      with     leaves     of     Zanthoxylum    pathogen. It may also be
    granary      for   acanthopodium are placed to keep away pest              possible that oil cakes
    keeping away       mostly white butterflies -a common pest-of the          emits unfavourable odour
    pest        and    stored paddy grains. Paddy granaries are either         to pest and diseases.
    pathogens.         placed near the kitchen or vicinity to kitchen in a
                       separate       house.      Further,      Zanthoxylum
                       acanthopodium-a plant of carminative properties
                       emits unpleasant smell that inhibits the white flies.
4   Foliar             Following traditional methods are used for              Rationale: Thin film of ash
    application of     the management of pest and diseases of                  coat with dew inhibits the
    plant      and     crops:                                                  attack     of     pest   and
    animal             (i) foliar application of wood ashes in the wee         pathogens. Ash also acts as
    products for       hours of the day keeps away aphids pod borers and       a nutrient when it gets
    the                diseases from plants (mostly vegetables)                washed due to rain.
    management         (ii) Dusting finely ground tobacco leaves               Tobacco leaves and hookah
    of pest and        keep the aphid pest and diseases away from plants.      water     which      contains
    diseases.          (iii)Hookah water is very much effective for            nicotine      prevents    the
                       controlling pest and diseases of major and minor        foliages from pest and
                       crops such as blast of rice, pod borers, sucking bugs   pathogens.
                       of vegetables etc.
                      (iv) Dusting with saw dust is also sometimes used
                      but their effect is not encouraging.
                      (v) Fish and meat wash water application is also a
                      mild deterrent in keeping away of pest due to
                      unpleasant environment for the proliferation of pest
                      and pathogens.
5   Management        Pest and diseases of paddy are controlled/managed          Rationale: Leaves of these
    of      fungal    using the following traditional methods:                   medicinal     plants      on
    diseases and      (i) By spreading leaves of Artemisia vulgaris,             decomposition        release
    insect pest of    Croton caudatus, Munromia wallichi, Adhatoda               substances      /molecules
    upland paddy.     vessica etc.                                               which inhibit the pest and
                      (ii) By erecting or pegging branches of                    pathogen of paddy in jhum
                      Cymbopogon Khasianum, Saccharum spantaneum                 land
                      which inhibits stem borer of paddy.
6   Management        Pest and diseases are also managed by                      Rationale:      Unpleasant
    of     diseases   (i) Pomace (wine residue ) Here, well fermented            odour of pomace may be
    and pest of       wine pomace usually made up of millets are placed          the      reason    behind
    rice through      at the source of irrigation canal of terrace rice fields   inhibiting    the   fungal
    plant products    which slowly spread over the rice field and inhibits       disease and leaf folder in
                      the growth of pests such as leaf folder and blast of       particular.
                      rice .
                      (ii) Oak tree bark are also grounded and placed
                      over the source of irrigation canal which inhibits
                      the insect pests of rice such as brown plant hoppers.
7   Management        Traditional farmers use paddy husk before five      Rationale: After draining
    of blast and      months to contain the blast of rice at 0.3 to 0.5   of water, chara get settled
    chara problem                                                         on the ground which when
                      ton/h for effective control of blast disease of rice.
    in terrace as     Paddy husk also makes clay/ loamy soil porous for   paddy husk is applied
    well as in                                                            suppress the chara and get
                      better aeration of plants /tillers. Chara, a green alga
    settled   wet     infested field water is drained off first and paddy decomposed           which
    land paddy.       husk were applied to get rid of chara problem in thebecomes nutrients of the
                      field .This method is also effective for controllingplant on irrigation of field
                      blast of paddy.                                     again. Chara do not have
                                                                          the chance to come up and
                                                                          suck the nutrient meant for
                                                                          paddy again
9 Control      of Nematodes of turmeric, tomato, chillies and             Rationale: The sharp smell
   nematodes in   ginger are controlled by either intercropping           of trap crops may be the
   ginger         with Chrysanthemum coronarium, Tagetes                  reason in the inhibition of
   chillies,      erecta, or growing Tagetes erecta as border crops. nematodes.
   tomato and     This is a very effective method and often farmers
   turmeric    by incorporate leaves of these trap crops into the soil
   intercropping to enhance effectiveness and nutrients enrichment
   Chrysanthemu of crops.
10 Cultural       The pest and diseases of paddy (major crop )and vegetables
   practices   in (i) Burning of slashed debries which kills the resident pests and pathogens from
   the            the system because many plants and grasses serves as the alternate host of crops
                  .This clean cultivation practices enable farmers to harvest crops less infected by
   of crops on
   jhum system    pest and pathogen.
                  (ii) Zero tillage practices (often seeds are sown by dibbling methods) enables the
                  natural growth of nodulated frankia found in socially valued alder trees and
                  undisturbed mycorrhizal root of slashed plants that promotes the healthy growth
                  of crop plants.
                  (iii) Mulching through the removal of unwanted weeds soon after the
                  establishment of paddy .The decomposed mulch may inhibit the pathogen
                  propagules and also provide nutrients to crop plants. It also protects the soil from
                  erosion in jhum slopes. Thus, mulching has multipurpose use in jhum system.

                  (iv) Mixed cultivation of rice with sparsely grown maize, legume crops, job’s tear
                  (Coix lacryma jobi. L), shorghum and ground vegetables, protects the diseases
                  and pest of rice probably due to the physical barriers of intercrops in the
                  movement of air borne propagules, augmenting microclimate and humidity etc
                  Maize and sorghum not only provide food but also acts as perch for birds to feed
                  on insects and pest of paddy in jhum field. Further, maize plants also serve to
                  locate the burrows of rodents that destroypaddy crops.
Cultural          Farmers often plough their field repeatedly soon after harvest for exposing soil
practices for
                  inhabiting insect pests, arthopods, nematode etc. to harsh weather and to facilitate
insect,    pest
control in wet    natural predators . Insects such as grasshopper, crickets and borers lay their eggs
valley     land
                  in the upper layer of soil in paddy fields eventually exposed during the course of
paddy and
sedentary dry     repeated operation and their eggs either desiccate or preyed by the Egrets and
                  their natural predators. This indigenous repeated ploughing technique for getting
farming           rid of soil borne insects which damage paddy crops is very effective in wet land
system.           system and dry sedentary farming system.
Control      of   Rodents cause heavy loss to paddy in jhum fields.      Rationale: The suffocating
rodents      by   To control this menace burrows of rats are stuffed     pungent smokes
smokes            with smoke by burning paddy husk and land race         promptly       affect    the
through           dry chillies variety. Complete control over rodents    respiration systems of rats
burning           depends on the number of burrows plugged by            and killed.
of paddy husk     smokes
and dry
Traditional       Traditional technologies such as bamboo drip method of irrigation of terrace rice
ecotechnologi     which makes rice crops free from contaminated water borne diseases as seen in
es for the        Arunachal Pradesh, bench terracing in higher elevation for soil conservation vis-
                  à-vis nutrient loss to avoid diseases of crops due to nutrient deficiencies, well
of disease in
traditional       adapted techniques of growing potato in the higher elevation compared to paddy
land        use   at lower elevation to match the soil fertility gradient, emphasis of farmers to grow
system            tuberous crops in shorter jhum cycles as compared to cereals under longer jhum
                  cycles are some of the need based techniques adopted by traditional farmers to
                  avoid nutrient deficiency diseases in crops under traditional land use system in
                  north east.
       Table 2: Important botanicals and botanical preparations in pest and disease
      SN     Name of Plant         Pest or                               Remarks
                                controlled in
      1    Dried peels of Rice: Storage Controls insect pest in rice. Peeled rind are placed
           mandarin            pest            sporadically in the field after transplanting for management
                                               of stem borer in rice
      2    Hatibar             Vegetables:     The fermented mixture of Agave sissalana. Piper nigrum,
           (Agave sissalana) ants              Vernonia amygdalina and Nicotiana tabaccum is used in
                                               Kenya for management of termites in field.
      3    Datura              Ants            The plant extract is mixed with cow urine before drenching
                                               the soil
      4    Neem                Storage pest The disagreeable odour as well as insecticidal properties of
                               of paddy        the leaves keeps away stored grain pesta including weevil
                                               and grain moth
      5    Tobacco             Management      It acts as a repellent
                               of leech
      6    Turmeric            Management      The required quantity of turmeric powder is mixed with
                               of ant          water and drenched at the base of the ant infested plant
      7    Fermented plant Tomato and It has anti feedant and repellent effect against insect pest
           extracts mixture chilli: aphids
           of       titeypati, and white flies
           banmara        and
           Lantana camara

Table 3: Traditional methods of seed treatment and storage used by farmers
 Crop       Method of seed treatment and storage         Scientific interpretation
 Paddy       Seeds stored in salt water (1:10), stirred, and   Adding salt to water increases its density
             kept aside (generally for 2 kg of seed, 1 kg of   and helps in separation of light and chaffy
             salt and 10 L of water is effective). After an    seeds. This also helps in increasing
             hour, light and chaffy seeds which were           germination
             floating were removed and hard seeds that
             settled down were dried in shade.

             Seeds were soaked in water overnight, dried       Keeping seeds along with sheep manure in
             in shade, and placed in a pit containing tree     an airtight container creates heating inside
             saw dust and sheep manure. The pit was            the pit which is required for initiation of
             made airtight. Seeds were removed after two       germination. Chemical reactions inside the
             days, dried, and used for sowing.                 seed prefer warm conditions to start
             A small bag containing seeds (approximately       Whoever enters the house will step on the
             10–15 kg) was placed at the entrance of the       bag. This repeated stepping on the bag
             house instead of a door mat. This can be          disturbs insects which are trying to establish
             stored for 1 to 2 years.                          and feed on the seed.
             Seed bags of 10 kg were dissolved in 1:10         The salt treatment of seed helps in breaking
             solution of salt and water. The seeds were        dormancy and tolerating drought stress.
             dried and used for sowing within 72 hours.
 Sorghum     Seeds were treated with dried cow dung Cow urine contains 2.5% urea which is
             powder and cow urine before sowing. For known to break dormancy and improve
             one kg of seed approximately 100 g cow germinat. Cow dung powder protects the
          dung powder and 250 ml cow urine were seed from humidity and hence improves
          used for better germination. Cow dung longevity of seed. Cow dung was used with
          powder was also used for storage of seeds.        ghee and honey in ancient times for treating
                                                            seeds as documented by Kautilya in
          Seeds were treated with lime water. One kg Lime or calcium hydroxide is known to
          of lime was dissolved in 10 L of water and protect seed against seedborne diseases such
          kept for 10 days. The superfi cial water was as smut and bunt.
          collected and seeds were soaked in it
          overnight. The seeds were dried in shade and
          used for sowing.
          Good ear heads were selected and kept open The neem leaves protect seed from seed
          in fog in rabi (postrainy) season and kept borer and beetles (Karthikeyan et al., 2009).
          inside a pot containing neem leaves.              The exposure to fog may result in breaking
                                                            of dormancy and bring drought tolerance
                                                            (Shigihara et al., 2008).
          Good ear heads were harvested along with Seed along with awns create hindrance for
          awns and kept in the center of dried paddy insect activity and thereby protect seed from
          grass heap (called banave).                       insect damage. The selection of good ear
                                                            heads and drying of seeds is an ancient
                                                            practice to ensure seed longevity.
Pigeonpea Seeds were kept along with horse gram seed The dust of horse gram is known to absorb
          and plant dust in an airtight container. Dust excess moisture in the seeds and helps in
          and seeds are separated before sowing.            storage for longer duration.
          Seeds were coated with fine red soil of the The fine red soil smeared on seed creates a
          village pond or hill, dried in shade, and hard surface which is impermeable and
          stored. For 10 kg of seed, 1 kg of soil is used. protects seed against attack of storage pests.
                                                            It also resists moisture permeability.
          Seeds were treated with pongamia leaf Strong odor of pongamia leaves repels
          extract and dried before sowing.                  storage insects
          Seeds were kept in a gunny bag along with The chili powder contains capsacin which is
          Guntur chili powder and neem leaf powder.         known to inhibit lipid peroxidation which in
                                                            turn slows down seed ageing. The Guntur
                                                            type is known for its high pungency. The
                                                            neem leaf powder acts as a repellent.
          Seeds were kept with powder of bitter gourd The toxic nature of drumstick and bitter
          or drumstick seed extract for 3–6 months.         gourd seeds not only repels insects but also
                                                            protects from pathogens associated with
Chickpea Seeds were stored along with mint leaves           Strong odor of sweet flag repels storage
           (pudina) or sweet flag (baje) root powder.       insects
          Seeds were treated with citronella leaf oil,      The strong odor of these oils repels storage
          cotton seed oil, soybean oil, or castor seed pests and microbes like Alternaria and
          oil;                                              Fusarium.
          500 ml of oil was used for 100 kg of seed.
Pigeonpea Seeds of these crops were kept along with The coarse seed surface of minor or small
and       small millets like pearl millet or foxtail millet millets absorbs moisture of seed of pulses
chickpea  or finger millet and stored in an earthen pot. and helps in better storage.
          The pot was made airtight by smearing
          cowdung. For 5 kg of seed, 1 kg of millets
          was used.
Green    Seeds were kept on a layer of ash in an         The insects inside the seed will be
         earthen pot and covered with another layer of   suffocated and die and also the seed can be
         ash. Then another pot was kept on it and cow    stored for a longer period since seeds will
         dung was smeared to make it airtight.           not absorb moisture from outside.
         Ten kg of seed was mixed with 250 g chili       Chili powder provides repellence against
         powder and 1 kg of ragi or fi nger millet fl    storage pests while flours prevent attack of
         our, and then kept in a bamboo pot along        secondary pests. The use of fl ours to
         with paddy husk.                                preserve seeds is an ancient practice as
                                                         mentioned in Varahamihira’s Brihat Jataka.
Chili    Seedlings of chili were removed from the        Cow urine helps in protecting seedlings
         nursery bed and treated with 1:3 solution of    against damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia
         cow urine and water.                            solani.
         A gunny bag was immersed in hot water and       The pre-germinated seed when sown on the
         seeds were placed in it and kept for a day.     seed bed helps to get more usable
         The seeds were then used to sow on the seed     transplants and improve vigor.
Sunf     Seeds were kept inside the dried fruits of      The fruits of sponge gourd act as protective
         sponge gourd after removing the seeds.          capsules against insect pests and protect
         These fruits were kept in an airtight           sunflower seed during storage.
Cotton   Seeds were treated with ash and cow dung        Cow dung slurry helps to remove the fiber
         slurry and dried in shade before sowing.        attached to the seed and thus facilitate
                                                         sowing. Ash along with cow dung slurry is
                                                         known to control diseases caused by
                                                         Rhizoctonia solani. Cotton and other hard
                                                         seeds were smeared with cow dung before
                                                         sowing as in Kautilya’s Arthashastra
6. Crop voyage in India and world
Description of Indian civilization and agriculture by travelers from
China, Europe and USA

       Indus valley civilization: Allchins, relying on Lambrick, who, according to them, had
personal knowledge of Sind, describe as follows how crops were grown in the riverain tract
of the Indus. "The principal food grains, that is wheat and barley, would have been grown as
spring (rabi) crops: that is to say, sown at the end of the inundation upon land which had
been submerged by spill from the river or one of its natural flood channels, and reaped in
March or April. The Greek writers highly praised the fertility of Indian soil and favourable
climate condition describing the principal agricultural products of the land. The Greek writers
also affirm that India has a double rainfall and the Indians generally gather two harvests. -
Megasthenes witnesses - the sowing of wheat in early, winter rains and of rice, 'bosporum',
sesamum and millets in the summer solstice (Diodorus, II, 36). Megasthenes adds further to
the winter crops, viz., "wheat, barley, pulse and other esculent fruits unknown to us".
       The Chinese pilgrim Hsieun Tsang who arrived at the monastic University of
Nalanda in 630 A.D. mentioned the gardening as: "The temple arose into the mists and the
shrine halls stood
high above the clouds . . . streams of blue water wound through the parks; green lotus flowers
sparkled among the blossoms of sandal trees and a mango grove spread outside the
Protection of cultivators: Sher Shah had genuine concern for the peasantry and safety of
their crops. One of the regulations made by Sher shah was this: That his victorious standards
should cause no injury to the cultivations of the people; and when he marched he personally
examined into the state of the cultivation, and stationed horsemen round it to prevent people
from trespassing on any one`s field. As regards the peasantry and their condition, there is
reliable evidence in the observations of the European travellers who travelled in India in the
seventeenth century. Evidence of the structure of the Mughal gardens and plants grown in
them is in the Persian classics illustrated during the reign of Akbar. Among them is Diwan-i-
Anwari, a collection of poems by the Persian poet Anwari, who flourished in the latter part of
twelfth century. It contains some excellent paintings on gardens and gardening. Abu-l-Fazl
mentions three kinds of sugarcane, viz. paunda, black and ordinary. Abu-l-Fazl provides a
list of twenty-one fragrant flowering plants along with the colour of their flowers and the
season of flowering in the AiniAkbari. Terry, an English traveler, writes, ‗The country was
abounding with musk-melons. One could also find water-melons, pomegranates, lemons,
oranges, dates, figs, grapes, coconut, plantains, mangoes, pineapples, pears, apples, etc.‘
Terry also mentions the use of coffee by some people. He writes, ‗Many religious people
drank a ―wholesome liquor‖ which they called coffee. Black seeds were boiled in water,
which also become black. It altered the taste of water very little. It quickened the spirit and
cleansed the blood.

Francois Bernier: Of the European travelers who come to India during the Mughal rule, the
most intelligent and learned was Francois Bernier a Frenchman. Bernier gives a vivid
description of Bengal its landscape people and its plant and animals products. With extensive
fields of rice, sugar, corn, three or four sorts of vegetables, mustured, seasems for oils and
small mulberry trees two or three feet (61 to 91 cm) in height, for the food of silk worms.

Meadows Taylor states ―The Bahmanis constructed irrigation works in the eastern
provinces, which incidentally did good to the peasantry while primarily securing the crown
revenue. Vincent Smith points out that those items to their credit weigh lightly against the
wholesale devastation wrought by their credit weight lightly against the wholesale
devastation wrought by their wars, massacres, and burnings. Their rule was harsh and showed
little regard for the welfare of Hindu peasants, who were seldom allowed to retain the fruits
of their labour much more than would suffice to keep body and soul together.

Herodotus (484-425 BC) the father of history reported in his writings that the wild Indian
(cotton) trees possessed in their fruits fleeces, superseding those of sheep in beauty and
excellence from which the natives used to weave cloth. Herodotus further wrote that ―trees
which grow wild in India and the fruit of which bear wool exceeding in beauty and fineness
that of sheep wool Indians make their clothes with this tree wool‖. Some traveller writers
fabricated stories of a lamb sitting inside the fruit. Marco Pola, a Venetian, who traveled
widely throughout the Asia in AD 1290 said that the coast of Coromandel (Madras, India)
produced the finest and most beautiful cotton in the world. Indian cloth, particularly the
Dacca muslin was renowned all over the world and has been described as ‗webs of woven
wind‘ by oriental poets. It was so fine that it could hardly be felt in the hands. It is said that
when such muslins were laid on the grass to bleach and the dew had fallen, it was no longer
visible. A whole garment made from it could be drawn through a wedding ring of medium
size. There is also the often repeated tale of Moghul princes who put on seven layers of
muslin and still the contours of her body were so visible that she had to be admonisher by her
father, Muhamed Bin Thuklak.

Development of New world crops

       The encounter of America by Christopher Columbus in 1492 was the greatest event of
the late Middle Ages and is a convenient benchmark to date the beginning of the Modern Era.
Three great cultures coexisted in America, although they were unaware of each other: Aztec,
Mayan, and Incan. These were monumental civilizations similar in many respects to that in
ancient Egypt with enormous temples in the form of pyramids, pictorial writing, a system of
cities and government, a bewildering theology, magnificent art, and a developed agriculture.
These cultures also had a dark side—slavery, constant warfare, the offering of living human
hearts as sacrifice, and cannibalism. Ironically, Columbus, in searching for Asia, did discover
their descendants. However, much more valuable than gold and silver treasures were the new
crops from the New World that have continually enriched the bounty and cuisine of Europe
and the world. Important New World crops are presented (Table 1). We review the history
and images of New World crops with particular relevance to horticulture.

       Grains and pseudograins
        Various grains and pseudograins were domesticated in the New World, including
maize (Zea mays), amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), wild rice (Zizania palustris L.), and quinoa
(Chenopodium quinoa). Maize has become the most important world grain, surpassing wheat,
rice, sorghum, and millets. Maize is presently the principal source of animal feed, especially
for pigs and chickens, human food (e.g., cornbread, grits, sweet corn, tortillas, and popcorn),
as a source of sugars (corn sweetener), and now as a major source of energy (ethanol). Maize
was cultivated by Aztec, Mayan, and Incan farmers, and its production and use made settled
life and civilization possible. The significance of maize as a major staple among the native
people of the New World is evident in the deification of this crop and its popularity as a
common feature of ceramic pottery.
       New World legumes such as common bean, lima bean, and peanut (groundnut) were
destined to become important world food crops. The peanut, found in ceramics from the
Moche culture in Peru, was spread worldwide by European traders and became particularly
important in Africa after being brought there from Brazil. Phaseolus bean was vital to New
World agriculture for agronomic, nutritional, and culinary reasons. Beans and maize were
sown in the same hole and the two crops complemented each other. Maize acted as a support
for the climbing beans, and nitrogen-fixing bean as a result of rhizobium bacteria provided
this element to the soil. The mixture of beans and tortillas (maize pancakes) provide a
complete protein food that was the basis of Aztec and Mayan diets. It remains the basis of
Mexican cuisine to this day.
       The New World cucurbits, Cucurbita moschata, C. pepo, C. maxima (squashes and
pumpkins), and Sechium edule (chayote), were important crops of the indigenous population
and were grown for their fruit and seed. Representation of C. pepo can be found in Incan
ceramic pottery. The New World cucurbits became prominent in Renaissance herbals in the
16th century and the genre known as natura morta (still life) popular in the 17th and 18th
Solanaceous fruit crops
       Capsicum peppers and pepino, important food crops with ceremonial and medicinal
uses in pre-Columbian America, are represented in various indigenous ceramics. Because
Columbus was looking for black pepper, the discovery of the even more pungent fruits of
various species of Capsicum led to their immediate acceptance and popularity throughout the
world, particularly in Asia and China where they became an important part of their cuisine.
European herbal images of capsicum pepper are abundant and sculpted forms can be found
on the door of the Pisa Cathedral (Italy) along with tomato. Tomato fruit, because of its
resemblance to the poisonous Old World mandrake, was treated with skepticism but soon was
consumed raw and cooked to become an integral part of Italian cuisine, and now is one of the
most important fresh and processed world vegetables.
Root and tuber crops
       Indigenous people in the New World domesticated a number of starchy vegetables,
including cassava, potato, and sweetpotato, that have become very important world crops.
There are numerous images of potato in pre- Columbian sculpture, and potato culture of the
Incas is illustrated in a calendar presented to the King of Spain in 1580. Potato has become
one of the 10 most important world food crops.
Fruit crops
       There are various temperate, subtropical and tropical fruits in the New World that
have become valuable world crops and many such as various annonas, guava, jaboticaba, and
mamey that are still not fully used. Brambles. Rubus species are abundantly found across
North America with the blackberry (Rubus subg. Rubus), red raspberry, and black raspberry
(R. idaeus and R. occidentalis, respectively) being the most well known and most important
commercially. The seeds of cacao originating in the Amazon Basin were long prized in
Mesoamerica and the seeds once used as currency by the Aztecs; the fruits are a common
feature in pre-Columbian pottery. Ground fermented cocoa bean is the main source of
chocolate. The pulp surrounding the seed is delicious and remains to be commercially
exploited. The beverage xocolatl, a Nahuatl word meaning bitter water, was introduced to the
Spanish court in 1544 and soon became very popular in Europe when the hot chili flavoring
was replaced with sugar. Cactus fruits. The cactus family (Cactaceae) is confined to the New
World but has been distributed worldwide. Cacti have become important world crops for fruit
(cactus pear, pitaya), vegetables (cladodes), animal feed, and ornamentals. Pineapple.
Columbus in his second voyage of 1493 found domesticated pineapple on the island of
Guadeloupe, an island in the eastern Caribbean, and described it as pin˜a de India because of
its resemblance to a pinecone.
       Papaya. This tropical fruit is now ubiquitous as a backyard tree in the tropics
worldwide and has become an important export in Brazil, Hawaii, Mexico, and Thailand.
Strawberry the small-fruited diploid was well known in Europe but the modern largefruited
octoploid strawberry (2n = 8x = 56) is derived from F. chiloensis and F. virginiana that
hybridized in France. Large whitefruited forms of F. chiloensis were found growing in Chile.

       The Americas have been the source of over 1000 garden plants. Various ornamentals
including dahlia, fuchsia, helianthus, and petunia have become very important in floriculture
and are now grown worldwide. Helianthus, the sunflower, has long been associated with
America as a food and medicinal plant and became an important ornamental and oilseed crop
in the 20th century. Industrial crops Four New World crops, cotton (Gossypium), Para´
rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), tobacco (Nicotiana spp.), and quinine (extracted from Cinchona
sp.), exploited by indigenous Americans were to have important effects on world history.
American cotton, derived from two species of Gossypium, G. hirsutum from Central America
and G. barbadense from Brazil, accounts for the majority of world cotton production as a
result of its longer, stronger fibers compared with Old World cottons. The resinous latex from
the tropical Amazonian tree H. brasiliensis is used for the production of rubber, which has
important uses in transportation, clothing, and the electrical industry. Rubber has become one
of the most vital industrial crops, but the industry is now concentrated in Southeast Asia,
particularly Malaysia.

Table 1. Selected crops indigenous to the New World.
         New World crops                         Binomial                         New World origin
A    Cereals and pseudo cereals
1    Amaranth                     Amaranthus spp.                          Mexico
2    Maize                        Zea mays                                 Mesoamerica
3    Quinoa                       Chenopodium quinoa                       Andean highlands
4    Wild rice                    Zizania palustris                        Northern North America
B    Legumes
     Common bean                  Phaseolus vulgaris                       South America
     Lima bean                    Phaseolus lunatus                        South America
     Peanut                       Arachis hypogaea                         Brazilian–Paraguayan Center
C    Cucurbits
     Chayote                      Sechium edule                            Mexico, Central America
     Pumpkin                      Cucurbita maxima                         South America
     Squash                       Cucurbita moschata, C. pepo              Mexico
D    Solanaceous fruits
     Capsicum peppers             Capsicum annuum, C. bacattum, C.         South America, northern Peru
                                  chinenese, C. frutescens, C. pubescens
     Ground cherry,               Physalis peruviana, P. philadelphica     Central America
     husk tomato
     Pepino                       Solanum muricatum                        Tropical America
     Tomato                       Solanum lycopersicum                     Western South America,
                                                                           domesticated in Mexico
E    Roots and tubers
     Cassava                      Manihot utilissima                       Brazil
     Potato                       Solanum tuberosum                        Peru
     Sweetpotato                  Ipomoea batatas                          Central America
F    Fruits and nuts
     Annona                       Annona cherimola                         Brazil
     Avocado                      Persea americana                         Mesoamerica
     Black raspberry              Rubus occidentalis                       North America
     Brazil nut                   Bertholletia excelsa                     Amazon
     Blueberry                    Vaccinium corymbosum                     North America
     Cacao                        Theobroma cacao                          Tropical America
     Cactus                       Opuntia ficus-indica                     Mexico
     Cashew                       Anacardium esculenta                     Brazil
     Cranberry                    Vaccinium macrocarpon                    North America
     Guava                        Psidium guajava                          Tropical America
     Jaboticaba                   Myrciaria cauliflora                     South America
     Mamey                        Mammea americana                         West Indies, northern
                                                                           South America
     Papaya                       Carica papaya                            Tropical America
     Pineapple                    Ananas comosus                           Tropical South America
     Pitaya                       Stenocereus spp.                         Mexico
     Strawberry                   Fragaria chiloensis                      Pacific Coast, North
                                  Fragaria virginiana                      and South America
                                                                            Eastern, North America
       Soursop                    Annona muricata                          Peru–Ecuador
G      Industrials
       Cotton                     Gossypium hirsutum, G. barbadense        Central America, Brazil
       Quinine                    Cinchona calisaya                        Peru
       Rubber                     Hevea brasiliensis                       Amazon
       Tobacco                    Nicotiana rustica, N. tabacum            Mexico, Central America
H      Ornamentals
       Dahlia                     Dahlia spp.                              Mesoamerica
       Fuchsia                    Fuchsia triphylla                        Hispaniola; South America
       Helianthus (sunflower)     Helianthus annuus                        North America
       Petunia                    Petunia spp.                             South America

         Since time immemorial, cereals, particularly wheat, rice, and maize are considered to
be life sustaining crops for humans. Even in future these crops will play a pivotal role in food
security system of several nations across the world. The utilization of cereals as food and
feed, and for industrial purpose is around 1792 million out of which wheat, rice, and coarse
grains contribute nearly 35.4%, 20.8%, and 53.7% respectively. In the past fifty years the
world has witnessed structural change in cereal economics: Long run trend towards wheat
and rice and to some extent for maize, while replacement of coarse grain crops occurred.
Developing countries achieved higher growth in production and consumption and at the same
time recorded rise in deficits. Rapid expansion of cereals as feed in developing countries and
increased share of cereals in world trade.
         Rice is the most important tropical cereal and supplies a quarter of the entire caloric
intake of the human race. About 90% of its area and consumption is in South and Southeast
Asia, which support a major part of the world population. Rice belongs to the genus Oryza
and there are two main cultigens, i.e., sativa in Asia and glaberrima in Africa. Rice is a semi
aquatic graminaceous crop having great deiversity as it is grown in complex range of
environments, i.e., from uplands at altitude of 3000 m to rainfed lowland irrigated, tidal
swamp, and deepwater areas. Besides these two species, aquatic rice species, i.e., Zizania
aquatica and Z. palustris, are endemic to North America, where it is the staple food of
         The place of major diversity where rice might have domesticated is roughly the east
west belt along the Himalayas and adjoining Asia mainland (from Assam, Bangladesh,
Burma, Thailand, southern China, and northeren Vietnam). The archaeological evidence
suggests that Asian rice culture was established around 7000 years ago. In India carbonized
grains excavated from Hastinapur (New Delhi) suggest that it was in cultivation during 1100-
800 BC.
Evolutionary history
       The evidences from diverse disciplines including biosystematic and paleogeology
suggest that the genus Oryza arose from a common ancestor. The evolutionary path was from
wild perennial to wild annual to cultivated annual, and the closely related wild relatives
contributed differentiation of two cultigens. In oryza sativa, the evolution of different
geographical races, i.e., japonica, javanica, and indica (the latter forming aman, aus, and
indica types in the Ganges belt) took place assisted strongly by human selecton. There is
general agreement that in both Asia and Africa elongation and floating ability in two
cultigens was derived from their wild relatives. In rice, change might have occurred in the
following sequence: Perennial->climatic stress->seasonal->human selection-> cultivated rice.
Agri-history of Cotton in India : An Overview
       The antiquity of cotton in the Indian subcontinent has been traced to the 4th
millenium BC. The fabrics dated approximately 3000 BC , recovered from the Mohenjo-daro
excavations in Sind (Pakistan), were identified to have originated from cotton plants, closely
related to the Gossypium arboreum species. The lint-bearing species of the genus Gossypium,
the true cottons, are four, out of which the diploid (2n=26) species G. arboreum and G.
herbaceum are indigenous in Asia and Africa. The history of introduction into India of the
new world cottons (tetraploid species of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense with 2n=52) dates
back to the 18th century AD. By the last decade of the 20th century, India had gained a pride
of place in the global cotton statistics with the largest cropped area of 8.9 million in 1996-97,
growing the most diverse cultivars in terms of botanical species and composition, producing
the widest range of cotton fiber quality suitable for spinning 6‘s to 120‘s counts yarn, and
supporting the largest agrobased national industry of the country.
Origin of the indigenous cottons
       The cotton textiles of the Harappan civilization (2300-1750BC) were produced by
sophisticated textile craftsmanship. Thus at the earliest agricultural levels yet discovered, true
cottons were already present in the Indian subcontinent. Wild and weedy types have been
found to be associated with primitive cultivated types in both the old world species of G.
herbaceum and G. arboreum. Species of G. herbaceum, have been found from the coastal
strip northwest of Karachi (Pakistan), through northern Baluchistan to south Yemen,
Ethiopia, and Sudan and even in West Africa south of the Sahara. Species of G. arboreum.
have been recorded by in Kathiawar, Gujarat, Khandesh, and the Deccan in India. It seems
likely that it was in Gujarat (India) or Sind (Pakistan) that G. arboreum cottons were first
brought into cultivation (Hutchinson, 1971). It may further be surmised that the
differentiation of the three perennial races of G. arboreum, namely burmanicum of
northeastern India, indicum of western India and the Penninsula, and sudanense of northern
Africa, ante-dated domestication and that each contributed separately to the cultivated cottons
in Asia and Africa.
Agri-history of cotton production development
       Until the middle of the 18th century, only indigenous arboreum and herbaceum
varieties of cotton were grown in different regions of the country. Due to the human skills
and dexterity of the local artisans, very fine yarns were produced by them, from even the
short staple and coarse cottons grown in India. In 1788, the Governor General (at Calcutta)
was requested by London to encourage growth and improvement of Indian cottons to meet
the requirements of the Lancashire textile industry. The figures for exact area under
indigenous cottons and production in India during this period are not available, although it is
reported that the local production had stabilized by 1900AD.
       The origin of sugarcane was India. The species Saccharum officinarum was first
domesticated in India and the spread to other countries by Arab merchants. Evidences
revealed that 3000-7000 years ago, Atarna veda indicated that sugarcane originated from the
area Sakkaram and then later it was indicated as sakkra in Sanskirit. Earlier indications in
Kautilya Artha Sastra also mentioned about the cowdung sett treatment for sugarcane.

Crops introduced by Britishers
Pseudo cereals Avena sativa (oat);Grain legumes Castanospermum australe (black bean),
Pisum sativum (pea); Fiber crops Gossypium barbadense (cotton);Vegetables Allium
tuberosum (leek), Asparagus racemosus (satawar), Beta vulgaris (beet root), Brassica
oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower), Capsicum frutescens (sweet pepper), Cichorium intybus
(chicory), Cucurbita maxima (squash), Daucas carota (carrot, orange type), Lactuca sativa
(lettuce), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Pisum sativum (sweet pea); Fruits Averrohoa
carambola (carambola), Carica papaya (papaya), Fragaria ananassa (strawberry), Garcinia
mangostana (mangosteen), Manihot esculenta (cassava), Malus pumila (apple), Prunus
armeniaca (apricot), Prunus avium (cherry), Prunus communis syn. P. domestica (plum),
Prunus persica (peach), pyrus communis (pear), Ribes rubrum (red currant) Medicinal
Cinchona officinalis (quinine), Origanum vulgare (majoram), aromatic plants Papaver
somniferum (opium poppy), Pelargonium capaitatium (Geranium), Salvia officinalis (sage),
Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Vanilla aromatica (vanilla)
Crops introduced from West and Central Asia by Mughals or Arabs
Allium cepa (onion), Allium sativum (garlic), Brassica rapa (turmip), Brassica oleracea var.
capitata (cabbage), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Cucumis melo (sweet muskmelon),
Daucas carota (carrot, black & red type), Phoenix dactylifera (date palm), Pisum sativum
(pea), Syzygium aromaticum (clove), Vitis vinifera (grape)

Crops introduced by Spaniards
Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean)

Crops introduced from China
Aleurites fordii (tung-oil), Glycine max (soyabean), Eriobotrya japonica (loquat), Juglans
regia (walnut), Litchi chinensis (litchi), Sapium sebiferum (tallow-tree)

Crops introduced from Latin America
Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber), Ananas comosus (pineapple)

Crops introduced from Southeast Asia and Pacific islands
Arenga pinnata (sugar-palm), Artocarpus communis (breadfruit), Citrus decumanus
(pomelo), Citrus paradisi (grapefruit), Durio zibethinus (durian) and Metroxylon sagus (sago)
Some recent introductions
Humulus lupulus (hops), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Simarouba glauca (simarouba),
Cyphomandra betacea (tree tomato), Carya illinoensis (pecan nut), Corylus avellana (hazel
nut), Macadamia tetraphylla (macadamia nut), Parthenium argentatum (guayule), and Mentha
arvensis (spearmint, USA) Acacia senegal (Australia), Acacia mangium (Australia) and
Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit, New Zealand)
7. Agriculture scope
Scope of Indian Agriculture

Agriculture: - The term agriculture is derived from two Latin words ager or agri meaning
soil and cultura meaning cultivation. Agriculture is a broad term including all aspects of
crop production, livestock farming, fisheries, forestry etc.

        Agriculture is a branch of applied science. It is the art of farming including the work
of cultivating the soil for producing crops and raising livestock. There are three main spheres
of agriculture as under;

Geoponic:- meaning cultivation in earth,

Hydroponic:- meaning cultivation in water and

Aeroponic:- meaning cultivation in air.

        AGRICULTURE is defined in the Agriculture ACT, 1947, as including ‘horticulture,
fruit growing, seed growing, dairy farming and livestock breeding and keeping, the use of
land as grazing land, meadow land, osier land, market gardens and nursery grounds, and the
use of land for woodlands where that use ancillary to the farming of land for Agricultural

        Agriculture is defined as an art, science and business of producing crops and
livestock for economic purposes

        Agriculture is a productive unit where the gifts of nature like land, light, water and
temperature are integrated into a single primary unit i.e crop plant which is indispensable for
human beings. The secondary productive units of agriculture are animals including
livestock, birds and insects which feed on the primary units and provide concentrated
products such as meat, milk, hide, wool, eggs, honey, silk and lac.

       Agriculture is considered as mother of all agro-based industries because the
development and functioning of all such industries is governed by the raw material supplied
from agriculture sector E.g. Textile, Oil, Sugar, Dairy and Canning industries are directly
governed by cotton, oilseeds, sugarcane, milk and fruits production, respectively.

        The important cultural energies utilized for the production and protection of
agricultural commodities are;-

Natural resources:-

   Agriculture implies the effective use of land, water, light and other resources of
   environment through the production of field crops, forage crops, horticultural crops, farm
   animals, fisheries and forestry.
Added resources:-

   1. Irrigation and drainage
   2. Organic, biological and mineral fertilizers, chemicals
   3. Farm equipments and draft power.
These are used to maximize the productivity per unit time, water, land, labour and rupee

       The word AGRICULTURE thus may be expanded as Activities on the Ground for
Raising Intended Crops for Uplifting Livelihood Through the Use of Rechargeable Energies.


Revolution             Concerned with                Achievements
Green revolution       Food grain production         Food grain production increased from
                                                     51 million tones at independence to
                                                     223 million tones in(2006 - 07), 4.5
                                                     times increase.
White revolution       Milk production               Milk production increased from 17
                                                     million tones at independence to 69
                                                     million tones, four times (1997-98).
Yellow revolution      Oilseeds production           Oil seed production increased from 5
                                                     million tones to 25 million tones since
                                                     independence, 5 times increase
Blue revolution        Fish production               Fish production increased from 0.75
                                                     million tones to nearly 5.0 million
                                                     tones during the last five decades.

       Similarly, the egg production increased from 2 billion at independence to 28 billion,
sugarcane production from 57 million tones to 276 million tones, cotton production from 3
million bales to 14 million bales which shows our sign of progress.

       India is the largest producer of fruits in the world.    India is the second largest
producer of milk and vegetable.

        In future, agriculture development in India would be guided not only by the
compulsion of improving food and nutritional security, but also by the concerns for
environmental protection, sustainability and profitability. By following the General
Agreement on Trade and Tariff (GATT) and the liberalization process, globalization of
markets would call for competitiveness and efficiency of agricultural production.
Agricultural will face challenging situations on the ecological, global climate, economic
equity, energy and employment fronts.
Agriculture as an art, science and business and Branches of agriculture

Agriculture as an art:- Learning by doing and gaining experience. Art is concerned with
skill and experience. It is inherited by seeing parents or elders through experience. E.g. art
of walking of a child.

       Skill of agriculture is purely derived by physical work.

       Skill              Physical skill

                          Mental skill

       Agriculture primarily requires physical skill and secondarily mental skill.
Physical skill is inherited by doing physical work with perfect execution. e.g. Opening a
straight furrow, broadcasting/sowing seeds, levelling the field, top dressing of fertilizer,
weeding, harvesting crop etc.

       Art of agricultural requires secondarily mental skill. it is related with decision
making. e.g. Selection of crops for a particular area is a skill season, right time of sowing
the crop after onset of monsoon.

Agriculture as a Science:-

      Science is systematic study of happenings of any thing
      Scientific technology helps in getting maximum output, science helps to select a crop
       suitable to seasons at the appropriate time
      Part of science is inherited by farmers
      Science of agricultural tries to give reasons. Yield increase is due to application
       fertilizer. Yield reduction also results due to pest and disease attack etc.
      Farmers will become scientists if more sophisticated methods are given. Experience
       makes them scientists
      Science of agriculture requires primarily mental skill and secondarily physical skill

Agriculture as Business

      Nowadays, it is purely business oriented.
      The market price of agricultural produce is governs by total production of a particular
       commodity. It follows the economic principle of demand and supply.
      In agriculture business, quantity is ignored and profit is more. The farmers try to get
       more profit per rupee invested.
       E.g. in Punjab, rice is produced during Kharif season for profit and commercial reason

      Business of agriculture is purely economic
No.   Agriculture                                Industry
a)    Resources are self generated               Depends on raw materials
b)    Direct producer                            Indirect producer
c)    Subjected to natural calamities            Protected from natural calamities
d)    Production is not under control            Production is under control
e)    All the process is carried out by single   There are separate units and subunits
      person or family
 f)   Owner himself is the labour                Owner as a labour is less in industry

                            BRANCHES OF AGRICULTURE

Seven branches as under

1) Agronomy: – It deals with the production of various crops which includes food crops,
   fodder crops, fibre crops, sugar, oil seeds, etc. The aim is to have better food production
   and how to control the diseases and pest.

2) Horticulture: – Branch of agriculture deals with the production of flowers, fruits,
   vegetables, ornamental plants, spices, condiments (includes narcotic crops – opium, etc.
   which has medicinal value) and beverages.

3) Forestry: – It deals with production of large scale cultivation of perennial trees for
   supplying wood, timber, rubber, etc. and also raw materials for industries.

4) Animal Husbandry: – The animals are being produced, maintained, etc. Maintenance of
    various types of livestock for direct energy (work energy). Husbandry is common for
    both crop and animals. The objective is to get maximum output by feeding, rearing, etc.
    The arrangement of crops is done to get minimum requirement of light or air. This
    arrangement is called geometry. Husbandry is for direct and indirect energy.

5) Fishery Science: – It is for marine fish and inland fishes including shrimps and prawns.

6) Agricultural Engineering: – It is an important component for crop production and
   horticulture particularly to provide tools and implements. It is aiming to produce
   modified tools to facilitate proper animal husbandry and crop production tools,
   implements and machinery in animal production.

7) Home Science: – Application and utilization of agricultural produces in a better manner.
   When utilization is enhanced production is also enhanced. E.g. a crop once in use in
   south was found that it had many uses now.
          On integration, all the seven branches, first three is grouped as for crop
    production, next two animal management and last two alive agriculture branches.

    Land utilization statistics

     Sr.    Particulars                India                          Gujarat
     1.     Geographical location      80.4' - 370.6' N latitude      210.1' - 240.7' N latitude
                                             and                               and
                                       68 .7' - 970.25' E longitude      0
                                                                      68 .4' - 740.5' E longitude
      2.    Total geographical area    328.848 million ha             19.60 million ha
      3.    Total reporting area       304.300 million ha             18.82 million ha
      4.    Area under cultivation     143.000 million ha             9.42 million ha
      5.    Total cropped area         179.750 million ha             10.16 million ha
      6.    Area sown more than        36.750 million ha              0.74 million ha
      7.    Area not available for     161.300 million ha             2.61 million ha
      8.    Area under forest          66.400 million ha              1.88 million ha
      9.    Length of Sea coast        7516.5 km                      1600 km

    Agricultural trade
     Agricultural Export and Import (US dollars)
                    Export                                             Import
Commodity               13-14 14-15 15-16 Commodity                     13-14     14-15 15-16
Rice                    6.2     7.8     7.9      Pulses                 2.4       1.8   2.8
Meat and meat           3.3     4.5     4.9      Cashew                 1.0       0.8   1.1
Processed foods         2.8     2.7     2.7      Vegetable oils          9.9      7.2      10.6
Spices                  2.8     2.5     2.4      Fresh fruits            1.1      1.3      1.6
Oil meals               3.0     2.8     1.3      Spices                  0.5      0.6      0.7
Sugar                   1.6     1.2     0.9      Sugar                   0.6      0.4      0.6
Wheat                   1.9     1.6     0.8      Cocoa products          0.2      0.2      0.3
Pulses                  0.2     0.3     0.2      Natural Rubber          0.8      0.9      0.8
Agriculture exports     32.0    33.0    30.1     Agriculture             16.8     14.9     15.9

    Food grain production trends in India

    India is estimated to produce 273.38 million tonnes (MT) of foodgrain in the 2016-17 crop
    year (July-June) over 8 MT more than the previous record of 265.04 MT in 2013-14.
    Anticipating good monsoon this year too, the ministry had last month set a target of foodgrain
production at 273 MT for the 2017-18 crop year and expressed confidence of maintaining
farm sector growth rate of over 4% during the period.

Table 1: Production of Foodgrains and Other major Crops

Crop                     2004-05       2010-11         2011-12           2012-13         2013-14
Rice                         83.1          96.0           105.3             105.2           106.7
Wheat                        68.6          86.9            94.9              93.5            95.9
Coarse Cereals               33.5          43.4            42.0              40.0            43.3
Pulses                       13.1          18.2            17.1              18.3            19.3
Total Food Grain            198.4         244.5           259.3             257.1           265.0
Oilseeds                    243.5         324.8           298.0             309.4           327.5
(lakh tonnes)
Sugacane                   2370.9           3423.8          3610.4           3412.0         3521.4
(lakh tonnes)
Cotton (Lakh bales)        164.3            330.0           352.0            342.2             359.0

Table 2:Production of Milk, Eggs, Wool, Meat and Fish- All India

Year          Milk            Eggs              Wool                 Meat               Fish
              (Million        (Million Nos.)    (Million Kgs.)       (Million Tonnes)   (000’ Tonnes)
1950-51             17               1832            27.5                    -               752
1980-81            31.6             10060             32                     -              2442
1990-91            53.9             21101            41.2                    -              3836
2000-2001          80.6             36632            48.4                   1.9             5656
2010-2011         121.8             63024             43                    4.8             8231
2013-2014         137.7             74752            47.9                   6.2             9574
8. Importance of agriculture and agriculture available in
Development of Agricultural Departments, ICAR and SAUs in India

       A fundamental department of agriculture in India was started in the year 1871.
Although the chief function of the department named ‘Department of Revenue, Agriculture
and Commerce’ remained revenue and there was no work on agricultural development.
Primarily, the department was established by the Government with a view to supply cotton to
the textile industries of Manchester, and not to feed the famine- ravished India. Based on the
reports of the Famine Commissions of 1880, 1898 and 1900, the Government of India (GoI)
was determined to set up a central ‘Department of Agriculture’ controlled by the Imperial
Secretariat and agriculture departments were to be set up in the provinces to primarily look
after agricultural enquiry, agricultural development and famine relief in the country.
However, the key duty of the agriculture departments both in the centre and the provinces
lingered on famine relief. In 1892, an agricultural chemist and an assistant chemist were
allotted to look after research and teaching in India, which manifested the first scientific staff
in the Department of Revenue and Agriculture. Eventually, in 1901, an Inspector General of
Agriculture was appointed to advise the         imperial and the provincial governments on
agricultural matters. An imperial mycologist was appointed in the            same year, and an
entomologist was appointed in 1903.
       During the severe famines of 1899–1900, Lord Curzon, the then Viceroy of India,
was convinced that the GoI must urgently concentrate on the agricultural sector to overcome
the damages caused by frequent famines. As a consequence, Agriculture Research Institute
(now the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), together with a college for advanced
agriculture training, was established at Pusa in the year 1905 and its director was the
agriculture adviser to the GoI till 1929. Today, IARI is one of the premier national institutes
for agricultural research, education and extension in India. The Agricultural School at
Saidapet, Chennai, which       was established as early as 1868, was later relocated to
Coimbatore during 1906. Likewise, a branch for teaching agriculture in the College of
Science at Pune (established in 1879) was subsequently developed into a separate College of
Agriculture in 1907. Similar agricultural colleges       were established at Kanpur, Sabour,
Nagpur and Lyallpur, now in Pakistan, between 1901 and 1905.
       An All-India Board of Agriculture was established in 1905 with a view to bring the
provincial governments more in            touch with one another and making suitable
recommendations to the GoI. The Indian Agriculture Service was constituted in 1906.
Establishment of the Imperial Council of Agricultural Research (the present-day ICAR). The
Royal Commission on Agriculture (Linlithgow Commission), which was appointed in the
year 1926, authoritatively reviewed the position of agriculture in India and reported the same
in 1928. According to the proposal of the Royal Commission on Agriculture, the GoI,
Department of Education, Health and Lands set-up the Imperial Council of Agricultural
Research (now ICAR) on 16 July 1929.
The Commodity Committee
       Several semi-autonomous Central Commodity Committees were set up by the
Ministry of Food and Agriculture. The Indian Central Cotton Committee was the first one to
be established in 1921 on the recommendation of the Indian Cotton Committee (1917–18).
The chief function of the Central Cotton Committee was cotton improvement with special
focus on the development of improved methods of growing and marketing cotton. The
Committee’s support led to the development of 70 improved varieties and considerably
improved fibre quality.
       The achievement by the Indian Central Cotton Committee led to the setting up of
commodity committees on crops such as lac, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, coconut, oilseeds,
spices, cashewnut and arecanut. These apprehensions led to the formulation of the Project for
Intensification of Regional Research on Cotton, Oilseeds and Millets (PIRRCOM), which
was the first step in the country towards coordinated approach to agricultural research. The
Central Commodity Committees were abolished in 1965 and the research institutes under
their control were transferred to ICAR. Plantation research in colonial India Though the
experimental farms were established in 1884, the provincial agricultural departments could
seldom go beyond the collection of revenue data and famine relief operations
       With the initiatives for agricultural research development,      there was a need to
coordinate the research on various crops, especially cotton, oilseeds and millets. Moreover, a
need was felt to conduct research work in different agro- climatic regions of the country. The
first coordinated research work on regional basis was initiated in 1956 in the form of a joint
venture by ICAR and the Indian Central Commodity Committees on Oilseeds and Cotton.
Eventually, 17 centres were established across the country to perform research on cotton
(Gossypium species), castor ( Ricinus communis), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), taramira
(Eruca vesicaria), jowar (Sorghum bicolor), bajra (Pennisetum glaucum), etc. A regional
research station with of full-fledged sections of plant breeding and genetics, agronomy,
agricultural chemistry and soil science, plant pathology and entomology was established.
Initiation of All-India Coordinated Research Projects
       The conception of coordinated projects was first initiated for hybrid maize. It was
under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The Ministry of
Food and Agriculture under the GoI, signed an agreement with the Rockefeller Foundation
in 1956, according to which the latter was to assist in the development of: (i) The
postgraduate school of IARI, New Delhi, and (ii) Research programmes on the improvement
of some crops (maize, jowar and bajra, initially). The coordinated maize project in India had
proven to be the defining moment in research planning in agriculture in the country. As a
result of the coordinated project, new high-yielding maize hybrids became available by 1961.
Encouraged by the success of the maize project, in 1965 ICAR decided to initiate coordinated
projects on other crops as well as in other areas of research, e.g. animal husbandry, soil
sciences, etc. Seventy coordinated projects on various subjects were launched within 3 years
of this decision and these accounted for 40% of the total expenditure for agriculture in the
Fourth Five-Year Plan. However, the advancement of the coordinated projects was critically
analysed in the Fifth Five-Year Plan. Accordingly, some projects were terminated, some
were merged with other projects, some were elevated to the level of Project Directorates and
some projects were changed       to Coordinated Programmes. As a result, the number of
coordinated projects decreased to 49 in the Fifth Five- Year Plan.
Reorganization of ICAR
       In 1963, the Ministry of Food and Agriculture appointed the Agricultural Review
Team headed by Marion W. Parker of USDA (United States Department of Agriculture), to
scrutinize the organization of agricultural research in India. The team submitted its report in
March 1964 and based on the recommendation of the team, ICAR was reorganized in 1966
and made an entirely autonomous organization. The ICAR was proffered the control for
various research organizations under the Department of Food and Agriculture and under the
Central Commodity Committees. Eventually, a policy was formulated suggesting that an
agricultural scientist would be appointed as the chief executive of ICAR with the designation
of Director General. Accordingly, B. P. Pal was appointed as the first Director General of
ICAR in May 1965. In June 1972, the GoI appointed a committee headed by P. B.
Gajendragadkar (retired Chief Justice of India) to review the enrollment and personnel
policies of ICAR and its institutes, and to recommend actions for the enhancement of the
same. The committee submitted its report in January 1973. A Department of Agricultural
Research and Education was created in the Ministry of Food and Agriculture in December
1973 according to the recommendations made by the committee. The Director General,
ICAR was made secretary to the new department. The Minister of Agriculture was designated
as the President of the Council, while the Director General of ICAR was made the Chairman
of the Governing Body of the Council. Under the Agricultural Scientists’ Recruitment Board
(ASRB), an Agricultural Research Service (ARS) was initiated for the recruitment of
scientific personnel.
Development of agricultural universities
       One of the important and premier institutes of the pre-independence era was the
Imperial Agricultural Research Institute established at Pusa in 1905. Eventually, IARI has
become one of the premier institutes for agricultural research, education and extension in the
country. During the years 1948–49, the University Education Commission headed by S.
Radhakrishnan, suggested that the country should focus on the establishment of rural
universities. H. S. Singh and A. N. Jha (Chief Secretary and Development Commissioner,
Uttar Pradesh (UP) visited Land-Grant Universities of United States in 1950 and after coming
back, advised the then Chief Minister of UP, Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant, to set up such a
university in the state. The Chief Minister accepted their recommendation. This event may be
regarded as the one which led to the initiation of agricultural universities in the country. In
1955, the first Joint Indo-American Team was set up. The team suggested the founding of
rural universities in each of the states in India. Accordingly, the team identified UP (Tarai),
West Bengal (Haringhatta), Bihar (Patna), Odisha (Bhubaneshwar), Travancore-Cochin and
Mumbai (Anand, now in Gujarat) to be apposite for starting such universities.
       In 1956, a blueprint for agricultural universities was prepared and this provided the
root for the proposal by the Government of UP to the Central Government (in September
1956) for starting an agricultural university near Rudrapur in the Tarai region of UP. The
Central Government also agreed to the proposal on an experimental basis. In 1959, the
second Joint Indo-American Team was setup, which submitted its report in 1960. The Team
suggested that the agricultural universities should be autonomous; should consist of colleges
of agriculture like     veterinary, animal husbandry, home science, technology      and basic
sciences under them; should have interdisciplinary teaching programme; and should integrate
teaching, research and extension. GoI appointed a committee, headed by R. W. Cummings,
for providing a model for the essential legislation by the states for the establishment of
agricultural universities. The committee submitted its report in 1962 and on the basis of this
report, ICAR prepared the model act for the development of agricultural universities. During
 the period of the Fourth Five-Year Plan between the years 1960 and 1965, seven agricultural
 universities were established in UP, Odisha, Rajasthan, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya
 Pradesh and Karnataka. The Review Committee on Agriculture Universities (1977–78),
 headed by M. S. Randhawa, made many useful recommendations for the development of
 agricultural universities. It noted that the quality of leadership and financial support from the
 state were cru-cial factors in the development of agricultural universi-ties. The committee
 suggested, among other things, that the Director General, ICAR, and Chairman, University
 Grants Commission, should be members of the selection committee that appoints Vice-
 Chancellors for agricultural universities. The agricultural universities have contributed a great
 extent to agricultural education, research and development in the country. Many improved
 varieties of crops, feed and animal stocks have been developed in the agriculture universities.
 In other words, it could be concluded that the ICAR is identical to agricultural research and
 education in the country. The role played by the council in the development of agricultural
 research and education has been quite extraordinary.
 Important State, National and International Institutes
1. AICRP on Nematodes, New Delhi
2. AICRP on Maize, New Delhi
3. AICRP Rice, Hyderabad
4. AICRP on Chickpea, Kanpur
5. AICRP on MULLARP, Kanpur
6. AICRP on Pigeon Pea, Kanpur
7. AICRP on Arid Legumes, Kanpur
8. AICRP on Wheat & Barley Improvement Project, Karnal
9. AICRP Sorghum, Hyderabad
10. AICRP on Pearl Millets, Jodhpur
11. AICRP on Small Millets, Bangalore
12. AICRP on Sugarcane, Lucknow
13. AICRP on Cotton, Coimbatore
14. AICRP on Groundnut, Junagarh
15. AICRP on Soybean, Indore
16. AICRP on Rapeseed & Mustard, Bharatpur
17. AICRP on Sunflower, Safflower, Castor, Hyderabad
18. AICRP on Linseed, Kanpur
19. AICRP on Sesame and Niger, Jabalpur
20. AICRP on IPM and Biocontrol, Bangalore
21. AICRP on Honey Bee Research & Training, Hisar
22. AICRP -NSP(Crops), Mau
23. AICRP on Forage Crops, Jhansi
24. AICRP on Fruits, Bangaluru
25. AICRP Arid Zone Fruits, Bikaner
26. AICRP Mushroom, Solan
27. AICRP Vegetables including NSP vegetable, Varanasi
28 AICRP Potato, Shimla
29. AICRP Tuber Crops, Thiruvananthapuram
30. AICRP Palms, Kasaragod
31. AICRP Cashew, Puttur
32. AICRP Spices, Calicut
33. AICRP on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants including Betelvine, Anand
34. AICRP on Floriculture, New Delhi
35. AICRP in Micro Secondary & Pollutant Elements in Soils and Plants, Bhopal
36. lAICRP on Soil Test with Crop Response, Bhopal
37. AICRP on Long Term Fertilizer Experiments, Bhopal
38. AICRP on Salt Affected Soils & Use of Saline Water in Agriculture, Karnal
39. AICRP on Water Management Research, Bhubaneshwar
40. AICRP on Ground Water Utilisation, Bhubaneshwar
41. AICRP Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad
    AICRP on Agrometeorology, Hyderabad including Network on Impact adaptation & Vulnerability
    of Indian Agri. to Climate Change
43. AICRP Integrated Farming System Research, Modipuram including Network Organic Farming
44. AICRP Weed Control, Jabalpur
45. AICRP on Agroforestry, Jhansi
46. AICRP on Farm Implements & Machinery, Bhopal
47. All India Coordinated Research Project on Ergonomics and Safety in Agriculture
48. AICRP on Energy in Agriculture and Agro Based Indus.,Bhopal
49. AICRP on Utilization of Animal Energy (UAE), Bhopal
50. AICRP on Plasticulture Engineering and Technologies, Ludhiana
51. AICRP on PHT, Ludhiana
52. AICRP on Goat Improvement, Mathura
    AICRP- Improvement of Feed Sources & Nutrient Utilisation for raising animal production,
54. AICRP on Cattle Research, Meerut
55. AICRP on Poultry, Hyderabad
56. AICRP-Pig, Izzatnagar
57. AICRP Foot and Mouth Disease, Mukteshwar
58. AICRP ADMAS, Bangalore
59. AICRP on Home Science, Bhubaneshwar

 Network Projects

 1      All India Network Project on Pesticides Residues, New Delhi
 2      All India Network Project on Underutilised Crops, New Delhi
 3      All India Network Project on Tobacco, Rajahmundry
 4      All India Network Project on Soil Arthropod Pests, Durgapura
 5      Network on Agricultural Acarology, Bangalore
 6      Network on Economic Ornithology, Hyderabad
 7      All India Network Project on Rodent Control, Jodhpur
 8      All India Network Project on Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore
 9      Network project on Improvement of Onion & Garlic, Pune
10     Network Bio-fertilizers, Bhopal
11     Network Project on Harvest & Post Harvest and Value Addition to Natural Resins &
       Gums, Ranchi
12     Network project on Animal Genetic Resources, Karnal
13     Network Project on R&D Support for Process Upgradation of Indigenous Milk
       products for industrial application Karnal
14     Network Programme on Sheep Improvement, Avikanagar
15     Network Project on Buffaloes Improvement, Hisar
16     Network on Gastro Intestinal Parasitism, Izatnagar
17     Network on Haemorrhagic Septicaemia, Izatnagar
18     Network Programme Blue Tongue Disease, Izatnagar
19     Network Project on Conservation of Lac Insect Genetic Resources, Ranchi
20     Network Project on Agricultural Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, New

Deemed Universities

1.     ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
2.     ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal
3.     ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar
4.     ICAR-Central Institute on Fisheries Education, Mumbai


1.     ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research Institute , Port Blair
2.     ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur
3.     ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar
4.     ICAR-Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpore
5.     ICAR-Central Institute Brackishwater Aquaculture, Chennai
6.     ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Hissar
7.     ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom
8.     ICAR-Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal
9.     ICAR-Central Institute for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner
10.    ICAR-Central Institute of Cotton Research, Nagpur
11.    ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin
12.    ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Bhubneshwar
13.    ICAR-Central Institute of Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai
14.    ICAR-Central Institute of Sub Tropical Horticulture, Lucknow
15.    ICAR-Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar
16.    ICAR-Central Institute on Post harvest Engineering and Technology, Ludhiana
17.    ICAR-Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi
18.    ICAR-Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasargod
19.    ICAR-Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla
20.    ICAR-Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore
21.    ICAR-Central Research Institute of Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad
22.    ICAR-National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack
23.    ICAR-Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar, Rajasthan
24.    ICAR- Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Dehradun
25.   ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal
26.   ICAR-Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry
27.   ICAR-Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Trivandrum
28.   ICAR-ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna
29.   ICAR-ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Barapani
30.   ICAR-Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Ela, Old Goa, Goa
31.   ICAR-Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, New Delhi
32.   ICAR-Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi
33.   ICAR-Indian Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Ranchi
34.   ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru
35.   ICAR-Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums, Ranchi
36.   ICAR-Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur
37.   ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Sciences, Bhopal
38.   ICAR-Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut
39.   ICAR-Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow
40.   ICAR-Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi
41.   ICAR-National Academy of Agricultural Research & Management, Hyderabad
42.   ICAR-National Institute of Biotic Stresses Management, Raipur
43.   ICAR-National Institue of Abiotic Stress Management, Malegaon, Maharashtra
44.   ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bengaluru
45.   ICAR-National Institute of Research on Jute & Allied Fibre Technology, Kolkata
      ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics,
      Hebbal, Bengaluru
47.   ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore
48.   ICAR-Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan, Almora
49.   ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Cattle, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh
50.   ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, Bhopal
51.   ICAR-Indian Institute of Maize Research,New Delhi
52.   ICAR- Central Agroforestry Research Institute , Jhansi
53.   ICAR-National Institute of Agricultural Economics and Policy Research, New Delhi
54.   ICAR- Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal
55.   ICAR- Indian Institute of Farming Systems Research, Modipuram
56.   ICAR- Indian Institute of Millets Research, Hyderabad
57.   ICAR- Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research, Hyderabad
58.   ICAR- Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research, Pedavegi, West Godawari
59.   ICAR- Indian Institute of Water Management, Bhubaneshwar
60.   ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research, Hyderabad
61.   ICAR- Central Institute for Women in Agriculture, Bhubaneshwar
62.   ICAR-Central Citrus Research Institute, Nagpur
63.   ICAR-Indian Institute of Seed Research, Mau
64.   ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, , Hazaribag , Jharkhand

National Research Centres

1.    ICAR-National Research Centre for Banana, Trichi
2.    ICAR-National Research Centre for Grapes, Pune
3.    ICAR-National Research Centre for Litchi, Muzaffarpur
4.    ICAR-National Research Centre for Pomegranate, Solapur
5.     ICAR-National Research Centre on Camel, Bikaner
6.     ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar
7.     ICAR-National Research Centre on Meat, Hyderabad
8..    ICAR-National Research Centre on Mithun, Medziphema, Nagaland
9.     ICAR-National Research Centre on Orchids, Pakyong, Sikkim
10.    ICAR-National Research Centre on Pig, Guwahati
11.    ICAR-National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, New Delhi
12.    ICAR-National Research Centre on Seed Spices, Ajmer
13.    ICAR-National Research Centre on Yak, West Kemang
14.    ICAR-National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi
15.    National Research Centre on Integrated Farming (ICAR-NRCIF),Motihari

National Bureaux

1.     ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetics Resources, New Delhi
       ICAR-National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Micro-organisms, Mau, Uttar
3.     ICAR-National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources, Bengaluru
4.     ICAR-National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur
5.     ICAR-National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, Karnal
6.     ICAR-National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow

Directorates/Project Directorates

1.     ICAR-Directorate of Groundnut Research, Junagarh
2.     ICAR-Directorate of Soybean Research, Indore
3.     ICAR-Directorate of Rapeseed & Mustard Research, Bharatpur
4.     ICAR-Directorate of Mushroom Research, Solan
5.     ICAR-Directorate on Onion and Garlic Research, Pune
6.     ICAR-Directorate of Cashew Research, Puttur
7..    ICAR-Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, Anand
8.     ICAR-Directorate of Floricultural Research, Pune, Maharashtra
9.     ICAR-Directorate of Weed Research, Jabalpur
10.    ICAR-Project Directorate on Foot & Mouth Disease, Mukteshwar
11.    ICAR-Directorate of Poultry Research, Hyderabad
12.    ICAR-Directorate of Knowledge Management in Agriculture (DKMA), New Delhi
13.    ICAR-Directorate of Cold Water Fisheries Research, Bhimtal, Nainital

Agricultural Universities

 1    Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh
 2    Agriculture University, Jodhpur
 3    Agriculture University, Kota
 4    Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat
 5    Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam
 6    Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal
 7    Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, Bihar
 8    Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, Jharkhand
 9   Central Agricultural University, Imphal, Manipur
10   Chandra Shekar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh
11   Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana
12   CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh
13   Chhattisgarh Kamdhenu Vishwavidyalaya, Durg, Chhattisgarh
14   Dr Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli Distt, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra
15   Dr Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, Maharashtra
16   Dr Yashwant Singh Parmar Univ of Horticulture & Forestry, Nauni, Himachal Pradesh
17   Dr YSR Horticultural University, West Godavari Dist., Tadepalligudem, Andhra Pradesh
18   Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttaranchal
19   Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University, Ludhiana, Punjab
20   Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh
21   Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh
22   Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, Gujarat
23   Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar, Karnataka
24   Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, Kerala
25   Kerala University of Fisheries & Ocean Studies, Kochi, Kerala
26   Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
27   Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Hisar, Haryana
28   Nanaji Deshmukh Veterinary Science University, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh
29   Maharana Pratap Univ. of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur, Rajasthan
30   Maharashtra Animal Science & Fishery University, Nagpur, Maharashtra
31   Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, Maharashtra
32   Manyavar Shri Kanshiram Ji University of Agriculture and Technology, Banda, Uttar Pradesh
33   Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh
34   Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat
35   Orissa Univ. of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneshwar, Orissa
36   Prof. Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad
37   Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab
38   Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner, Rajasthan,
39   Rajendra Agricultural University, Samastipur, Bihar
40   Rajmata Vijayraje Sciendia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior, MP
41   Rani Laxmi Bai Central Agricultural University, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh
42   Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Modipuram, Meerut, Uttar
43   Sardarkrushinagar-Dantiwada Agricultural University, Distt Banaskantha, Gujarat
44   Sher-E-Kashmir Univ of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Jammu, J&K
45   Sher-E-Kashmir Univ of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir, Shrinagar, Jammu &
46   Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner
47   Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati
48   Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner,Rajasthan
49   Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
50   Tamil Nadu Fisheries University, Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu
51   Tamil Nadu Veterinary & Animal Science University, Chennai, Tamilnadu
52   University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka
53   University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka
54   University of Agricultural Sciences, Shimoga, Karnataka
 55     University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot, Karnataka
 56     University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka
 57     UP Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhaya Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwa Vidhyalaya evam Go
        Anusandhan Sansthan, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh
 58     Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand
 59     Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Coach Bihar,West Bengal
 60     Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani, Maharashtra
 61     West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, West Bengal
 62     Sri Konda Laxman Telangana State Horticultural University, Rajendra Nagar Campus,
 63     Kamdhenu University, Gandhinagar, Gujarat


CIAT International Centre for Tropical Agriculture: Cali, Columbia
CIFOR Center for International Forestry Research: Jakarta, Indonesia
CIMMYT International Centre for Wheat and Maize Improvement: Baton, Mexico
CIP International Potato Centre: Lima, Peru
IBPGR International Board for Plant Genetic Resources: Rome, Italy
ICARDA International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas: Beruit, Lebanon
ICGES International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology: Triesta, Italy
ICRAF International Centre for Research in Agro forestry: Nairobi, Kenya
ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics: Hyderabad,
IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute: Washington, USA
IITA International Institute of Tropical Agriculture: Ibadan, Nigeria
IIMI International Irrigation Management Institute: Colombo, Srilanka
ILRI International Livestock Research Institute: Nairobi, Kenya
INSFFER International Network on Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Evaluation on Rice: New Delhi,
IPGRI International Plant Genetic Resource Institute: Rome, Italy
ISNAR International Service for National Agricultural Research: Netherlands
IRRI International Rice Research Institute: Manila, Phillipines
IWMI International Water Management Institute: Columbo, Sri Lanka
WFC World Fish Centre : Bayan Lepas, Malaysia
WARDAWest African Rice Development Association: Monrovia, Liberia
9. Crop significance and classification

        A crop is "a plant or animal or plant or animal product that can be grown and
harvested extensively for profit or subsistence." Crop may refer either to the harvested parts
or to the harvest in a more refined state (husked, shelled, etc.). Most crops are cultivated in
agriculture or aquaculture. Most crops are harvested as food for humans or livestock (fodder
crops). Some crops are gathered from the wild (including intensive gathering, e.g. ginseng).

        Important non-food crops include horticulture, floriculture and industrial crops.
Horticulture crops include plants used for other crops (e.g. fruit trees). Floriculture crops
include bedding plants, houseplants, flowering garden and pot plants, cut cultivated greens,
and cut flowers. Industrial crops are produced for clothing (fiber crops), biofuel (energy
crops, algae fuel), or medicine (medicinal plants). Animals and microbes (fungi, bacteria or
viruses) are rarely referred to as crops. Animals raised for human or animal consumption are
referred to as livestock and microbes as microbiological cultures. Microbes are not typically
grown for food itself, but are rather used to alter food

Classification of Crop Plants
Importance of classifying the Crop Plants:
       1. To get acquainted with crops.
       2. To understand the requirement of soil & water different crops.
       3. To know adaptability of crops.
       4. To know the growing habit of crops.
       5. To understand climatic requirement of different crops.
       6. To know the economic produce of the crop plant & its use.
       7. To know the growing season of the crop
       8. Overall to know the actual condition required to the cultivation of plant.

Classification based on climate:

1. Tropical: Crops grow well in warm & hot climate. E.g. Rice, sugarcane, Jowar etc
2. Temperate: Crops grow well in cool climate. E.g. Wheat, Oats, Gram, Potato etc.

Classification Based on growing season:

   1. Kharif/Rainy/Monsoon crops: The crops grown in monsoon months from June to
      Oct-Nov, Require warm, wet weather at major period of crop growth, also required
      short day length for flowering. E.g. Cotton, Rice, Jowar, bajara.
   2. Rabi/winter/cold seasons crops: require winter season to grow well from Oct to
      March month. Crops grow well in cold and dry weather. Require longer day length for
      flowering. E.g. Wheat, gram, sunflower etc.
   3. Summer/Zaid crops: crops grown in summer month from March to June. Require
   warm day weather for major growth period and longer ay length for flowering. E.g.
   Groundnuts, Watermelon, Pumpkins, Gourds.

Use/Agronomic classification:

   1. Grain crops: may be cereals as millets cereals are the cultivated grasses grown for
      their edible starchy grains. The larger grain used as staple food is cereals. E.g. rice,
      Jowar, wheat, maize, barley, and millets are the small grained cereals which are of
      minor importance as food. E.g. Bajara.
   2. Pulse/legume crops: seeds of leguminous crops plant used as food. On splitting they
      produced dal which is rich in protein. E.g. green gram, black gram, soybean, pea,
      cowpea etc.
   3. Oil seeds crops: crop seeds are rich in fatty acids, are used to extract vegetable oil to
      meet various requirements. E.g. Groundnut, Mustard, Sunflower, Sesamum, linseed
   4. Forage Crop: It refers to vegetative matter fresh as preserved utilized as food
      for animals. Crop cultivated & used for fickler, hay, silage. Ex- sorghum, elephant
      grass, guinea grass, berseem & other pulse bajara etc.
   5. Fiber crops: crown for fiber yield. Fiber may be obtained from seed. E.g. Cotton,
      steam, jute, Mesta, sun hemp, flax.
   6. Roots crops: Roots are the economic produce in root crop. E.g. sweet, potato, sugar
      beet, carrot, turnip etc.
   7. Tuber crop: crop whose edible portion is not a root but a short thickened
      underground stem. E.g. Potato, elephant, yam.
   8. Sugar crops: the two important crops are sugarcane and sugar beet cultivated for
      production for sugar.
   9. Starch crops: grown for the production of starch. E.g. tapioca, potato, sweet potato.
   10. Dreg crop: used for preparation for medicines. E.g. tobacco, mint, pyrethrum.
   11. Spices & condiments/spices crops: crop plants as their products are used to flavor
      taste and sometime color the fresh preserved food. E.g. ginger, garlic, chili, cumin
      onion, coriander, cardamom, pepper, turmeric etc.
   12. Vegetables crops: may be leafy as fruity vegetables. E.g. Palak, mentha, Brinjal,
   13. Green manure crop: grown and incorporated into soil to increase fertility of soil.
       E.g. sun hemp.
   14. Medicinal & aromatic crops: Medicinal plants includes cinchona, isabgoli, opium
       poppy, senna, belladonna, rauwolfra, iycorice and aromatic plants such as lemon
       grass, citronella grass, palmorsa, Japanese mint, peppermint, rose geranicem, jasmine,
       henna etc.

Classification based on life of crops/duration of crops:

   1. Seasonal crops: A crop completes its life cycle in one season- Kharif, Rabi. summer.
      E.g. rice, jowar, wheat etc.
   2. Two seasonal crops: crops complete its life in two seasons. E.g. Cotton, turmeric,
   3. Annual crops: Crops require one full year to complete its life in cycle. E.g.
   4. Biennial crops: which grows in one year and flowers, fructifies & perishes the next
      year E.g. Banana, Papaya.
   5. Perennial crops: crops live for several years. E.g. Fruit crops, mango, guava etc.

Classification based on cultural method/water:

1. Rain fed: crops grow only on rain water. E.g. Jowar, Bajara, Mung etc.
2. Irrigated crops: Crops grows with the help of irrigation water. E.g. Chili, sugarcane,
Banana, papaya etc.

Classification based on root system:

   1. Tap root system: The main root goes deep into the soil. E.g. Tur, Grape, Cotton etc.
   2. Adventitious/Fiber rooted: The crops whose roots are fibrous shallow & spreading
      into the soil. E.g. Cereal crops, wheat, rice etc.

Classification based on economic importance:

   1. Cash crop: Grown for earning money. E.g. Sugarcane, cotton.
   2. Food crops: Grown for raising food grain for the population and & fodder for cattle.
      E.g. Jowar, wheat, rice etc.

Classification based on No. of cotyledons:

   1. Monocots or monocotyledons: Having one cotyledon in the seed. E.g. all cereals &
   2. Dicots or dicotyledonous: Crops having two cotyledons in the seed. E.g. all legumes
      & pulses.
Classification based on photosynthesis’ (Reduction of CO2/Dark reaction):

   1. C3 Plants: Photo respiration is high in these plants C3 Plants have lower water use
       efficiency. The initial product of C assimilation in the three ‘C’ compounds. The
       enzyme     involved    in   the   primary carboxylation        is   ribulose-1,-Biophospate
       carboxylose. E.g. Rice, soybeans, wheat, barley cottons, potato.
   2. C4 plants: The primary product of C fixation is four carbon compounds which may
       be malice acid or acerbic acid. The enzymes responsible for carboxylation are
       phosphoenol Pyruvic acid carboxylose which has high affinity for CO2 and capable of
       assimilation CO2 event at lower concentration, photorespiration is negligible.
       Photosynthetic rates are higher in C4 than C3 plants for the same amount of stomatal
       opening. These are said to be drought resistant & they are able to grow better even
       under moisture stress. C4 plants translate photosynthates rapidly. E.g. Sorghum,
       Maize, napter grass, sesame etc.
   3. Cam plants: (Cassulacean acid metabolism plants) the stomata open at night and
       large amount of CO2 is fixed as a malice acid which is stored in vacuoles. During day
       stomata are closed. There is no possibility of CO2 entry. CO2 which is stored as
       malice acid is broken down & released as CO2. In these plants there is negligible
       transpiration. C4 & cam plant have high water use efficiency. These are highly
       drought resistant. E.g. Pineapple, sisal & agave.

Classification based on length of photoperiod required for floral initiation:

Most plants are influenced by relative length of the day & night, especially for floral
initiation, the effect on plant is known as photoperiodism depending on the length of
photoperiod required for floral ignition, plants are classified as:

1. Short-day plants: Flower initiation takes plate when days are short less then ten
hours. E.g. rice, Jowar, green gram, black gram etc.

2. Long day’s plants: require long days are more than ten hours for floral ignition. E.g.
Wheat, Barley,

3. Day neutral plants: Photoperiod does not have much influence for phase change for these
plants. E.g. Cotton, sunflower. The rate of the flowering initiation depends on how short or
long is photoperiod. Shorter the days, more rapid initiation of flowering in short days plants.
Longer the days more rapid are the initiation of flowering in long days plants.
10. National agricultural setup in India

       The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is an autonomous organization
under the Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE), Ministry of
Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Government of India. Formerly known as Imperial Council
of Agricultural Research, it was established on 16 July 1929 as a registered society under
the Societies Registration Act, 1860 in pursuance of the report of the Royal Commission on
Agriculture. The ICAR has its headquarters at New Delhi. With 101 ICAR institutes and 63
agricultural universities spread across the country this is one of the largest national
agricultural systems in the world.

       The ICAR has played a pioneering role in ushering Green Revolution and subsequent
developments in agriculture in India through its research and technology development that
has enabled the country to increase the production of food grains by 5 times,
horticultural crops by 9.5 times, fish by 12.5 times , milk 7.8 times and eggs 39 times
since 1951 to 2014, thus making a visible impact on the national food and nutritional

As of June 2017 ICAR has following institutions

      Four Deemed Universities
      64 ICAR Institutions
      Six National Bureaux
      13 Project Directorates
      15 National Research Centres
      138 Substations of ICAR Institutes
      59 AICRPs (All India Coordinated Research Projects)
      10 Other Projects
      19 Network Projects
      Eight Zonal Project Directorates
      665 Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) (660 as of 2017)


      Initiation of the first All-India Co-ordinated Research Project on Maize in 1957
      Status of Deemed University accorded to IARI in 1958
     Establishment of the first State Agricultural University on land grant pattern at
      Pantnagar in 1960
     Placement of different agricultural research institutes under the purview of ICAR in
     Creation of Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE) in the
      Ministry of Agriculture in 1973
     Opening of first Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) at Puducherry (Pondicherry) in 1974
     Establishment of Agricultural Research Service and Agricultural Scientists'
      Recruitment Board in 1975
     Launching of Lab-to-Land Programme and the National Agricultural Research Project
      (NARP) in 1979
     Initiation of Institution-Village Linkage Programme (IVLP) in 1995
     Establishment of National Gene Bank at New Delhi in 1996
     The ICAR was bestowed with the King Baudouin Award in 1989 for its valuable
      contribution in ushering in the Green Revolution. Again awarded King Baudouin
      Award in 2004 for research and development efforts made under partnership in Rice
      Wheat Consortium.
     Launching of National Agricultural Technology Project (NATP) in 1998 and National
      Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP) in 2005
     As of July, 2006 it has developed a vaccine against bird flu. The vaccine was
      developed at the High Security Animal Disease Laboratory, Bhopal, the only facility
      in the country to conduct tests for the H5N1 variant of bird flu. It was entrusted with
      the task of developing a vaccine by the ICAR after the Avian Influenza outbreak in
      February. The ICAR was provided Rs. 8 crore for the purpose.
     2009: In December 2009, it announced that it was considering a policy to provide
      open access to its research.
     2010: In March 2010, ICAR made its two flagship journals (Indian Journal of
      Agricultural Sciences and Indian Journal of Animal Sciences) as Open Access
     2013: On 13 September 2013, it announced the Open Access Policy and committed
      for making all the public funded scholarly research outputs openly available via open
      access repositories.
     ICAR scientists were the first in the world to sequence the pigeon pea genome. it was
      a purely indigenous effort by 31 scientists led by Nagendra Kumar Singh of NRCPB.


     Plan, Undertake, Coordinate and Promote Research and Technology Development for
      Sustainable Agriculture.
     Aid, Impart and Coordinate Agricultural Education to enable Quality Human
      Resource Development.
     Frontline Extension for technology application, adoption, knowledge management
      and capacity development for agri-based rural development.
      Policy, Cooperation and Consultancy in Agricultural Research, Education &


      Union Minister of Agriculture is the ex-officio President of the ICAR Society
      Secretary, Department of Agricultural Research and Education, Ministry of
       Agriculture, Government of India and Director General, ICAR is the Principal
       Executive Officer of the Council
      Governing Body is the policy-making authority
      Agricultural Scientists' Recruitment Board
      Deputy Directors-General (8)
      Additional Secretary (DARE) and Secretary (ICAR)
      Additional Secretary and Financial Advisor
      Assistant Directors-General (24)
      National Director, National Agricultural Innovation Project
      Directorate of Knowledge Management in Agriculture

ICAR Awards 2016

The Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi announces the following ICAR
   1. ICAR Challenge Award

              To find a solution for any immediate or long-standing problem, or limitation
       in agriculture, which is coming in the way of agricultural development and/ or
       enhancing productivity in any major agricultural, horticultural or animal/fish product,
       ICAR has instituted a Challenge Award.

   2. Sardar Patel Outstanding ICAR Institution Award

             In order to recognize outstanding performance by the ICAR institutes, DUs of
       ICAR, CAU and State Agricultural Universities

   3. Chaudhary Devi Lal Outstanding All India Coordinated Research Project

              In order to recognize outstanding performance of the AICRP and its
       cooperating centers and to provide incentive for outstanding performance in terms of
       linkages and research output and its impact.
4. Jawaharlal Nehru Award for P.G. Outstanding Doctoral Thesis Research in
   Agricultural and Allied Sciences

           In order to promote high quality doctoral thesis research in priority/frontier
   areas of agriculture and allied sciences, ICAR has instituted 18 awards of Rs. 50,000/-
   in cash plus a citation and silver medal (gold polished) each to be awarded annually
   for the outstanding original research work in agriculture and allied sciences.

5. Panjabrao Deshmukh Outstanding Woman Scientist Award

   All women scientists engaged in research in agricultural and allied subjects /extension
   in a recognized institutions are eligible for this award.

6. Vasantrao Naik Award for Outstanding Research Application in Dry Land
   Farming Systems

          In order to promote outstanding research and application in priority aspects of
   dry land farming systems & water conservation.

7. Jagjivan Ram Abhinav Kisan Puruskar /Jagjivan Ram Innovative Farmer
   Award (National/Zonal)

            In order to recognize the outstanding contributions of innovative farmers for
   initiatives in development adoption, modification and dissemination of improved
   technology and practices for increased income with sustainability, following national
   and zonal awards are announced: (i) National: One annual national award (ii)Zonal:
   Eight annual awards

8. N.G. Ranga Farmer Award for Diversified Agriculture

           In order to recognize outstanding contribution of innovative farmers for
   diversified agriculture, one annual award of Rs 1.00 lakh in any of the areas of
   Diversified Agriculture is given by ICAR.

9. Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyay Antyodaya Krishi Puruskar (National & Zonal)

           In order to recognize the contributions of marginal, small and landless
   farmers for developing sustainable integrated models of farming, the ICAR has
   instituted Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyay Antyodaya Krishi Puruskar (National &
   Zonal) annually.

10. Haldhar Organic Farmer Award

           In order to recognize outstanding contribution of organic farmers ICAR has
   instituted an award titled Haldhar Organic Farmer Award
11. Chaudhary Charan Singh Award for Excellence in Journalism in Agricultural
    Research and Development

          Journalists for Print Media [Hindi Journalism/ English Journalism/ Journalism
   in Regional languages (four awards)] and Electronic media (two awards).

12. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed Award for Outstanding Research in Tribal Farming

          The award is primarily meant for any person or team (with two or three
   associates, if any) engaged in applied research and its applications in tribal areas of
   the country aimed at improving the biological resources and livelihoods or in original
   work directly applicable to tribal farming system.

13. Bharat Ratna Dr C. Subramaniam Award for Outstanding Teachers 2016

          In order to provide recognition to outstanding teachers and to promote quality
   teaching in the field of Agriculture, four outstanding teacher awards are given

14. Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyay Krishi Vigyan Protshahan Puraskar ( National &
    Zonal) 2017

           These awards promote healthy competition among Krishi Vigyan Kendras
   (KVKs) at Zonal and National Level for application of science and technology in

15. Dr Rajendra Prasad Puruskar for technical books in Hindi in Agricultural and
    Allied Sciences 2016

           These awards recognize to authors of original Hindi Technical books in
   agriculture and allied sciences & incentivize Indian writers to write original standard
   works in agricultural and allied sciences in Hindi. The award is meant for individuals
   as well as teams of authors.

16. Lal Bahadur Shastri Outstanding Young Scientist Award 2016

          In order to recognize the talented young scientists who have shown
   extraordinary originality and dedication in their research programmes, four individual
   awards are to be given annually.
17. Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Award for Outstanding Research in Agricultural Sciences

           In order to recognize outstanding research in agricultural and allied sciences &
   provide incentives for excellence in agricultural research, this award is to be given to
   agricultural scientists for outstanding contribution in specified areas. A total of four
   awards are provided under the award.

18. Swami Sahajanand Saraswati Outstanding Extension Scientist Award 2016

          The award is exclusively meant for individual extension scientist/teacher for
   excellence in agricultural extension methodology and education work. Two
   individual awards have been provided.

19. NASI-ICAR Award For Innovation and Research on Farm Implements -2016

          In order to reduce drudgery of farm women by development of farm
   implements and to encourage researchers and innovators to develop farm implements
   for farm women, ICAR and NASI have instituted the NASI-ICAR Award For
   Innovation and Research on Farm Implements.

20. Hari Om Ashram Trust Award for the biennium 2014-2015

           In order to recognize the outstanding research on long term problem in
   agricultural and allied sciences, four individual awards have been instituted.
State Agricultural Universities
       Agricultural Universities or 'AUs' are mostly public universities in India that are
engaged in teaching, research and extension in agriculture and related disciplines. In India,
agricultural education has evolved into a large and distinct domain, often separately from
other areas of higher education. Many of these universities are member of a registered
society, the Indian Agricultural Universities Association. Indian Council of Agricultural
Research is the main regulatory authority of agricultural education in India, while the
disciplines of veterinary medicine and forestry are regulated by the Veterinary Council of
India and Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education respectively. A SAU is usually
a university established by an act of state legislature with a dedicated mandate of teaching,
research and extension in agriculture and related disciplines.

Deemed universities
     Deemed universities are not established by an act of independent legislation, but
declared to function as universities by Government of India under Section 3 of the University
Grants Commission Act 1956. As per this section, "The Central Government may, on the
advice of the Commission, declare by notification in the Official Gazette, that any institution
for higher education, other than a University, shall be deemed to be a University for the
purposes of this Act, and on such a declaration being made, all the provisions of this Act shall
apply to such institution as if it were a University within the meaning of clause (f) of section
2". Thus, the provision of deemed universities enables the central government to incorporate
an agricultural university without the need of Parliamentary legislation, thus circumventing
the complexities of federal division for legislative powers, which has put agriculture in the
state list.

Central agricultural universities

There are currently 3 central agriculture university in India, and they are

        Central Agricultural University Imphal
        Rani Laxmibai Central Agricultural University Jhansi
        Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agriculture University, Samasthipur Bihar

Upcoming or proposed central agricultural university

        Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana
        Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar
   The Central Agricultural University was established by an act of Parliament, the Central
Agricultural University Act 1992 (No.40 of 1992). The Act came into effect on 26 January
1993 with the issue of necessary notification by the Department of Agricultural Research and
Education (DARE), Government of India. The university became functional with the joining
of the first vice-chancellor on 13 September 1993.

Other universities involved in agricultural education

Central universities

Central universities, including Banaras Hindu University, Aligarh Muslim University, Visva-
Bharati University, Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University, Nagaland University
and Sikkim University have distinct faculties in agriculture. A few central universities also
have affiliated agricultural colleges.

State universities

Bundelkhand University, Lucknow University, Kanpur University, Gorakhpur University,
Meerut University, Calcutta University and many other state universities have distinct
agriculture faculties. Most of these have a number of affiliated agriculture colleges.

Institute of national importance

IIT Kharagpur has a very strong programme in agricultural engineering, while IIM A and IIM
Lucknow have leading programmes in agribusiness. Central Food Technological Research
Institute under AcSIR is the premier institute in food technology.

Private universities

Amity University has a programme in organic farming

Annamalai University offers Undergraduate, Postgraduate and Diploma courses through
Faculty of Agriculture

Rai Technology University offers B.Sc and M.Sc programs in Ag riculture through its School
of Agricultural Sciences and Forestry

Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare

       The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare (formerly Ministry of Agriculture),
a branch of the Government of India, is the apex body for formulation and administration of
the rules and regulations and laws related to agriculture in India. The 3 broad areas of scope
for the Ministry are agriculture, food processing and co-operation. The agriculture ministry is
headed by Minister of Agriculture Radha Mohan Singh. S S Ahluwalia, Sudarshan Bhagat &
Parshottam Rupalai are the Ministers of State. The combined efforts of Central Government,
State Governments and the farming community have succeeded in achieving record
production of 244.78 million tonnes of foodgrains during 2010-11.


       Department of Revenue and Agriculture and Commerce was set up in June 1871 to
deal with all the agricultural matters in India. Until this ministry was established, matters
related to agriculture were within the portfolio of the Home Department.             In 1881,
Department of Revenue & Agriculture was set up to deal with combined portfolios of
education, health, agriculture, revenue. However, In 1947, Department of Agriculture was
redesignated as Ministry of Agriculture.

Structure & Departments

The Ministry of Agriculture and farmers Welfare consists of the following three

      Department of Agriculture, Co-operation and Farmers Welfare.
      Department of Agriculture Research and Education.
      Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries.

A leading program of the Ministry is the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana, which was launched
in 2007 on the recommendations of the National Development Council of India. This
program sought to improve the overall state of agriculture in India by providing stronger
planning, better co-ordination and greater funding to improve productivity and overall output.
The total budget for this program in 2009-10 was just over INR 38,000 crore.
11. Current scenario of Indian agriculture

   1. Organic Farming

       Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the
20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. It relies on fertilizers of
organic origin such as compost, manure, green manure, and bone meal and places emphasis
on techniques such as crop rotation and companion planting. Biological pest control, mixed
cropping and the fostering of insect predators are encouraged. In general, organic standards
are designed to allow the use of naturally occurring substances while prohibiting or strictly
limiting synthetic substances. For instance, naturally occurring pesticides such as pyrethrin
and rotenone are permitted, while synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are generally prohibited.
Synthetic substances that are allowed include, for example, copper sulfate, elemental sulfur
and Ivermectin. Genetically modified organisms, nanomaterials, human sewage sludge, plant
growth regulators, hormones, and antibiotic use in livestock husbandry are prohibited.
Organic agricultural methods are internationally regulated and legally enforced by many
nations, based in large part on the standards set by the International Federation of Organic
Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), an international umbrella organization for organic farming
organizations established in 1972.

“Organic agriculture can be defined as: an integrated farming system that strives for
sustainability, the enhancement of soil fertility and biological diversity whilst, with rare
exceptions, prohibiting synthetic pesticides, antibiotics, synthetic fertilizers, genetically
modified organisms, and growth hormones”.

   2. Farming system, Definition

       Farming system is a resource management strategy to achieve economic and sustained
agricultural production to meet diverse requirements of farm livelihood while preserving
resource base and maintaining a high level of environment quality (Lal and Miller 1990).

Key principles
• Cyclic The farming system is essentially cyclic (organic resources – livestock – land –
crops). Therefore, management decisions related to one component may affect the others.
• Rational Using crop residues more rationally is an important route out of poverty. For
resource-poor farmers, the correct management of crop residues, together with an optimal
allocation of scarce resources, leads to sustainable production.
• Ecologically sustainable Combining ecological sustainability and economic viability, the
integrated livestock-farming system maintains and improves agricultural productivity while
also reducing negative environmental impacts.
Benefits or Advantages of Integrated Farming System
1) Productivity
2) Profitability
3) Potentiality or Sustainability
4) Balanced Food
5) Environmental Safety
6) Recycling
7) Income Rounds the year
8) Adoption of New Technology
9) Saving Energy
10) Meeting Fodder crisis
11) Solving Fuel and Timber Crisis
12) Employment Generation
13) Agro – industries
14) Increasing Input Efficiency

   3. Precision Farming
Precision agriculture (PA) or satellite farming or site specific crop management (SSCM)
is a farming management concept based on observing, measuring and responding to inter and
intra-field variability in crops.
Precision agriculture aims to optimize field-level management with regard to:
 Crop science: matching farming practices closely to crop needs (e.g. fertilizer inputs);

   Environmental protection: reducing environmental risks (e.g. limiting leaching of
   Economics: boosting competitiveness through more efficient practices (e.g. improved
        management of fertilizer usage and other inputs).

Precision agriculture also provides farmers with a wealth of information to:
      build up a record of their farm;
      improve decision-making;
      foster greater traceability
      enhance marketing of farm products
      improve lease arrangements and relationship with landlords
      enhance the inherent quality of farm products (e.g. protein level in bread-flour wheat)

Emerging technologies

      Self-steering tractors have existed for some time now, as John Deere equipment
works like a plane on autopilot. Technology is advancing towards driverless machinery
programmed by GPS to spread fertilizer or plow land. Agricultural robots, also known as
AgBots, already exist, but advanced harvesting robots are being developed to identify ripe
fruits, adjust to their shape and size, and carefully pluck them from branches.
Drones and satellite imagery
      Advances in drone and satellite technology benefits precision farming because drones
take high quality images, while satellites capture the bigger picture. Light aircraft pilots can
combine aerial photography with data from satellite records to predict future yields based on
the current level of field biomass. Aggregated images can create contour maps to track where
water flows, determine variable-rate seeding, and create yield maps of areas that were more
or less productive.
The Internet of things
      The Internet of things is the network of physical objects outfitted with electronics that
enable data collection and aggregation. For example, farmers can spectroscopically measure
nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in liquid manure, which is notoriously inconsistent.[21]
They can then scan the ground to see where cows have already urinated and apply fertilizer to
only the spots that need it. This cuts fertilizer use by up to 30%.

   4. Micro irrigation
Definition of Micro Irrigation:

It can be defined as the application of water at low volume and frequent interval under low
pressure to plant root zone.

       Besides the land, water also an important factor in the progress of Agriculture. In vast
country like India with a geographical area of 328 million hectares less than 45% area is
cultivated of this cultivated area only 35% i.e. 65 million ha gets irrigation. This could be
achieved by introducing advanced and sophisticated methods of irrigation viz. drip irrigation,
sprinkler, etc.

Micro-sprayers/sprinklers is installed on a stake, wetting foliage and a larger surface area
of 4-6 feet.
Micro-bubblers are installed on short stakes, have solid spray and used to establish and
maintain larger plants and have less evaporation than micro-sprayers/sprinklers.
Drippers apply water directly to the soil resulting in minimal evaporation, attach to a
distribution tube or spaghetti tubing and are used for widely spaced plants or containers.
Drip tubing contains factory installed emitters inside the tubing that are pressure
and has fewer parts/pieces than other types of microirrigation.

    5. Conservation Agriculture

Definition of Conservation Agriculture
        It is a way of farming that conserves, improves and makes more efficient use of
natural resources through integrated management of available resources combined with
external inputs. It contributes to environmental conservation as well as to enhanced and
sustain agricultural production. It can also be referred to as resource efficient agriculture.

Conservation agriculture has three basic principles:

               1. Disturb the soil as little as possible: farmers plough and hoe to improve the
                    soil structure and control weeds. But in the long term, they actually destroy the
                    soil structure and contribute to declining soil fertility.
               2.   Mulching: cover crops protect the soil from erosion and limit weed growth
                    throughout the year.
               3. Mix and rotate crops with legume based cropping system

    6. Nanotechnology
    It deals with the physical, chemical, and biological properties of matter considered at
nanoscale (1–100 nm) and their implications for the welfare of human beings. Nanomaterial
is an ingredient containing particles with at least one dimension that approximately measures
1–100 nm. It has the ability to control and/or manufacture matter at this scale which results in
the development of innovative and novel properties like increase in the surface area of the
particles that can be utilized to address numerous technical and societal issues
Table 1: Classification of nanomaterials.

Categories of nanomaterials                Description
Nanoparticles                              Submicron or even ultramicron size particles
                                           obtainable as high performance radiant resistant
                                           materials, magnetic materials, solar battery
                                           materials, packaging materials, and magnetic fluid
Nanotubes and nanofibers                   Nanometer size long linear material, optical
                                           materials,    micro     conductors,      microfibers,
                                           nanotubes of PEEK, PET and PTFE
Nanofilm                                   Films utilized as gas catalyst materials
Nanoblock                                  Nanometer crystalline materials produced by
                                           substantial accuracy, developing controlled
                                           crystallization or nanoparticles
Nanocomposites                             Composite nanomaterials, which use nanosize
                                           reinforcements instead of conventional fibers or
Nanocrystalline solids                     Polycrystals with the size of 1 to 10 nm and 50%
                                           or more of solid consists of inherent interface
                                           between crystals and different orientations. The
                                           clusters that formed through homogenous
                                           nucleation and grow by coalescence and
                                           incorporation of atoms
      Table 2: Commercial uses of nanoparticles

Type of            Product name &                  Nano                    Purpose
product            manufacturer                    content
Super” combined Pakistan-US Science          Nano-clay capsule             Slow release of active
fertilizer and   and Technology              contains        growth        ingredients, Reducing
pesticide          Cooperative Program          stimulants and             application rates
                                             biocontrol agents
Herbicide           Tamil Nadu Agricultural Nano-formulated                Designed to attack the seed coat
                    University (India) and                                 of weeds, destroy soil seed
                    Technologico de Monterry                               banks and prevent weed
                    (Mexico)                                               germination
Pesticides,         Australian Common        Nano-encapsulated             Very small size of nanocapsules
including           wealth Scientific and    active ingredients            increases their potency and may
herbicides          Industrial Research                                    enable targeted release of active
                    Organization                                           ingredients
Nutritional         Nanoceuticals „mycrohydrin‟ Molecularcaes 1-5          Nano-sized mycrohydrin has
supplement          powder, RBC Life sciences   nm diameter made           increased       potency      and
                                                from silica mineral        bioavailability. Exposure to
                                                hydride comple             moisture releases H- ions and
                                                                           acts as a powerful antioxidant.
Nutritional drink   Oat Chocolate                  300nm particles of      Nano-sized iron particles have
                    Nutritional Drink              iron (SunActive Fe)     increased      reactivity   and
                    Mix, Toddler Health                                    bioavailability.
Food                Adhesive for                   50-150nm starch         These nanoparticles have 400
packaging           McDonald‟s burger              nanospheres             times the surface area of natural
                    containers,                                            starch particles. When used as
                    Ecosynthetix                                           an adhesive they require less
                                                                           water and thus less time and
                                                                           energy to dry.
Food additive       Aquasol preservative,          Nanoscale micelle       Surrounding active ingredients
                    AquaNova                       (capsule) of lipophilic within soluble nanocapsulesb
                                                   or water insoluble      increases absorption within the
                                                   substances              body (including individual
Plant growth        Primo Maxx,                    100nm particle size     Nano-sized particles increases
treatment           Syngenta                       emulsion                the     potency     of     active
                                                                           ingredients, potentially
                                                                             reducing the quantity to be

      Place of Indian Agriculture in Indian Economy

      The agriculture sector employs nearly half of the workforce in the country. However, it
      contributes to 17.5 % of the GDP ( at current prices in 2015-16).
Over the past few decades, the manufacturing and services sectors have increasingly
contributed to the growth of the economy, while the agriculture sector‟s contribution has
decreased from more than 50% of GDP in the 1950s to 15.4% in 2015-16.
 India‟s production of food grains has been increasing every year and India is among the
top producers of several crops such as wheat, rice, pulses, sugarcane and cotton. It is the
highest producer of milk and second highest producer of fruits and vegetables.
In 2013, India contributed 25% to the world‟s pulses production, the highest for any one
country, 22% to the rice production and 13% to the wheat production. It also accounted for
about 25% of the total quantity of cotton produced, besides being the second highest exporter
of cotton for the past several years. However, the agricultural yield (quantity of a crop
produced per unit of land) is found to be lower in the case of most crops, as compared to
other top producing countries such as China, Brazil and the United States.
Agricultural growth has been fairly volatile over the past decade, ranging from 5.8% in
2005-06 to 0.4% in 2009-10 and -0.2% in 2014-15.
Total production of food grains increased from 51million tonnes in 1950-51 to 252 million
tonnes in 2015-16.
According to the second advance estimate by the Ministry of Agriculture, food grains
production is estimated to be 272 million tonnes in 2016-17.
The production of wheat and rice took off after the green revolution in the 1960s, and as of
2015-16, wheat and rice accounted for 78% of the food grains production in the country.

Importance Of Agriculture
       Agriculture plays a crucial role in the life of an economy. It is the backbone of our
economic system. Agriculture not only provides food and raw material but also employment
opportunities to a very large proportion of population. The following facts clearly highlight
the importance of agriculture in this country.
1. Source of Livelihood: In India the main occupation of our working population is
agriculture. About 70 per cent of our population is directly engaged in agriculture. In
advanced countries, this ratio is very small being 5 per cent in U.K., 4 per cent in USA., 16
per cent in Australia, 14 per cent in France, 21 per cent in Japan and 32 per cent in USSR.
2. Contribution to National Income: Agriculture is the premier source of our national income.
According to National Income Committee and C.S.O., in 1960-61, 52 per cent of national
income was contributed by agriculture and allied occupations. This was further reduced to 28
per cent in 1999-2000.
3. Supply of Food and Fodder: Agriculture sector also provides fodder for livestock (35.33
crores). Cow and buffalo provide protective food in the form of milk and they also provide
draught power for farm operations. Moreover, it also meets the food requirements of the
4. Importance in International Trade: It is the agricultural sector that feeds country's trade.
Agricultural products like tea, sugar, rice, tobacco, spices etc. constitute the main items of
exports of India. If the development process of agriculture is smooth, export increases and
imports are reduced considerably.
5. Marketable Surplus: The development of agricultural sector leads to marketable surplus.
As agricultural development takes place, output increases and marketable surplus expands.
This can be sold to other countries.
6. Source of Raw Material: Agriculture has been the source of raw materials to the leading
industries like cotton and jute textiles, sugar, tobacco, edible and non-edible oils etc. All these
depend directly on agriculture. Apart from this, many others like processing of fruits and
vegetables, dal milling, rice husking, gur making also depend on agriculture for their raw
7. Importance in Transport: Agriculture is the main support for railways and roadways which
transport bulk of agricultural produce from farm to the mandies and factories. Internal trade is
mostly in agricultural products. Besides, the finance of the govt, also, to the large extent,
depends upon the prosperity of agricultural sector.
8. Contribution to Foreign Exchange Resources: Agricultural sector constitutes an important
place in the country's export trade. According to an estimate, agricultural commodities like
jute, tobacco, oilseeds, spices, raw cotton, tea and coffee accounted for about 18 per cent of
the total value of exports in India.
9. Vast Employment Opportunities: The agricultural sector is significant as it provides greater
employment opportunities in the construction of irrigation projects, drainage system and
other such activities. With the fast growing population and high incidence of unemployment
and disguised unemployment in backward countries, it is only agriculture sector which
provides more employment chances to the labour force.
10. Source of Saving: Improvement in agriculture can go a long way in increasing savings. It
is seen that rich farmers have started saving especially after green revolution in the country.
This surplus amount can be invested in agriculture sector for further; development of the
11. Source of Government Income: In India, many state governments get sizeable revenue
from the agriculture sector. Land revenue, agricultural income tax, irrigation tax and some
other types of taxes are being levied on agriculture by the state governments.
12. Basis of Economic Development: The development of agriculture provides necessary
capital for the development of other sectors like industry, transport and foreign trade. In fact,
a balanced development of agriculture and industry is the need of the day.

          Three agriculture sector challenges will be important to India‟s overall development
and the improved welfare of its rural poor:
1. Raising agricultural productivity per unit of land: Raising productivity per unit of land will
need to be the main engine of agricultural growth as virtually all cultivable land is farmed.
Water resources are also limited and water for irrigation must contend with increasing
industrial and urban needs.
2. Reducing rural poverty through a socially inclusive strategy that comprises both
agriculture as well as non-farm employment: Rural development must also benefit the poor,
landless, women, scheduled castes and tribes. Moreover, there are strong regional disparities:
the majority of India‟s poor are in rain-fed areas or in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic plains.
Reaching such groups has not been easy. While progress has been made-the rural population
classified as poor fell from nearly 40% in the early 1990s to below 30% by the mid-2000s
(about a 1% fall per year) –there is a clear need for a faster reduction. Hence, poverty
alleviation is a central pillar of the rural development efforts of the Government and the
World Bank.
3. Ensuring that agricultural growth responds to food security needs: The sharp rise in food-
production during India‟s Green Revolution of the 1970s enabled the country to achieve self-
sufficiency in food-grains and stave off the threat of famine. However agricultural growth in
the 1990s and 2000s slowed down, averaging about 3.5% per annum, and cereal yields have
increased by only 1.4% per annum in the 2000s. The slow-down in agricultural growth has
become a major cause for concern.
Priority areas for support
1. Enhancing agricultural productivity, competitiveness, and rural growth Promoting new
technologies and reforming agricultural research and extension
2. Improving Water Resources and Irrigation/Drainage Management:
3. Facilitating agricultural diversification to higher- value commodities:
4. Developing markets, agricultural creditand public expenditures:
5. Poverty alleviation and community actions
6. Sustaining the environment and future agricultural productivity
12. Indian agricultural concerns and prospects
    A. Ill effects of Green Revolution
    1. Degradation of land: Due to change in land use pattern and employing two and three
       crop rotation every year land quality has gone down and yield has sufferred.
    2. Degradation of land part: Due to heavy chemical fertilizer inputs land has become
       hard and carbon material has gone down.
    3. Weeds have increased: Due to heavy crop rotation pattern we do not give rest to land
       nor we have time to employ proper weed removal system which has increased weeds.
    4. Pest infestation has gone up: Pests which we used to control by bio degradable
       methods have become resistant to many pesticides and now these chemical pesticides
       have become non effective.
    5. Loss of bio diversity: Due to heavy use of chemical pesticides, insecticides and
       fertilizers we have lost many birds and friendly insects and this is a big loss in long
    6. Chemicals in water: These chemicals which we have been using in our farms go
       down and contaminate ground water which effect our and our children health.
    7. Water table has gone down: Water table has gone down due to lack of water
       harvesting systems and now we have to pull water from 300 to 400 ft. depth which
       was 40 to 50 feet earlier.
    8. Loss of old seeds: We have started using new seeds and lost old once since new once
       give better yield but due to this we have lost many important genes in these seeds.
    B. Soil retrogression and degradation
        Soil retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated
with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil. Retrogression is primarily due to soil erosion and
corresponds to a phenomenon where succession reverts the land to its natural physical state.
Degradation is an evolution, different from natural evolution, related to the local climate and
vegetation. It is due to the replacement of primary plant communities (known as climax
vegetation) by the secondary communities. This replacement modifies the humus
composition and amount, and affects the formation of the soil. It is directly related to human
Consequences of soil regression and degradation
       Yields impact: Recent increases in the human population have placed a great strain on
        the world's soil systems. Slight degradation refers to land where yield potential has
        been reduced by 10%, moderate degradation refers to a yield decrease from 10-50%.
        Severely degraded soils have lost more than 50% of their potential.
       Natural disasters: Natural disasters such as mud flows, floods are responsible for the
        death of many living beings each year.
      Deterioration of the water quality: Soils particles in surface waters are also
       accompanied by agricultural inputs and by some pollutants of industrial, urban and
       road origin.
      Biological diversity: soil degradation may involve perturbation of microbial
       communities, disappearance of the climax vegetation and decrease in animal habitat.
       Economic loss: the estimated costs for land degradation are US $40 billion per year.
Soil rebuilding and regeneration
       Rebuilding is especially possible through the improvement of soil structure, addition
of organic matter and limitation of runoff. However, these techniques will never totally
succeed to restore a soil (and the fauna and flora associated to it) that took more than 1000
years to build up.
       Soil regeneration is the reformation of degraded soil through biological, chemical, and
or physical processes. Supplementing the farmer's usual practice with a single application of
200 kg bentonite per rai (6.26 rai = 1 hectare) resulted in an average yield increase of 73%.

   C. Soil contamination
   Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence
of Xeno Bionis (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. It
is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals, or improper disposal of
waste. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, polynuclear
aromatic hydrocarbons (such as naphthalene and benzo(a)pyrene), solvents, pesticides, lead,
and other heavy metals. Contamination is correlated with the degree of industrialization and
intensity of chemical usage.
Soil pollution can be caused by the following (non-exhaustive list)
      Oil drilling.
      Mining and activities by other heavy industries
      Accidental spills as may happen during activities, etc.
      Corrosion of underground storage tanks (including piping used to transmit the
      Acid rain (in turn caused by air pollution)
      Intensive farming
      Agrochemicals, such as pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers
      Industrial accidents
      Road debris
      Drainage of contaminated surface water into the soil
      Waste disposal
There are several principal strategies for remediation:
    Excavate soil and take it to a disposal site away from ready pathways for human or
       sensitive ecosystem contact.
    Aeration of soils at the contaminated site (with attendant risk of creating air pollution)
    Thermal remediation by introduction of heat to raise subsurface temperatures
       sufficiently high to volatize chemical contaminants out of the soil for vapour
    Bioremediation, involving microbial digestion of certain organic chemicals with
       commercially available microflora.
    Containment of the soil contaminants (such as by capping or paving over in place).
    Phytoremediation, or using plants (such as willow) to extract heavy metals.
    Mycoremediation (Fungus) to metabolize contaminants and accumulate heavy metals.
    Remediation of oil contaminated sediments with self-collapsing air microbubbles
   D. Water pollution
   Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers
and groundwater). This form of environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are
directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove
harmful compounds.
 Wide spectrum of chemicals, pathogens, and physical changes such as elevated
  temperature and discoloration.
 High concentrations of naturally occurring substances can have negative impacts on
  aquatic flora and fauna.
 Oxygen-depleting substances may be natural materials such as plant matter (e.g. leaves
  and grass) as well as man-made chemicals.
 Other natural and anthropogenic substances may cause turbidity (cloudiness) which blocks
  light and disrupts plant growth, and clogs the gills of some fish species.
   1.    Sewage treatment
   2.    Industrial waste water treatment
   3.    Agricultural waste water treatment
   4.    Erosion and sediment control from construction sites
   5.    Control of urban runoff

   E. Agricultural Labour Scarcity
Definition and Classification The 2001 census of India, has defined agriculture labourer as
“A person who works on another person’s land for wages in money or kind or share is
regarded as an agricultural labourer. She or he has no risk in the cultivation, but merely works
on another person’s land for wages.”
The agricultural labourers can be classified mainly into two categories:
1. Landless agricultural labourers:
i) Permanent labourers attached to cultivating households
ii) Casual labourers.
2. Very small cultivators whose main source of earnings is wage employment, due to their
small and sub-marginal holdings.
Agriculture labour scarcity in India
          Even though India has the second largest man-power in the world, all the sectors of
the economy have been affected by the scarcity of labourers, the impact being felt more in the
agricultural sector. Labourers constitute a vital input in agricultural production, but they are
migrating to different parts of the country for earning better livelihood adding to the existing
imbalance between labour demand and supply of labourers.
          Till not very long ago, Indian agriculture was marked by abundant supply of farm
This gave rise to a negative relationship between labour productivity and labour absorption.
This scenario of over-supply however has changed in recent years, particularly after the
implementation of MGNREGA, expansion of public works and increased rural to urban
migration owing to urbanization and generation of casual employment in the tertiary sector in
towns and cities. In a typical village labour scenario, the common norm for the prevailing
wage rate or labour charges are fixed by the simple relation between its demand and supply.
Since Indian agriculture is predominantly rain-fed, the agricultural wages also respond to
rainfall variability. This seasonal nature of agriculture employment has led to shift of
agricultural labourers to non-farm sector for employment. The proportion of agricultural
workers to the total work-force has been declining over the years, hence following impacts
have been predominantly noticed in agriculture in recent years; reduction in crop yield,
reduction in cropping intensity and changes in traditional cropping pattern. The scarcity of
agricultural labourers may also cause delay in crop establishment, poor crop growth, no or
untimely weeding, irrational use of fertilizers, insufficient irrigation to crops etc. These
implications of labour scarcity if left unattended may discourage farmers who may leave their
land fallow and shift to non-agricultural avenues for livelihood. Over the past couple of
decades, there is a growing concern that the farm labour has been decreasing which has been
caused by occupational changes, people’s mindset, Government policies and reforms making
it imperative to investigate into the dynamics or scarcity of agricultural labour and its effect
on agricultural economy.
     F. Minimum Support Price
     Minimum Support Price (MSP) is a form of market intervention by the Government of
India to insure agricultural producers against any sharp fall in farm prices. The minimum
support prices are announced by the Government of India at the beginning of the sowing
season for certain crops on the basis of the recommendations of the Commission for
Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP). MSP is price fixed by Government of India to protect
the producer - farmers - against excessive fall in price during bumper production years. The
minimum support prices are a guarantee price for their produce from the Government. The
major objectives are to support the farmers from distress sales and to procure food grains for
public distribution. In case the market price for the commodity falls below the announced
minimum price due to bumper production and glut in the market, government agencies
purchase the entire quantity offered by the farmers at the announced minimum price.
Determination of MSP
Following factors are considered while fixing MSP:-
     Cost of production
     Changes in input prices
     Input-output price parity
     Trends in market prices
     Demand and supply
     Inter-crop price parity
     Effect on industrial cost structure
     Effect on cost of living
     Effect on general price level
     International price situation
     Parity between prices paid and prices received by the farmers.
     Effect on issue prices and implications for subsidy
Minimum Support Price for 2016-17
SN         Commodity                  MSP for 2016-17            Increase over previous year
              (q/ha)                  (Rs per quintal)                 (Rs per quintal)
1             Paddy                         1470                               60
2          Hybrid Jawar                     1625                               55
3              Bajra                        1330                               55
4             Maize                         1365                               40
5             Arhar                         5050                              425
6             Mung                          5225                              375
7             Cotton                        3860                              60
8       Groundnut in shell                  4220                             190
9             Wheat                         1625                             100
10            Gram                          4000                             500
11           Mustard                        3700                             350
12     Sugarcane (per tonne)                3000                              --

     G. Vision 2050 of ICAR
Guiding Principles for Future Research and Education
• Provide leadership in ensuring national food and nutritional security, farmers’ prosperity,
consumer health and enhancing the natural resource base of agriculture for future generations
• Ensure strategic competitive advantage of Indian agriculture to enable access to the existing
and emerging markets, and address the emerging challenges
• Leverage the advances in other sciences, engineering and social science to enhance
agricultural research.
• Nurture scientific excellence and promote interdisciplinary, systems-based, knowledge
intensive, problem-solving research.
• Promote economic opportunities for the rural community and society.
• Promote complementary partnerships for value addition in agriculture and accelerate
• Respond proactively to farmers, consumers, partners and policy makers
• Promote ethical conduct, scientific integrity and accountability of performance and
• Promote organizational transformation to an efficient, effective, and responsive innovation
• Support higher education and create educational environments that foster continuous
ICAR 2050: Focus Areas of Research
 Genetic potential enhancement of agricultural commodities.
• Agricultural productivity, efficiency and profitability improvement
• Resilience to climate change and abiotic and biotic stresses
• Improve nutritional food, and health security
• Risk management against climate change and market stressors
• Agricultural value chains
• Sustainability of natural resources base of agriculture
• Valuation of ecosystem services
• Agricultural markets, policies, and institutions
• Bio-security, emerging from gene piracy and cross-border vector borne diseases
• New products and uses (eg, bio-energy, new crops, synthetic foods, special foods)
• New educational and learning systems and environments
   H. Protected cultivation
   In the present scenario of perpetual demand for better quality vegetables and continuously
shrinking land holdings, protected cultivation is the best choice for quality produce and
efficient use of land and other resources. Protected cultivation means some level of control
over plant microclimate to alleviate one or more of abiotic stresses for optimum plant growth
which can be achieved in naturally ventilated poly-house or net-/polynet-house. Crop yields
can be several times higher than those under open field conditions, quality of produce is
superior, higher input use efficiencies are achieved and vegetable export can be enhanced.
Extreme weather conditions, in some countries, under the open field conditions are the major
limiting factors for achieving higher yield and better quality of vegetables. Under such
circumstances, protected cultivation is best option. Keeping these points in view, net-house
and naturally ventilated poly-house technology has been recommended for the cultivation of
different vegetables.
Modified design of net-house - polynet-house
Polynet-house is a framed structure consisting of GI pipes covered with ultra violet (UV)
stabilized plastic film of 200-micron thickness at the top and UV stabilized net of 40-mesh
size on the sides.
Selection of site
     The site for the net house should be well drained and fairly shadow free.
    It should be away from the obstruction at least three times the height of the
    Windbreaks are desirable and at least 30 m away on all sides to minimize the adverse
      effect of wind.
       Polynet-house should be constructed in the east–west direction to get the maximum
benefit of the sunlight throughout the year and to minimize the adverse effect of wind.

   I. Conventional and Non conventional energy sources
Conventional : Energy that has been used from ancient times is known as conventional
energy. Coal, natural gas, oil, and firewood are examples of conventional energy sources. (or
usual) Sources of energy (electricity) are coal, oil, wood, peat, uranium.
Non-conventional (or unusual) sources of energy and use
• Solar power
• Hydro-electric power (dams in rivers)

• Wind power

• Tidal power

• Ocean wave power

• Geothermal power (heat from deep under the ground)

• Ocean thermal power (the difference in heat between shallow and deep water)

• Biomass (burning of vegetation to stop it producing methane)

• Biofuel (producing ethanol (petroleum) from plants

   J. Agriclinics & Agribusiness Centres
   The M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) along with an international
organisation called CABI jointly piloted a project called plant clinic (PC) in Tamil Nadu,
Puducherry and Maharashtra. The main aim of setting up such clinics is to diagnose pests and
diseases in any crop and render accurate knowledge to the farming community. Basically it is
a community-driven model, conducted in a common location, accessible to all categories of
farmers in a village.
Need guidance
       Farmers need guidance to distinguish the difference between pest and infestations,
understand harmful effects of red labelled/banned pesticides, pest resurgence, resistance to
pesticides etc.“The clinic provides an array of technological solutions along with cultural,
biological and chemical methods, which are nationally and internationally permissible,
ecologically safe and environmentally sustainable for mitigating crop loss and enhancing
plant health and economic benefit.
Farmers bring their affected crop samples to the clinics to recognise the problem and get
technological solutions. Every farmer is provided with a prescription, detailing the case
history along with recommendations. The PC treats the crop samples with the help of the
comprehensive factsheets in the local vernacular brought by the farmers. Presently about 37
plant doctors serve through 14 Plant clinics; 391 clinic sessions have been conducted till now
across Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and Maharashtra, spanning 62 villages, in which more than
6,000 farmers including 992 women farmers have been reached.

       The Ministry of Agriculture and farmers welfare, Government of India, in
association with NABARD has launched a unique programme to take better methods of
farming to each and every farmer across the country. This programme aims to tap the
expertise available in the large pool of Agriculture Graduate who can set up AgriClinic or
AgriBusiness Centre and offer professional extension services to innumerable farmers.
Committed to this programme, the Government is now also providing start-up training to
graduates in Agriculture, or any subject allied to Agriculture like Horticulture, Sericulture,
Veterinary Sciences, Forestry, Dairy, Poultry Farming, and Fisheries, etc. Those completing
the training can apply for special start-up loans for venture.
  Earn money and prestige by becoming a consultant to farmers
 Agribusiness Centres would provide paid services for enhancement of agriculture
 production and income of farmers. Centres would need to advice farmers on crop
 selection, best farm practices, post-harvest value-added options, key agricultural
 information (including perhaps even Internet-based weather forecast), price trends, market
 news, risk mitigation and crop insurance, credit and input access, as well as critical sanitary
 and phyto-sanitary considerations, which the farmers have to keep in mind.
 Free Training to set up your Agriclinic or Agribusiness Centre
 As an integral part of this nationwide initiative, specialised training will be provided to
 Agriculture Graduates interested in setting up such a centre. Being provided free of cost,
 the 2-month training course will be offered by select institutes across the country.
 Bank loans available for Agriclinics and Agribusiness Centres
 Ceiling of project cost for subsidy has been enhanced to Rs.20 lakhs for an individual
 project (25 lakhs in case of extremely successful individual projects) and to Rs.100 lakhs
 for a group project.
   K. Information and communication technology (ICT)
It is an extended term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified
communications. The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and
telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system.
Information and communication technology in agriculture (ICT in agriculture), also
known as e-agriculture, is developing and applying innovative ways to use ICTs in the rural
domain, with a primary focus on agriculture. ICT in agriculture offers a wide range of
solutions to some agricultural challenges. In this context, ICT is used as an umbrella term
encompassing all information and communication technologies including devices, networks,
mobiles, services and applications; these range from innovative Internet-era technologies and
sensors to other pre-existing aids such as fixed telephones, televisions, radios and satellites.
More specifically, e-agriculture involves the conceptualization, design, development,
evaluation and application of innovative ways to use ICTs in the rural domain, with a primary
focus on agriculture.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has been assigned the
responsibility of organizing activities related to the action line under C.7 ICT Applications on
Many ICT interventions have been developed and tested around the world, with varied
degrees of success, to help agriculturists improve their livelihoods through increased
agricultural productivity and incomes, and reduction in risks. Some useful resources for
learning about e-agriculture in practice are the World Bank’s e-sourcebook ICT in agriculture
– connecting smallholder farmers to knowledge, networks and institutions (2011).
ICT tools can help in meeting the challenges in agricultural development in the following
     Agriculture Information, Awareness and Education using ICT.
    Advanced information about adverse weather condition, so that farmers can take
      precautionary measures.
    Real time and near real times pricing and market information.
    Information dissemination about various government schemes.
    Information regarding agrifinance, agriclinicls and agribusiness.
    Online Farmer Communities
Government Initiatives on ICT in agriculture
        Key Government initiatives to promote use of ICT in agriculture include National e-
Governance Plan in Agriculture (NeGP-A), various Touch Screen Kiosks, Krishi Vigyan
Kendras, Kisan Call Centres, Agri-Clinics, Common Service Centers, mKisan, Kisan TV and
various other applications.