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All Drugs - Chem - Uses 2                                                               

         ALL DRUGS: USES, CONSTITUENTSAugust 14, 2009
           S.NoName          Constituents                                         Uses
             17Tobacco       Pyridine-piperidine type of alkaloids – Nicotine**,  Stimulant effects on heart and nervous system.
                             Nornicotine, Anabasine                               Powerful quick acting poison. 40mg is fatal.
                                                                                  Rectified seed oil is edible. Used in manufacture
                                                                                  of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Insecticide.
             18Lobelia    Lobeline, Lobelanine, Lobelanidine, isolobelanine Treatment of asthma, bronchial asthma, chronic
                          Pungent volatile oil, resin, gum, fixed oil             bronchitis, respiratory stimulant
                                                                                  Lobeline ≡ nicotine physiologically
             19Belladona **l-hyoscyamine and its racemic form of atropine         Parasympatholytic drug with anticholinergic
                          Belladonine, scopoletin(l- methyl aseculetin), hyoscine,properties.
                          pyridine and N-methyl pyrroline.                        Reduces sweat, saliva, gastric juice secretions
                                                                                  Antidote in opium and chloral hydrate poisoning
             20Datura     **Hyoscine (scopolamine)                                Hyoscine – parasympatholytic with
                          l-hyoscyamine (scopoline) and atropine                  anticholinergic and CNS depressant effects.
                                                                                  Cerebral excitement.
                                                                                  Treatment of asthma and cough
                                                                                  Motion sickness, gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer.
             21Hyoscyamus 75% hyoscyamine. Atropine and hyoscine - % more Counteracts Gripping – purgative
                          in petiole                                              Sedative, expectorant, antispasmodic,
                          (-)hyoscyamine – ester of tropic aci and tropine        antiasthamtic
             22Coca       Tropane esters – tropane derived alkaloids              Local anaesthetic
                          Cocaine (methyl benzoyl ecgonine), cinnamyl cocaine Stimulant, restorative and also in convulsions.
                          (methyl cinnamoylecgonine), α-truxilline (methyl – α – Reduces sedatice and respiratory depressant
                          truxilloylecgonine), tropcaine, benzoyltropine,         effects of morphone and allied drugs – CNS
                          dihydroxytropane, benzoylecgonine.                      stimulant properties.
             23Aswagandha Alkaloidal and steroidal saponins - **Withananine       Sedative and hypnotic effects, hypotensive,
                          Somniferine, somnine, somniferinine, withananine,       repiratory stimulant actions with bradycardia,
                          pseudowithanine, tropine, pseudotropine,                immunoregulatory agent.
                          3-α-gloyloxytropane, choline, cuscohygrine,             Treatment of rhuematism, gout, hypertension,
                          isopelletierine, anaferine and anahydrine               nervine and skin diseases.
                                                                                  Sex stimulant - rejuvinator
             24Cinchona   25 alkaloids.                                           Antimalarial in nature.
                          **Quinine, cinchonine and cinchonidine                  Quinine – protoplasmic poison – antimalarial
                          Quinicine, cinchonicine hydroquinine,                   drug
                          hydrocinchonidine and homocinchonidine, quinidine Quinidine – cardiac depressant – arrhythmias
                          Glycoside: quinovin                                     and tachycardia.
             25Ipecac     Isoquinoline alkaloids which belong to phenolic and     Expectorant – small doses, emetic – higher doses
                          non-phenolic groups.                                    Emetine HCl – antiprotozoal – treatment of
                          Emetine, o-methyl psychotrine – non phenolic            amoebic dyssentry.
                          Cephaeline, psychotrine and emetamine – phenolic Emetine – antitumor properties.
                          Minor||ipecacuanhic acid, glycoside ipecacuanhin,
                          starch and Ca-oxalate
             26Opium      Latex contains – alkaloids from phenylalanine,          Hypnotic sedative and analgesic in which the
                          tyrosine. Chemically they’re placed under               action is mainly due to morphine. Morphine –
                          benzylisoquinoline (narcotine/noscapine, narceine, potent analgesic, biphasic action on CNS –
                          papaverine) and phenanthrene (morphine, codeine sedation of cerebrum, stimulation and sedation
                          and thebaine) types.                                    on the medulla
                          Minor || protopine and hydrocotarnine etc               Produces respiratory depression and
             27Ergot      Large number of potent indole alkaloids. 6 pairs        Ergotamine tartrate– specific analgesic in
                          (Water soluble, water insoluble).                       treatment of migraine.
                          (Laevoform*active*-Dextroform*inert*)                   Erometrine maleate – enhance labor pains
                          Ergometrine – ergometrinine
                          Ergotamine – ergotaminine
                          Ergosine - ergosinine
                          Ergocristine - ergocristinine
                          Ergocryptine - ergocryptinine
                          Ergocornine - ergocorninine
             28Rauwolfia 30 indole alkaloids. 0.7 to 3%                           Antihypertensive in activity. (causes mental
                                     i)           Indole alkaloids                depression in higher doses)
                                     ii)          Indoline alkaloids              Reserpine lowers BP, prevents re-uptake of
                                                                                  nor-epinephrine at storage sites, allowing
                                     iii)         Indolenine alkaloids
                                                                                  enzymatic destruction of neurohumoral
                                     iv)        Oxyindole alkaloids               transmitter
                                     v)          Pseudoindoxyl alkaloids          Rauwolfia, reserpine, rescinnamine and
                          **Reserpine || Oleo-resin, phytosterol, fatty acids,    ajmalicine are clinically important.
                          alcohol and sugars.                                     Deserpidine – antihypertensive, tranquilliser

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All Drugs - Chem - Uses 2                                                     

                          Other alkaloids: Ajmaline, Ajmalicine, rauwolfinine,   Ajmalicine – treatment of circulatory diseases, in
                          rescinnamine, reserpinine, yohimbine, serpentine and relief of obstruction of normal blood flow
             29Vinca      Large number of indole alkaloids.                      Vincristine sulphate – antineoplastic agent, I.V.-
                          20 dimeric indole-dihydroindole alkaloids with         treatment of acute leukemia of children
                          oncolytic activity                                     Vinblastine sulphate – antineoplastic agent,
                          ** Vincristine, vinblastine || ajmalicine, lochnerine, supresses immune response, treatment of
                          serpentine and tetrahydroalstonine                     hodgkins disease and other lymphomonas and
                          Vinblastine à catharanthine (indole) + vindolin        choriocarcinoma.
                          (dihydroindole)                                        Vinca-hypotensive and antidiabetic actions.
             30Nux-vomica 1.5 – 5% if bitter indole alkaloids                    Bitter stomachic and tonic. CNS stimulant,
                          Strychnine, brucine. Vomicine, α-colubrine,            increases BP, Respiratory stimulant
                          pseudostrychnine                                       Brucine – denaturing alcohol and inedible fats as
                          Minor: isostrychnine, N-oxystrychnine,                 a standard for bitterness and as dog poison
                          β-colubrine and novacine
                          Glycoside: loganin, chlorogenic acid and fixed oil
             31Pilocarpus Imidazole alkaoids - **pilocarpine                     Pilocarpine HCl – physiological antagonist of
                          Isopilocarpine, pilocarpidine, pilosine,               atropine
                          pseudopilocarpine and isopilosine.                     Treatment of glaucoma.
                          Volatile oil – monoterpenes – limonene, α-pinene,
                          sabinene and sespquiterpenes.
             32Kurchi     Conessine (kurchicine), norconessine, isoconessine, Coessine – Antiprotozoal – chronic amoebiasis
                          dioxyconessine, conessimine, holarrhimine and
             33Ephedra    Amino alkaloids. – ephedrine, nor-ephidrine,           Sympathomimetic effects – bronchodilator in
                          n-methyl ephedrine, pseudo-ephedrine.                  asthma and also in treatment of allergic
                                                                                 conditions like hay fever.
                                                                                 Ephedrines - Hypotensive effects
             34Colchicum 0.2 – 1% of amino alkaloids – colchicine**,             Colchicine: specific: Treatment of gout and
                          Demecolcine                                            rheumatism, antitumor activity.
                          both alkaloids contain tropolone/cycloheptatrein-      Chemical agent to bring polyploidy.
             36Coffee     Caffeine, tannin, fixed oil and proteins               Source of caffeine. Stimulant, diuretic action,
                          Chlorogenic/caffeotannic acid                          combat toxic effects due to CNS depressant
                          Minor – phenol, pyridine and valerianic acid.          drugs.
             37Tea        Caffeine (1-3%), theobromine, gallotannic acid (15%)CNS stimulant, bevarage, diuretic.
             38Gambir     Catechins (7-33%), catechutannic acid(22-50%), Astringent, treatment in diarrhoea.
                          catechu red.                                           Dyeing and tanning industry
                          Quercitin and gambier fluorescin
             39Black      10% acacatechin (acacia catechin) – disteroisomer of Astringent, for boils, skin eruptions etc, cough,
               catechu    5,7,3’,4’ tetra hydroxy flavan-3-ols.                  diarrhoea.
                          Acacatechin à (h2o )(ox) catechutannic acid            Cooling and digestive properties.
                          Catechu red, quercetin, gum, quercetrin                Dyeing, protective agent for fishing nets.
                          ** - no cholorophyll and fluorescin
             40Myrobalan Pyrogallol type tannins, which on hydrolysis yield      Astringent, laxative, stomachic and tonic
                          chebulic acid and d-galloyl glucose. Chebulagic,
                          chebulinic, ellagic and gallic acids are the other
                          contents of myrobalan.
             41Arjuna     **Triterpenoid saponin, arjunolic acid, arjunic acid,  Cardiotonic, styptic, febrifugel, antidysenteric
                          arjunogenin.                                           Diuretic and tonic properties
                          *Β-sitosterol, ellagic acid and arjunic acid.
                          Crystallisable compounds: arjunine, arjunetine.
                          Flavonoids: Arjunetin, arjunolone and arjunone
             42Benzoin    Sumatra benzoin – free balsamic acids (benzoic and Irritating expectorant, carminative, diuretic
                          cinnamic acids) and esters derived from them.          Antiseptic – protective
                          Triterpenoid acids such as summaresinolic &            Treatment of upper respiratory tract infection.
                          siaresinolic acids. Major: ester coniferyl benzoate.   Mask the taste in pharmaceutical preparations
                          Styrol, vanillin and phenyl propyl cinnamate.
                          Siam benzoin – insufficient cinnamic acid
             43Asafoetida Asaresinotannol in free/combined form with ferulic Carminative, nervine stimulant/intestinal
                          acid.                                                  flatulence, flavoring agent for curries.
                          Free umbelliferone is absent (Ferulic acid is treated
                          with HCl to give umbellic acid, looses water to give
                          umbelliferic acid)

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All Drugs - Chem - Uses 2                                                      

             44Balsam of  12% to 16% free cinnamic acid, about 8% of free           Expectorant, flavoring agent, antiseptic
               tolu       benzoic acid, 7.6% of oily liquid (cinnamicin)            Common ingredient of cough mixtures.
                          containing benzyl benzoate and benzyl cinnamate.          Preparation of confectionary, chewing gums and
                          Ester of toluresinotannol. Small quantities of vanillin   perfumery.
                          and tryol.
             45Podophyllum7 to 15% podophyllin                                      Treatment of veneral and other warts. Purgative,
                          40% podophyllotoxin – teranhydronapthalene                cholagague and bitter tonic.
                          derivative with OH and lactone group in trans position    Etoposide – testicular and lung cancer.
                          Picropodophyllin, quercetin, astraglin.
                          Etoposide (4-demethylepipodophyllotoxin ethylidene
                          glycoside) is semi-synthetically procesed.

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