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Biochemistry notes| PDF | study material

Biochemistry

• Introduction to Biochemistry

1).Introduction of biochemistry
2).Principle of biochemistry
3).Biomolecules
      • Amino acid
      • Carbohydrate
      • Fatty acid

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Brief chemistry of biochemistry

  • 1).Definition of amino acid
  • 2).Classification of amino acid
  •      • Non-polar amino acid
  •        • polar amino acid
  •        • negatively charged non-polaramino acid
  •      • Positively charged non-polar amino acid
  • 3).Classification based on chemical construction
  • 4).Essential amino acid non essential amino acid
  • 5).Quantitative test for amino acid
  • 6).Biological value for amino acid
  • 7).Clinical significance of amino acid
  • 8).Disease related to amino acid

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• metabolism

  • 1).Introduction of metabolism
  • 2).Types of metabolism
  • 3).Carbohydrate metabolism
  • 4).Lipid metabolism and function
  • 5).Amino acid metabolism
  • 6).Urea cycle
  • 7).General pathway of amino acid metabolism

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• carbohydrate metabolism

  • 1).Carbohydrate metabolism
  • 2).Types of reaction metabolism
  • 3).Importance of metabolism
  • 4).Catabolism 5).Anibalism
  • 6).Abnormal Metabolism
    • 1. Dietary deficiency
    • 2. Disease
    • 3. Genetic defects
  • 7).Glycolysis definition
  • 8).Importance pathway of glycolysis
  • 9).Energy producer of glycolysis
  • 10).Glycolysis pathway
  • 11).Citric acid cycle
  • 12).Metabolic disturbance of carbohydrate
  • 14).Diabetes mellitus
  • 15).Glycemia
  • 16).Symptoms of hypoglycemia

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PROTEIN METABOLISM

  • 1). Amino Acid Degradation:
  • 2). Amino acid breakdown pathways
  • •     Transamination of amino acids Deamination
  • : 3). Urea cycle:
  • 4). Control of Ammonia levels in the Liver lobule
  • 5). Disease related to abnormal metabolism of amino acids
  •        {1}Phenylketonuria (PKU)
  •        {2}Alkeptonuria (Black Urine disease):

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Protein Basic Introduction

1). Introduction:
2). Definition:
3). Function of Protein
4). Physiochemical properties of proteins
5). Chemical Properties of Proteins
6). Classification of Proteins
7). Amino Acids
8). Structure of a Typical Amino Acid
9). Amino Acids linkage via Peptide Bonds
10). Structure of various Amino acids
11). Classification of Amino acids
12). Physio Chemical Properties of Amino acids:
13). Colour reactions of amino acids
14). Biological importance of amino acids
15). Polypeptide
16). Structure of protein
17). Protein deficiency disease:

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Vitamins and mineral

  • 1). Introduction
  • 2). Classification by food
  • 3). Classification by predominant function
  • 4). Nutrient
  • 5). Protein
  • 6). Function of protein
  • 7). Evolution of protein
  • 8). Assessment of protein nuclear status
  • 9). Fat
  • 10). Fat fatty acid and hydrolysis
  • 11). Function of fats
  • 12). Carbohydrate
  • 13). Dietary fibres
  • 14). Vitamins
  • 15). Vitamin a, function of vitamin a
  •   16). vitamin d, function of vitamin d
  • 17). Thymine
  • 18). Vitamin b6 and vitamin b12
  • 19). Vitamin b12 deficiency
  • 20). Vitamin c
  • 21). Malnutrition
  • 22). kwashiorkor, symptoms
  • 23). marasmus, symptoms
  • 24). Mineral, anaemia

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Metabolism

  • 1). Introduction
  • • Anabolic pathways
  • • Catabolic pathways
  • • Amphibolic pathways
  • 2). Carbohydrate Metabolism
  • 3). Lipid Metabolism
  • 4). Amino Acid Metabolism

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Lipids and lipid metabolism

  • 1). Fatty acids
  • 2). Triacylglycerol
  • 3). Phospholipids
  • 4). Steroids
  • 5). Lipid metabolism
  • 6). Oxidation of fatty acids
  • 7). Biosynthesis of fatty acids
  • 8). Cholesterol synthesis

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Enzyme

  • 1). Chemistry
  • 2). Classification
  • 3). Mechanism of EnzymeAction
  • 4). Enzyme Kinetics
  • 5). Inhibition
  • 6). Activation
  • 7). Specificity
  • 8). Introduction
  • 9). Structure of enzyme
  • 10). Cofactor
  • 11). Acid base crystallizer
  • 12). Crystallized by proximity
  • 13). Lock and key model
  • 14). Effect of PH
  • 15). Michaelis-Menten Equation
  • 14). ASSUMPTIONS FOR
  • 15). MICHAELIS-MENTEN EQUATION INHIBITORS
  • 16). TYPES OF REVERSIBLE INHIBITION
  • 17).EXAMPLES OF UNCOMPETITIVE  INHIBITION
  • 18). MIXED INHIBITION
  • 19). Activation by co-factors
  • . 20). Conversion of an enzyme precursor
  • . 21). GROUP SPECIFICITY
  • 22). BOND SPECIFICITY
  • 25). OPTICAL / STEREO-SPECIFICITY
  • 26). DUAL SPECIFICITY

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Enzyme

1). Oxido-reductases
2). Transferase 3). Hydrolases
4). Lyases
5). Isomerases
6). Ligases
7). FACTOR AFFECTING ENZYME ACTIVITY
8). ENZYME INHIBITION
• Competitive inhibition
Non-competitive inhibition
9). DIAGNOSTIC APPLICATION OF ENZYMES

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Carbohydrates

  • 1). Introduction
  • 2). Classification of carbohydrates
  • I. Monosaccharides.
  • II. Disaccharides.
  • III. Oligosaccharides.
  •   IV. Polysaccharides.
  • 3). Common test for glucose
  • 4). Common test for Lactose
  • 5).Common test for Sucrose
  • 6). Chemical Properties of Carbohydartes
  • 7). Disease Related to Carbohydrates Metabolism
  • 8). Diagnosis
  • 9). Symptoms of hypoglycemia
  • 10). Glycosuria

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