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Classify semi synthetics penicillin discus pharmacology of ampicillins. (S 17, 18, 19) Classify semi synthetics penicillin.

B. PHARM 6th SEM. PHARMACOLOGY

Q. 1. Classify semi synthetics penicillin discus pharmacology of ampicillins. (S 17, 18, 19) Classify semi synthetics penicillin

Acid-resistant alternative to penicillin G Phenoxymethyl penicillin (Penicillin V). 1 Penicillinase-resistant penicillins Methicillin, Cloxacillin, Dicloxacillin Extended spectrum penicillins (a) Aminopenicillins: Ampicillin, Amoxicillin. (b) Carboxypenicillins: Carbenicillin. (c) Ureidopenicillins: Piperacillin,

β-lactamase inhibitors: Clavulanic acid, Sulbactam, Tazobactam (S 19) Mechanism Enhancing the activity of aminopenicillins against β-lactamase producing pathogens Pharmacokinetics Not degraded by gastric acid; oral absorption is incomplete but
adequate. It is partly excreted in bile and reabsorbed enterohepatic circulation occurs. Excretion is kidney, but tubular secretion is slower than for PnG; plasma t1⁄2 is 1 hr.

Uses Urinary tract infections: Ampicillin has been the drug of choice for most acute infections

Respiratory tract infections: including bronchitis, sinusitis, otitis media, etc.

Meningitis: Ampicillin has been a first line drug, but a significant number of meningococci, pneumococci

Gonorrhoea: It is one of the first line drugs for oral treatment of nonpenicillinase producing gonococcal infections.

Adverse effects: Diarrhoea is frequent after oral administration. Ampicillin is incompletely absorbed the unabsorbed drug irritates the lower intestines as well as causes marked alteration of bacterial flora Spectrum Gram-negative bacilli, e.g. H. influenzae, E. coli, Proteus, Salmonella Shigella and Helicobacter pylori, Strep. viridans, enterococci and Listeria; equally active for pneumococci, gonococci and meningococci

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