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pharmacystudy material

Containers for parenteral:

Glass containers:
• Glass is the preferred material for containers for injectable products.
• It is principally composed of silicon dioxide tetrahedron which is modified using oxides like sodium, potassium, calcium etc.

Types of glass:

  1. Type1: Highly resistant borosilicate glass
  2. Type2: Treated soda lime glass
  3. Type3: Soda lime glass
  4. Type4: General purpose glass
    • Generally type1 glass is used for most of the sterile products.
    • But type 2 and Type 3 glass can also be used when product has non aqueous vehicle.
    • The protection of light sensitive drugs can be done by use of amber colored glass which is achieved by iron oxides.
    • But iron oxides leach out in the product hence amber colored container should not be used in case of product which has iron catalyzed chemical.
    • The glass should have sufficient mechanical strength to withstand high pressure during autoclaving and abuse during processing.

Sterile products made by glass:
• These are single dose containing formulations.
• Generally Type 1 glass is used.

image editor output image 1541261511 16106813528857051937967093880305 Containers for parenteral:

These are used for multi dose parenteral products and provided with closure followed by aluminum seal to ensure the air tight packing.

screenshot 2021 01 15 08 59 34 146 com2462581195746691660 Containers for parenteral:

Plastic containers:
• Light in weight
• Non breakable
• Has low toxicity
• Low reactivity with products

• Tissue toxicity can occur
• Reactivity due to sorption
• Leaching

Plastic is of two types:
Thermoplastic :

  1. Polyethylene
  2. LDPE (Low density polyethylene)
  3. HDPE (High density polyethylene)
  4. Polypropylene
  5. Polyvinyl chloride
  6. Polystyrene
  7. Polyamide (Nylon)
  1. Thermosets:
  2. Melamine
  3. Phenol formaldehyde
  4. Urea formaldehyde
    • The two plastics have more interest in parenteral field that is polypropylene and copolymer polyethylene and polypropylene.
    • Polypropylene is mostly used plastic because it has high tensile strength, high melting point (165°c) and low permeability to gases and water vapors.
screenshot 2021 01 15 09 02 19 356 com8001647809163254793 Containers for parenteral:

• Rubber closures are mostly used to seal the opening of cartridges, vials, bottles and to provide soft and elastic permit to enter and withdrawn of a needle without loss of integrity of container.
• Principle unit of rubber closure is latex and vulcanizing agent, accelerator, activator, filler etc are added.
• Closures should be non- reactive with the product.
• Physical properties of rubber are elasticity, hardness, porosity.
• Sometimes plastic or lacquer coating is also done to rubber to prevent the sorption, vapor transfer and to provide complete barrier as desired.