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Drugs for constipation & Diarrhoea MCQs with Answers

Pharmacology II (BP602TP)

Drugs for constipation & Diarrhoea

1. Irrespective of the type, all laxatives exert the following action:
A.Increase the content of solids in the faeces
B.Increase the water content of faeces
C.Reduce absorption of nutrients
D.Increase intestinal motility

2 Used as a laxative, liquid paraffin has the following drawbacks except:
A.It interferes with absorption of fat soluble vitamins
B.It is unpleasant to swallow
C.It causes griping
D.It can produce foreign body granulomas

3 A 70-year-old patient presented with weakness, tiredness and muscle cramps. The ECG showed Q-T prolongation, flattening of T wave and occasional A-V block. His serum K+ was low (2.8
mEq/L). He admitted taking a laxative every day for the past several months. Which laxative could be responsible for the above condition:
B.Liquid paraffin

4 A patient presented with abdominal pain and frequent unsatisfactory bowel movement. For the last one year he has been using a purgative twice weekly to open his bowel. On colonoscopy the colon was found to be atonic with bluish pigmentation of the mucosa. Which is the most likely purgative that the patient has been using:
A.Liquid paraffin


5 Which of the following purgatives undergoes entero-hepatic circulation to produce prolonged action:
C.Castor oil
D.Mag. sulfate

6 The following purgative stimulates intestinal motility independent of its action on mucosal fluid dynamics:
A.Castor oil
C. Docusates
D.Sod.pot. tartrate

7 Choose the correct statement about lactulose:
A.It stimulates myenteric neurones to enhance gut peristalsis
B.Administered orally it acts as a purgative within 2-4 hours
C.It is an osmotic laxative that produces soft but formed stools
D.All of the above are correct

8 The following laxative lowers blood ammonia level in hepatic encephalopathy:
B.Liquid paraffin
D.Magnesium sulfate

9 Select the purgative that should not be taken at bed time:
A.Magnesium sulfate

10 Stimulant purgatives are contraindicated in the following:
A.Bed ridden patients
B.Before abdominal radiography
C.Spastic constipation
D.Atonic constipation

11 Saline osmotic purgatives are used for:
A.Treatment of constipation
B.Prevention of constipation in patients of piles
C. Avoidance of straining at stools in patients of hernia
D.Tapeworm infestation: following niclosamide administration

12 The most suitable laxative for a patient of irritable bowel disease with spastic constipation is:
A.Dietary fibre
B.Liquid paraffin

13 The success of oral rehydration therapy of diarrhoea depends upon the following process in the intestinal mucosa:
A.Sodium pump mediated Na+ absorption
B.Glucose coupled Na+ absorption
C.Bicarbonate coupled Na+ absorption
D.Passive Na+ diffusion secondary to nutrient absorption

14 For optimum rehydration, the molar concentration of glucose in ORS should be:
A.Equal to or somewhat higher than the molar concentration of Na+
B.Somewhat lower than molar concentration of Na+
C.One third the molar concentration of Na+
D.Three times the molar concentration of Na+

15 Cyclic nucleotides exert the following action on salt transport across intestinal mucosal cells:
A.Both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP enhance Cl-and HCO3– secretion
B.Cyclic AMP enhances but cyclic GMP inhi- bits Cl– and HCO3– secretion
C.Cyclic AMP inhibits but cyclic GMP enhan- ces Na+ and Cl– reabsorption
D.Both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP enhance Na+ and Cl– reabsorption

16 The concentration of sodium ions in the standard WHO oral rehydration solution is:
A.40 m moles/L
B.60 m moles/L
C.90 m moles/L
D.110 m moles/L

17 The ‘new formula’ WHO-ORS differs from the older ‘standard formula’ WHO-ORS in the following respect(s):
A. It has lower Na+ ion and glucose concentration
B.It has higher K+ ion concentration
C.It has no basic salt
D.Both ‘B’ and ‘C’ are correct

18 The following is true of ‘new formula’ WHO-ORS:
A.It has Na+ ion concentration of 75 mM/L
B.Its glucose concentration is 75 mM/L
C.Its total osmolarity is 245 mOsm/L
D.All of the above are correct

19 The electrolyte composition of standard WHO oral rehydration solution is based upon that of:
A.Enterotoxigenic E. coli diarrhoea stools
B.Cholera stools in adults
C.Cholera stools in children
D.Rotavirus diarrhoea stools

20 Institution of oral rehydration therapy has the following beneficial effect in diarrhoea:
A.Stops further diarrhoea
B.Restores hydration and electrolyte balance without affecting diarrhoea
C.Hastens clearance of the enteropathogen

D.Obviates the need for specific antimicrobial therapy

21 Apart from diarrhoea, oral rehydration solution has been employed in:
A.Severe vomiting
B.Burn cases
C.Heat stroke
D.Both ‘B’ and ‘C’

22 An adult patient of acute diarrhoea presents with abdominal pain, fever, mucus and blood in stools and is suspected to be suffering from Shigella enteritis. What antimicrobial treatment would be most appropriate:
A.No antimicrobial treatment

B. Metronidazole
C. Norfloxacin

23 Antimicrobial treatment does not alter the course of the following diarrhoeas except:
A.Mild enterotoxigenic E.coli diarrhoea
B.Campylobacter diarrhoea
C.Coeliac disease diarrhoea
D.Food poisoning diarrhoea

24 The following diarrhoea is consistently benefited by antimicrobial therapy:
A.Irritable bowel syndrome
C.Salmonella diarrhoeas
D.Traveller’s diarrhoea

25 The therapeutic effect of sulfasalazine in ulcerative colitis is exerted by:
A.Inhibitory action of the unabsorbed drug on the abnormal colonic flora
B.Breakdown of the drug in colon to release 5- aminosalicylic acid which suppresses inflammation locally
C. Release of sulfapyridine having antibacterial property
D.Systemic immunomodulatory action of the drug

26 The primary role of sulfasalazine in ulcerative colitis is:
A.Suppression of enteroinvasive pathogens
B.Control of acute exacerbations of the disease
C.Maintenance of remission
D.Both ‘B’ and ‘C’

27 The preferred drug for controlling an acute exacer-bation of ulcerative colitis is:

28 The following is/are true of mesalazine:
A.It exerts mainly local antiinflammatory action in the lower gut
B.It is a broad spectrum antidiarrhoeal drug
C.It can be administered as a retention enema
D.Both ‘A’ and ‘C’

29 To be effective in ulcerative colitis, 5-aminosalicylic acid has to be given as:
A.Acrylic polymer coated tablet which releases the drug
only in the lower bowel
B.A complex of two molecules joined together by azo bond
C.A retention enema
D.Any of the above ways

30 Mesalazine (coated 5-amino salicylic acid) differs from sulfasalazine in that:
A.It is more effective in ulcerative colitis
B.It produces less adverse effect
C.It has no therapeutic effect in rheumatoid arthritis
D.Both ‘B’ and ‘C’ are correct

31 A 3-year-old child was given one tablet three times a day to control loose motions. The diarrhoea stopped but next day the child was brought in a toxic condition with abdominal distention and
vomiting. He had paralytic ileus, mild dehydration, low blood pressure and sluggish reflexes. Which antidiarrhoeal drug could have caused this condition:
B. Furazolidone
C. Loperamide

32 A small amount of atropine is added to the diphen-oxylate tablet/syrup to:
A.Suppress associated vomiting of gastro- enteritis
B.Augment the antimotility action of dipheno- xylate
C.Block side effects of diphenoxylate
D.Discourage overdose and abuse of dipheno- xylate

33 The opioid antidiarrhoeal drugs act by the following mechanism(s):
A.They relax the intestinal smooth muscle
B.They inhibit intestinal peristalsis
C.They promote clearance of intestinal pathogens
D.All of the above