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GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM with Answers:- PDF

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          GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM

1. The physiological actions of CCK include:
a) Increased oesophageal motility
b) Closing the sphincter of oddi
c) Increased bile synthesis
d) Contraction of pancreatic acini
e) Increased enzyme secretion from the
pancreas

2. The component parts of the myenteric plexus
of the enteric nervous system include the
following except:
a) Sensory neurons
b) Interneurons
c) Motor neurons
d) Synapses
e) Control centers in the medulla oblongata

3. Saliva does not contain:
a) Blood group antigens
b) Lysozymes
c) Immunoglobulins
d) Platelets
e) Chloride

4. The functions of saliva include the following
except:
a) Cleaning the mouth
b) Killing bacteria
c) Digestion of proteins

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d) Facilitation of speech
e) Digestion of lipids

5. The pharyngeal phase of swallowing:
a) Is partially voluntary
b) Includes opening of the upper
oesophageal sphincter
c) Includes the peristaltic activity of the
upper third of the oesophagus
d) Is associated with the opening of the
glottis
e) Is preceded by deep inspiration

6. The enzymes produced by the exocrine
pancreas include the following except:
a) Proelastase
b) DNase
c) Amylase
d) Enteropeptidase
e) Lipase

7. The secretion of the exocrine pancreas is
increased by the following except:
a) Vagal stimulation
b) Acetylcholine
c) Secretin
d) CCK
e) Atropine
8. Bile production by the liver cells is increased
by:
a) Sympathetic activation

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b) Secretin
c) CCK
d) Bile salts
e) Atropine

9. The jejunum is the main site for absorption of
the following except:
a) Glucose
b) Amino acids
c) Fatty acids
d) Bile salts
e) Water

10. The functions of the colon include the
following except:
a) Absorption of water
b) Absorption of sodium
c) Absorption of chloride
d) Absorption of calcium
e) Absorption of potassium

11. The intestinal flora is:
a) Mainly viruses
b) Mainly found in the duodenum
c) Needed for normal digestion
d) Mainly found in the colon
e) Mainly pathogenic bacteria

12. The following is true about the small
intestine:
a) Stores food for several hours

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b) Is the main source of digestive enzymes
c) Has haustrae
d) Has segmentation contractions
e) Secretes the intrinsic factors

13. The defaecation reflex:
a) Is initiated by stretching the anal canal
b) Is integrated in a control center in the
lumbar spinal cord
c) Is integrated in a control center in the
sacral spinal cord
d) Is controlled by the vagus nerve
e) Involves contraction of the sigmoid colon

14. A tumor producing large amounts of gastrin
DOES NOT include:
a) Hyperplasia of gastric epithelium
b) Hyperplasia of gastric mucosal
lymphocytes
c) Excessive gastric acid secretion
d) Histamine secretion in the gastric
mucosa
e) Recurrent peptic ulcers

15. Which of the following is likely to fail to
reduce secretion of hydrochloric acid in the
stomach:
a) A H, receptor blocker
b) A nicotinic cholinergic receptor blocker

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c) A muscarinic cholinergic receptor
blocker
d) An inhibitor of the hydrogen-potassium
pump
e) A gastrin receptor blocker

16. A tumor producing large amounts of the
intestinal hormone GIP may result in:
a) Hyperglycemia
b) Hypoglycemia
c) Diarrhea
d) Intestinal colic
e) Hyperacidity in the stomach

17. The following statements are true about bile
except:
a) 25% is produced by bile duct cells
b) The bile stored in the gall bladder
contains secondary bile acids
c) Its secretion is increased by secretin
d) Bile pigments are needed for micelle
formation
e) Some lipids will be digested and
absorbed in the absence of bile

18. A plain X-Ray film of the abdomen of a
normal healthy man is expected to show some
gas in all the following except:
a) Stomach
b) Common bile duct
c) Small intestine

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d) Transverse colon
e) Rectum

19. The component parts of the myenteric
plexus of the enteric nervous system includes the
following except:
a) Sensory neurons
b) Interneurons
c) Motor neurons
d) Synapses
e) Control centers in the medulla oblongata

20. The secretion of the exocrine pancreas is
increased by the following except:
a) Vagal stimulation
b) Acetylcholine
c) Secretin
d) CCK
e) Noradrenaline

21. The jejunum is the main site for absorption
of except:
a) Glucose
b) Amino acids
c) Fatty acids
d) Vitamin B12
e) Water

22. Functions of the human stomach include:
a) Absorption of iron
b) Absorption of Vitamin B12
c) Absorption of 50% of water intake
d) Storage of food for 24 hours
e) Limited digestion of proteins

23. The presence of bilirubin in bile is important
because:
a) It gives bile its color
b) It leads to production of stercobilinogen
in the intestine
c) It facilitates absorption of lipids
d) It gives faces their color
e) It means a waste product is being
excreted

24. Relating to carbohydrate digestion:
a) Cellulose can be digested by human
amylases
b) About one-third of starch digestion
occurs in the mouth and two-thirds
occurs in the small gut
c) It can only occur in the complete absence
of protein digestion
d) It occurs only if bile salts are present
e) Sucrose is split by amylase action

25. Micelles:
a) Are emulsified fat globules in the
duodenum
b) Are packets of pro-enzymes found in
pancreatic acinar cells

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c) Are dead enterocytes leaving the tips of
villi
d) Are “flickering clusters” of cholesterol
and fatty acids coated with bile salts
and 2 mono-glycerides
e) Are the triglyceride particles formed by
enterocytes and transported in the
lymphatic system

26. The neurons of the intrinsic enteric nervous
system do NOT perform the following functions:
a) Detect distension of the stomach
b) Control intestinal mucosal cell secretions
c) Coordinate muscle contraction in the
large intestine
d) Control lower oesophageal sphincter
e) Contract the gall bladder

27. The part of the gastrointestinal tract that is
NOT affected by disorders of the myenteric
plexus of the intrinsic nervous system:
a) Anal canal
b) Rectum
c) Caecum
d) Oesophagus
e) Pharynx

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28. A patient who undergoes the following
operation will NOT survive without parenteral
feeding:
a) Total oesophagectomy
b) Total gastrectomy
c) Right hepatic lobectomy
d) Total oroclocolectomy
e) Subtotal small intestinal resection

29. After a cholecystoctomy, patients may have
problems with fat-rich foods becuase:
a) The liver stops producing enough bile
b) Bile pigments are reduced in
amount
c) The enterohepatic circulation has stopped

d) Bile is not well concentrated
e) The sphincter of Oddi fails to open in
response to a fatty meal

30. Diseases that reduce pancreatic enzyme
secretions do NOT usually decrease the
digestion and absorption of:
a) Animal proteins
b) Plant proteins
c) Plant lipids
d) Sucrose
e) Starch

31. The colonic mucosal cells are very efficient
in:

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a) Converting primary bile acids into
secondary bile acids
b) Converting bilirubin into
stercobilinogen
c) Absorption of aromatic amino acids

d) Absorption of sodium
e) Absorption of phosphates

32. Contraction of the gallbladder may be due
to:
a) Secretin
b) VIP
c) Bile salts
d) Atropine
e) Paraympathetic stimulation

33. Saliva does not contain:
a) Blood group antigens
b) Lysozymes
c) Immunoglobulins
d) Pepsin
e) Chloride

34. The actions of secretin include:
a) Increased salivary secretion
b) Relaxation of the oesophageal sphincters
c) Stimulation of gastric secretion
d) Stimulation of secretion of bicarbonate
by pancreatic duct cells

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e) Stimulation of secretion of bicarbonate
by pancreatic acinar cells

35. Saliva is needed for:
a) Digestion of sucrose
b) Digestion of phospholipids
c) Ability to speak
d) Breaking food down into small pieces
e) Absorption of chloride

36. The pharyngeal phase of swallowing
includes:
a) A deep breath
b) Elevation of the tongue against
the hard palate
c) Contraction of the upper oesophageal
sphincter
d) Contraction of the pharyngeal
constrictors
e) Elevation of the epiglottis

37. If the stomach is removed (gastrectomy), the
patient is unlikely to suffer from:
a) Iron deficiency anemia
b) Ca™* deficiency
c) Macrocytic anemia
d) Malnutrition
e) Inability to absorb water

38. Functions in the liver include production of:
a) Digestive enzymes

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b) Secondary bile acids
c) Stercobilinogen
d) CCK
e) Taurocholic acid

39. The small intestine:
a) Is shorter than the large intestine
b) Its internal surface area is
smaller than the large intestine
c) It absorbs less water than the large
intestine
d) It contains bacteria as found in the large
intestine
e) It produces the enzymes needed for lipid
digestion

40. Bile contains all of the following except:
a) Alkaline phosphatase
b) K”
c) Cholesterol
d) CCK
e) Water

41. The functions of gastrin include the
following except:
a) Increased production of histamine in the
gastric mucosa
b) Stimulation of the growth of intestinal
mucosa
c) Increased secretion of pepsinogen

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d) Contraction of the gastro-oesophageal
junction
e) Increased secretion of HCO; by biliary
duct cells

42. Major constituents of feces include all of the
following except:
a) Water
b) Cellulose
c) Bacteria
d) Calcium salts
e) Glycogen

43. The exocrine pancreas secretes the following
enzymes except:
a) Chymotrypsinogen
b) Prolestase
c) Lactase
d) Alpha-amylase
e) Phospholipase

44. GIT hormones with a major effect on the
stomach include the following except:
a) Gastrin
b) Secretin
c) GIP
d) Neurotensin
e) CCK

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45. If the submandibular salivary gland stops
functioning:
a) The volume of salivary secretion will be
reduced by 20%
b) There would be severe deficiency of
alpha-amylase
c) There would be no mucins in saliva

d) There would be difficulty in swallowing
e) Parasympathetic stimulation would not
increase salivary secretion

46. If the oesophageal muscles are not working:
a) Swallowing in the upright position is not
affected because of gravity
b) Water swallowing is not affected
c) There will be dysphagia to solids and
liquids
d) There will be frequent attacks of
vomiting
e) Gastro-oesophageal reflex becomes less
common

47. Atrophy of the gastric mucosal glands is
likely to result in:
a) Diminished digestion of starch
b) Failure of digestion and absorption of
proteins
c) High gastrin levels in the blood
d) High secretin levels in the blood
e) Normochromic normocytic anemia

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48. The brush border enzymes of the small
intestine digest:
a) Starch
b) Cholesterol esters
c) Albumin
d) Galactose
e) Lactose

49. The average daily amount of fluid that
passes through the pylorus in a healthy adult is
about:
a) 2 liters
b) 9 liters
c) 6 liters
d) 8 liters
e) 12 liters

50. The stomach has the ability to absorb:
a) Ca>*
b) Alcohol
c) Glucose
d) Aromatic amino acids
e) Fe™*

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51. The effects of parasympathetic stimulation
on the GIT include:
a) Constriction of the pylorus
b) Contraction of the internal anal sphincter

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c) Contraction of the external anal sphincter

d) Contraction of the gall bladder
e) Decreased mucus secretion

52. Pancreatic exocrine secretion is stimulated
by the following except:
a) CCK
b) Secretin
c) Vagal stimulation
d) Presence of food in stomach
e) Entropeptidase

53. Absorption of iron:
a) The stomach absorbs 55% of dietary iron
due to the presence of HCl
b) The small intestine absorbs most of the
iron in the diet
c) Iron absorption is mainly at the terminal
ileum
d) The amount of iron absorbed changes
according to body stores and rate of
erythropoiesis
e) The amount of iron absorbed is adjusted
to balance iron excretion by the
kidney

54. Saliva does not normally contain:
a) Isozyme
b) IgA
c) Lactoferrin

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d) Intrinsic factor
e) Hydrogen ions

55. The oesophageal phase of swallowing:
a) Cannot proceed when the mouth is open
b) Is primarily a reflex controlled by the
myenteric plexus
c) Is primarily controlled by the swallowing
center in the brain
d) Starts when a bolus enters the
oropharynx
e) Takes less time in patients with achalasia
of the cardia

56. Vomitting is not usually caused by:
a) Irritation if the duodenal mucosa
b) Diseases of the inner ear
c) Microbial toxins in the blood
d) Severe exercise
e) Bad smell

57. The function of the migrating motor
complex (MMC) is to:
a) Empty non-digestable material from
stomach and small intestine during
fasting
b) Initiate mass movements in the large
intestine
c) Increase intestinal peristalsis in response
to overfeeding

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d) Increase ileal motility in response to
entry of chyme into the stomach
e) Overcome intestinal obstruction

58. The duodenum and jejunum are the main
site for absorption of the following except:
a) Glucose
b) Vitamin C
c) Fat-soluble vitamins
d) Bile salts
e) Iron

59. The mucosal cells of the human colon
perform the following functions:
a) Converting primary bile acids into
secondary bile acids
b) Converting bilirubin into stercobilinogen
c) Absorption of Na™
d) Absorption of aromatic amino acids
e) Digestion of cellulose

60. It is true to say the following about the
motility of the gastrointestinal system:
a) It is regulated neurally but not by
hormones
b) Emptying of the stomach is mainly by
segmentation contractions
c) Movement of chyme along the small
intestine is mainly by the migrating
motor complex

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d) Peristalsis is seen in most parts of the
GIT
e) The gallbladder is contracted by
sympathetic stimulation

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61. Secretion of the acinar cells within the
exocrine pancreas is not increased by:
a) Secretin
b) CCK
c) Parasympathetic stimulation
d) Bicarbonate ions
e) Acetylcholine

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