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Herbal excipients:- PDF / PPT


Subject Code: BP603T

Subject Title: Herbal drug Technology

Herbal excipients 1

• Herbal excipients

• Diluents

• Explain the various excipients used for formulating cosmetics 2
Herbal excipients
• Excipients are defined as ‘the substance used as a medium for
giving a medicament

• Pharmaceutical excipients can be defined as non active ingredients
that are mixed with therapeutically active compound(s) to form

• The ingredient which is not an active compound is regarded as an
excipients. Excipients affect the behavior and effectiveness of the
drug product more and more functionality and significantly.

• Plant derived polymers

• Synthetic polymers 3
Herbal excipients
Plant derived polymers
• renewable
• can be cultivated or harvested in sustainable manner
• can supply constant availability of raw material
• synthesized in small quantities
• In mixtures that are structurally complex, which may differ
according to the location of the plants as well as other variables
such as the season
• Result in a slow and expensive isolation and purification process. 4
Excipients are commonly classified according to their application and
function in the drug products:
• Binders, Diluents
• Lubricants, Glidants, Disintegrants
• Polishing Film formers and coatings agents
• Plasticizers, Colorings
• Suspending agents Preservatives, antioxidants 5
Raw materials – colors
Annatto – carotenoids

Biological source: Dried seeds – Bixa orellana

Family : Bixaceae

Physical properties: Yellow orange in color

Soluble in alcohol, ether, insoluble in water

Chemical constituents: oleo resin – Bixin (yellow colored carotenoid) –

2.5% 6
Raw materials – colors
Annatto – carotenoids

Uses: coloring agent – cosmetics, food, beverages

Raw materials - colors

Biological source: Green leaves of higher plants and green algae (


• Mixture of 4 pigments – Chlorophyll a (blue black)

Chlorophyll b (Green black)

Carotene (Orange red)

Xanthophyll (Yellow) 8
Raw materials – colors

Physical properties: Soluble in organic solvent, Slightly soluble in


Uses: Coloring agents – soaps, oils and cosmetics 9
Raw materials – colors

Biological source: Dried female insects Dactilopius coccus

Family : Coccidae

Production: Bugs –collected – autumn –protected winter

• Killed –immersion in hot water or exposure to hot sun

• Natural exposure – sun – good quality and variety of dye 10
Raw materials – colors
• Heating – sun –color changes to purplish black color – black grains

• Burning – sulphur and charcoal fumes –develop purple grey color –

black grains

• Tubular glands – surface – wax

Chemical constituents: 10 % anthroquinone dye – Carminic acid , 10%

fat, 2% wax 11
Raw materials – colors

• Uses: Coloring agent – cosmetics, drug, liquid and solid food
preparations 12
Raw materials – colors
Henna (Lawsonia)

Biological source: Dried leaves – Lawsonia inermis

Family : Lythraceae

Chemical constituents: Lawsone – 2,5 – diOH-1,4-naphthoquinone

(orange dye)

Uses: Hair dye

Along with dihydroxy acetone –sunscreen agent 13
Raw materials – colors
Lawsone 14
Raw materials – colors

Curcumin – Turmeric

Biological source: Bright yellow coloring material obtained from

the rhizomes of Curcuma longa

Family : Zingiberaceae

Solubility: soluble – ethanol, acetic acid

Insoluble – water, ether 15
Raw materials – colors

Uses: Food colouring agent 16
Raw materials – colors

Biological source: Carthamin is a natural red pigment derived from

safflower, Carthamus tinctorius

Family : Asteraceae
Uses: It is used as a dye and a food coloring. As a food additive, it is
known as Natural Red 26.
Carthamin was used as a dye in ancient Egypt. It was used
extensively in the past for dyeing wool for the carpet industry in
European countries

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Raw materials – colors

   Raw materials - colors
                        Crocin (Saffron)

Biological source: Golden yellow – orange carotenoid pigment

obtained from the dried stigmas and upper parts of styles of Crocus


Family : Iridaceae

Solubility: Soluble in hot water and insoluble in absolute alcohol

Uses : Food colourant 19
Raw materials – colors 20
Raw materials – colors
Capsanthin (Paprika)

Biological source: Red colour carotenoid pigment obtained from

the fruit of Capsicum annum

Family : Solanaceae

Constituents: Carotenoid – Capsanthin

Uses: Coloring agent for food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and

beverages 21
Raw materials – colors
Lutein (Tagetus)

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Biological source: Yellow orange colour carotenoid pigment

obtained from the flower of Tagetus erecta

Family : Compositae

Uses: Coloring agent for food, pharmaceutical

Used as additive of chicken feed to give colour to egg yolks 22
Raw materials – colors
Betanin (Beet root)

Biological source: Red glycoside obtained from the beet root,

Beta vulgaris

Family :

Uses: Coloring agent for ice cream,

powdered soft drink beverages, soups, in some

sugar confectionery 23

• Colorant : Substances added to cosmetics products to colour

the product and /or to impart color to the skin and /or its


• Natural pigments