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NOTES OF VITAMINS

• Definition :

Vitamin is a organic compound required by an organism as a vital nutrient in limited amount which cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism & must be obtained from
healthy diet.
• The term vitamin was derived from ‘Vitamine’ coined by Kazimierz Funk .

• CLASSIFICATION :

Vitamins are classified in two types :

a) FAT – SOLUBLE VITAMINS –

Fat soluble vitamins are absorbed from intestinal tract with the help of lipids because they are more likely to accumulate in the body.
• Fat soluble vitamins are classified into four categorizes :
1) Vitamin A
2) Vitamin D
3) Vitamin E
4) Vitamin K

b) WATER – SOLUBLE VITAMINS –

Water soluble vitamins dissolve in water and they are readily excreted from the body because they are not stored .
• Water soluble vitamins are classified into two categorizes :
1) Vitamin B – complex
i. Vitamin B1
ii. Vitamin B2
iii. Vitamin B3
iv. Vitamin B5
v. Vitamin B6
vi. Vitamin B7
vii. Vitamin B9
viii. Vitamin B12

2) Vitamin C

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Vitamin A :-

Chemical name:
Retinol , Retinoids , Retinal , Retinoic acid (β-carotene)
• SOURCE :
Shark liver oil ,fertilized milk , eggs , cheese & butter , some fish , dark green vegetables , broccoli , carrots , produced from carotenoids .
• RDA(Recommended Dietary Allowances):

Children : 2000-3500 I.U
Men : 5000 I.U
Women : 4000 I.U

• Functions:

a. Vision:
-Generates pigments for the retina
-Maintains surface lining of eyes
-Prevents night blindness
b. Promotes bone growth
c. Helps in cell division and differentiation
d. Anti-oxidant: Necessary for health skin
e. Regulate Immune System
f. Keeps mucous membrane healthy

Signs of Deficiency:

a. Night blindness
b. Decreased resistance to infections
c. Extremely dry skin, hair or nails
d. Impaired growth
e. Xerophthalmia

• Indication:

-Vitamin A deficiency
-Severe acne
-photo damage

• Hypervitaminosis :

-Dry, itchy skin
-Headaches and fatigue

– Hair loss
-Liver damage
-Blurred vision
-Loss of appetite
-Skin coloration
-Risk of birth defect

Vitamin B1:-

• Chemical name:
Thiamine
• SOURCE :
Whole grains , nuts , organ meat , white and brown flour , pork , liver , green vegetables and many breakfast cereals are usually fortified with thiamine .

• RDA(Recommended Dietary Allowances):

• Men : 1.5 mg
• Women : 1.5 mg

• Functions:

a. Producing energy from carbohydrates
b. Proper nerve function
c. Stabilizing the appetite
d. Promoting growth and good muscle tone
e. ATP production

• Signs of Deficiency:

a. Beri-Beri
b. A disorder of the nervous system,which occurs in communities where white rice is the main food eaten
c. Loss of weight
c. Cracks & sores in mouth & lips
d. Blood shot eyes
e. Dermatitis
f. Oily skin
g. Digestive disturbances

• Indication:

– Angular stomatitis
– Cheilosis
– Seborrhoeic dermatitis
– Anaemia
– Photophobia
– Neuropathy

• Hypervitamincosis :

Vitamin B2 toxicity is uncommon.

Vitamin B3:-

• Chemical name:
Niacin ,Nicotinic acid , Nicotinamide
• SOURCE :
Meat (Chicken , Beef , Pork , Liver , Fish) , Peanut butter, Whole grain breads & Cereals

• RDA(Recommended Dietary Allowances):

Men : 19 mg
Women : 15 mg

• Functions:

a. Energy production
b. Maintenance of skin & tongue
c. Improves circulation
d. Maintenance of nervous system

e. Health of the digestive track

• Signs of Deficiency:

a. Pellagra
b. Gastrointestinal disturbance , loss of appetite
c. Headache , Insomnia , Mental depression
d. Fatigue , Aches & Pain
e. Nervousness , Irritability

• Indication:

– Hyperlipidaemia
– Pellegra

• Hypervitaminosis :

Toxicity of niacin is rare , following symptoms may arise:
– Headache
– Nausea
– Burning
– Itching skin

Vitamin B5:-

Chemical name:
Pantothenic acid
• SOURCE :
Mushrooms , Avacado , Sweet potato ,
Lentils ,Dried peas , Chicken , Broccoli , Yogurt , Cheese , Liver ,Egg yolks , Soybean , Peanuts , Whole grains

• RDA(Recommended Dietary Allowances): 6 mg

Functions:

a. Energy to be released from carbohydrates & fats .
b. Maintaining a health digestive tract .
c. Synthesis of cholesterol

• Signs of Deficiency:

a. Parestheia
b. Burning sensation in the hands & feets
c. Muscle cramps
d. Irritability , Fatigue ,Tiredness
e. Diarrhoea , Vomiting , water retention

• Indication:

– Acne
– Alcoholism
– Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
– Rheumatoid arthritis
– Parkinson’s disease
– Enlarged prostate

• Hypervitaminosis :

Vitamin B5 toxicity is uncommon.

Vitamin B6:-

• Chemical name:
Pyridoxine , Pyridoxal & Pyridoxamine
• SOURCE :
Meat , Poultry , Beef , Fish , Lentils ,Leafy green vegetables , Egg, Nuts , Whole grains

• RDA(Recommended Dietary Allowances):

Men :2 mg
Women : 1.6 mg

• Functions:

a. Production of RBCs
b. Conversion of tryptophan to niacin
c. Immunity
d. Nervous system functions
e. Reducing muscle spasms , cramps , numbness
f. Maintaining proper balance of sodium & phosphorous in the body

• Signs of Deficiency:

a. Anaemia
b. Nervousness , Insomnia
c. Loss of muscle control , muscle weakness
d. Arm & leg cramps
e. Water retention
f. Skin lesions

• Indication:

– Treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency
– Prophylaxis of isoniazid – induced peripheral neuropathy

• Hypervitaminosis :

– Nerve degenerative
– photosensitivity

Vitamin B7:-

• Chemical name:
Biotin
• SOURCE :
Meat , Milk , Legumes , vegetables , Egg yolk , Nuts , Whole grains products , Sardines , Brewer’s yeast

• RDA(Recommended Dietary Allowances):

300 μg

• Functions:

a. Needed for healthy hair & nails
b. It helps body use energy from macronutrients

• Signs of Deficiency:

a. Dermititis & Enteritis
b. Scaly skin
c. Dry eyes
d. Insomnia
e. Hair loss

• Indication:

– Biotin deficiency associated with pregnancy
– Malnutrition
– Rapid weight loss
– Hair loss
– Skin rashes in infants

• Hypervitaminosis :

Vitamin B7 toxicity is uncommon.

Vitamin B9:-

• Chemical name:
Folic acid ,Pteryl-glutaminic acid , Folate
• SOURCE :
Pork , Poultry , Beef , Pasta , Legumes ,Leafy green vegetables , Grain products , Enriched flour

• RDA(Recommended Dietary Allowances):

Men :200 μg

• Women : 180 μg

• Functions:

a. Pregnant women should take for development of baby to avoid neural tube defects
b. Folic acid is essential for normal cell division and in the formation of RBCs

• Signs of Deficiency:

a. Megaloblastic anaemia
b. Gastrointestinal disorders
c. Birth defects if pregnant women are deficient
d. Sore tongue

• Indication:

– Folate deficiency megaloblastic anaemia ( eg – due to poor nutition , pregnancy , antiepileptics)
– Prophylaxis in chronic haemolytic states or in renal dialysis.

• Hypervitaminosis :

Taking folate supplements can mask the effects of Vitamin B12 deficiency.

Vitamin B12:-

• Chemical name:
Cyanocobalamin
• SOURCE :
Meat , Poultry, Egg, Milk , Fortified soy products , Fortified breakfast cereals

• RDA(Recommended Dietary Allowances):

2 μg

• Functions:

a. Proper nerve function
b. Production of RBCs
c. Metabolizing fats & anaemia
d. Prevention of anaemia
e. DNA reproduction
f. Energy production

• Signs of Deficiency:

a. Megaloblastic anaemia
b. Loss of balance
c. Weakness
d. Hypersensitivity skin
e. Peripheral neuropathy
f. Cognitive deficits resulting from neurological damage

• Indication:

– Pernicious anaemia
– Prophylaxis in total gastractomy
– Malabsorbtion syndrome

• Hypervitaminosis :

Vitamin B5 toxicity is uncommon.

Vitamin C:-

• Chemical name:
Ascorbic acid
• SOURCE :
Guava , Broccoli , Orange Juice , Strawberries , Tomato juice , Raw Tomato , Sweet potato , Tangerine, Spinach, Leafy Greens , Berries , Citrus Fruits

• RDA(Recommended Dietary Allowances):

80g

• Functions:

a. Helps to form connective tissue that hold our bones , muscles & tissues togther
b. A strong antioxidant protects our bodies from formation of free radicals
c. Helps to keep your gums healthy
d. Aids in healing of Wounds
e. Aids the body in absorbing iron from plant sources
f. Aids in the prevention of heart diseases
g. Helps the body to fight infections
h. Helps to prevent some forms of cancer
i. Boosts immune system
j. Prevents bruishing

• Signs of Deficiency:

a. Scruvy
b. Bleeding gums
c. Dry skin
d. Bruishing
e. Weight loss
f. Fatigue & Joint pain

• Indication:

– Delayed wound & bone healing
– Urine acidification

• Hypervitaminosis :

– Diarrhoea
– Gastrointestinal discomfort

– Rebound scurvy
– Oxalate kidney stones
– Decreased uric acid reabsorption resulting in increased risk of gout

Vitamin D:-

• Chemical name:
Calciferol
• SOURCE :
Action of sunlight on the skin , Fish liver oil , Eggs , Tuna , Salmon , Fortified foods like dietary products ,
Margarine

• RDA(Recommended Dietary Allowances):

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10 μg or 400 IU

• Functions:

a. Acts as a hormone to increase intestinal absorption of calcium
b. Promote bone & tooth formation
c. Prevents rickets in children & osteomalacia in adults
d. Promote calcium homeostasis
e. Promote bone calcium mobilization

• Signs of Deficiency:

a. Rickets in children
b. Osteomalacia in adults

• Indication:

Management of hypocalcemia & its clinical manifestation in patients with hypoparathyroidism

• Hypervitaminosis :

– Loss of appetite
– Nausea
– Joint pains
– Hypercalcemia
– Loss of muscle tone
– Damage to soft tissues (kidney , heart , blood vessels due to deposits of calcium)

Vitamin E:-

Chemical name:
Tocopherol

• SOURCE :

Vegetable oils , margarine , green leafy vegetables , wheat germ , whole grain products , egg yolks

• RDA(Recommended Dietary Allowances):

• Men : 10 mg
• Women : 8 mg

• Functions:

a. Antioxidant :
– Reduce the energy of the free radical
– Stop the free radical from forming in the first place
– Interrupt an oxidizing chain reaction to
minimize the damage of free radical
– May reduce the risk of heart disease
– May discourage development of some
types of cancer
b. Promotes normal growth and development
c. Promotes normal RBCs formation
d. Helps to maintain immune function
e. Acts as anti-blood clotting agent
f. Plays some role in the body’s stability to process glucose
g. Aid the process of wound healing

• Signs of Deficiency:

a. Less fertility
b. Disruption of RBC membranes
c. Anaemia
d. Lack of vitality
e. Inability to concentrate
f. Muscle weakness

• Indication:

– Cardiovascular disease
– Some forms of cancer
– Some neurological diseases
– Muscle cramps

• Hypervitaminosis :

– At 2400 IU per day , may cause bleeding due to its clot preventing ability
– May reduce body’s supply of Vitamin A
– May alter immune system, weakness
– Headache , fatigue , diarrhea
– Internal bleeding

Vitamin K:-

Chemical name:
Phylloquinone
SOURCE :

Beef , liver , eggs , spinach , cauliflower , broccoli , tomatoes, plants oil (canola , soybean , olives)

• RDA(Recommended Dietary Allowances):

• Men : 80 μg
• Women : 65 μg

• Functions:

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a. Necessary for normal blood clotting
b. Synthesis of proteins found in plasma , bone & kidneys
c. Helps to maintain strong bone

• Signs of Deficiency:

a. Non-clotting of blood
b. Increased bleeding & hemorrhage

• Indication:

– Anticoagulant – induced prothrombin deficiency caused by couramin
– Prophylaxis therapy of hemorrhagic disease of the newborns

• Hypervitaminosis :

– Thrombosis
– Vomiting
– Nausea
– Skin rash
– Diarrhoea
– Anaemia
– Jaundice

• Structure’s of vitamin :

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• Summary of vitamin’s :

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• PINPOITN’S :

• Some Important Points :-
• Vitamin which show hormone like function & regulation of mineral metabolism – Vitamin D .
• Vitamin which regulate of cell and tissue growth and differentiation – Vitamin A .
• Vitamin which act as antioxidants – Vitamin E , β- Carotenoid & sometimes Vitamin C .
• Vitamin which act as precursors for enzyme co-factors – Vitamin B complex .
• Vitamin K1 obtained from Plant , K2 from Intestinal Bacteria , K3 is synthetic origin .
• Vitamin D is a pro-hormone & it is steroidal derivative .
• Vitamin B5 is commercially available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol & calcium pantothenate ,
which are chemicals made in the lab from D- pantothenic acid .
• Deficiency of Vitamin B17 – Cancer
• Chemical name of Vitamin B17 – Amygdalin

• Vitamin D Class :

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• Vitamin K Class :

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Nomenclature of Reclassified Vitamins :

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• Vitamers :-

It is chemically similar substances that posses qualitatively similar vitamin activity .

EXAMPLE :

• Retinol , Retinal & Retinoic acid are vitamers of Vitamin A.
• Pyridoxine , Pyridoxal & Pyridoxamine are vitamers of Vitamins B6.

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