1. In hypoxic cell injury, cell swelling occurs because of increased intracellular:
2. Which of the following is a feature of apoptosis?
B). Cellular swelling
C). Involvement of a large number of cells
D). Chromatin condensation
E). Associated inflammatory changes
3. Which of the following is NOT a feature of reversible cell injury?
A). Cellular swelling
B). Reduction of ATP synthesis
C). Reduced cellular pH
D). Clumping of nuclear chromatin
E). Defects in cell membrane
4. Fatty change:
A). Is irreversible
B). Does not impair cellular function
C). Is most commonly due to diabetes
D). Is caused by alcohol by an increase intracellular alpha glycero phosphate
E). Only occurs in the liver
5. Metastatic calcification:
A). Is encountered in areas of necrosis.
B). Commonly develops in aging or damaged heart valves.
C). Can occur with normal serum levels of calcium.
D). Can be associated with metastatic malignancy.
E). Is commonly associated with hypoparathyroidism.
6. Regarding apoptosis, which of the following is FALS E?
A). It is the responsible for programmed B). destruction of cells during
C). Occurs in pathologic atrophy in parenchymal organs after duct
D). Cell death by cytotoxic T cells.
Associated with inflammation
E). Chromatin condensation and fragmentation are features.
7. With regard to mechanisms of cellular adaptation, which of the following
statements is TRUE?
A). Hyperplasia refers to an increase in cell size.
B). TNF always acts as an inhibitor of hyperplasia.
C). The myocardium adapts to increased workload by
D). hypertrophy and hyperplasia.
Metaplasia is irreversible.
E). Barrett’s metaplasia is squamous to columnar epithelium in the distal oesophagus
8. With regard to acute inflammation which of the following is FALSE?
A). Pavementing of leukocytes must occur.
B). The loss of protein from plasma reduces intravascular osmotic pressure.
C). Transmigration of leukocytes occurs as a result of pseudopod formation.
D). P -selectin is found in Weibel-palade bodies.
E). Leukocyte diapedesis occurs predominantly in the venules.
9. Which of the following statements about angiogenesis is FALSE?
A). PDGF selectively induces hyperplasia of lymphatic tissue
B). New vessels bud from pre-existing vessels.
C). There is proteolytic degradation of the parent vessel basement
D). New vessels are leaky due to incompletely formed inter-endothelial junctions.
E). VEGF receptors are largely restricted to endothelial cells.
10. In the mononuclear phagocyte system:
A). Aggregations of macrophages in the kidney are known as Kupffer cells.
B). The life span of tissue macrophages is about three days.
C). The half-life of blood monocytes is about one month.
D). Chemotactic stimuli for monocytes include C5a and certain growth factors.
E). Monocytes transform into smaller macrophages when they reach extravascular tissue.
11. In primary wound healing:
A). Macrophage infiltration occurs at 24hrs
B). Wound strength is 25% of normal at the end of first week
C). Type I collagen is replaced by type III collagen
D). Neovascularisation is maximal at day five
E). All of the above