- Basic principal of cell injury and adaptation.
- Underlying changes in biochemical system of cells for irreversible cell injury.
- Etiology of cell injury
- Pathological Changes in Apoptosis
- Cause and pathology underlying atrophy.
- Note: Tissue regeneration process
- Mechanism of cell injury
- Define apoptosis and mechanism of apoptosis
- Explain cellular and molecular mechanism of reversible and irreversible cell injury due to
hypoxia and ischemia
- Apoptosis. Write cause, mechanism and importance.
- Define and classify cellular adaptations. Write the causes of atrophy and hyperplasia.
- Detail the process of Phagocytosis
- Define necrosis. Give its types and associated morphological changes.
- Write a note on free radical mediated cell injury.
- Define atrophy. Enlist the physiological and pathological causes of atrophy.
- Write causes of cell injury. Explain acquired causes of cell injury.
- Differentiate term atrophy ad hypertrophy. Explain pathologic hypertrophy.
- Write in detail about cellular adaptations.
- Define necrosis. Give its type and associated morphological changes.
- Give the aetiology of Cell Injury.
- Enumerate the principal Cellular Adaptive Responses. Discuss morphological features of
Hypertrophy and give its physiological and pathological causes.
- Explain Terms
Natural killer cell, Dendritic cell, Hypertrophy, Atrophy, Hyperplasia, Necrosis,
- Difference between:
a. Apoptosis and Necrosis
b. Chemotaxis and Phagocytosis
- Enumerate cell and plasma derived inflammatory mediators. Describe the role of
different systems in generation of plasma derived mediators
- Enlist the various inflammatory cells and discuss their role in inflammation
- Discuss the etiology and pathogenesis of B-cell mediated hypersensitivity reactions with suitable examples.
- Discuss the role of cytokines and free radicals in different phase of inflammation.
- Vascular events in acute inflammation
- Define acute inflammation. Write in detail about cell events occur in acute inflammation.
- Write in detail about stimuli for acute inflammation.
- Write in detail about cell derived mediators of inflammation.
- Explain the mechanism of increased vascular permeability in acute inflammation
- Enumerate chemical mediators of inflammation and detail their reactions.
- Enlist the chemical mediators of inflammation and write a note on plasma derived
- Describe the process of exudation of leucocytes in the cellular events of acute
- Define inflammation. Explain the hemodynamic changes that take place in 05 the
- vascular events of acute inflammation.
- Explain in brief about granulomatous inflammation.
- Write in detail about vascular events of acute inflammation.
- Explain the process of wound healing.
- Enumerate the types of hypersensitivity reactions. Explain about pathogenesis of B-cell
- mediated hypersensitivity reactions.
- Explain sequence of events in primary skin wounds. How does the secondary union of skin wounds differ from primary union?
- Note: Atherosclerosis
- Difference between: Acute and Chronic inflammation
- Define anemia. Classification of anemia and Pathophysiology of Iron deficiency anemia
- Discuss Pathophysiology of megaloblastic anemia
- Describe Pathophysiology Scikle cell anemia Note: Thalasemia
- Define Diabetes. Types of diabetes. Pathophysiology of diabetes
- Detail pathophysiology of thyroid disorders
- Define Epilepsy. Classification of epilepsy. Pathophysiology of epilepsy.
- Describe Pathophysiology Parkinson’s disease.
- Detail Pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease
- Write Etiology, patho of peptic ulcer.
- Write note on inflammatory bowel syndrome.
- Enlist types of hepatitis. Explain in detail pathophysiology of hepatitis.
- Write a detail note on jaundice.
- Explain pathophysiology of osteoporosis.
- Give etiology and pathophysiology of cancer.
- Write in detail pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis and gout.
- Explain in detail about alcoholic liver disease.
- Write Detail note on pathophysiology of TB.
- Write Detail note on pathophysiology Typhoid
- Write in detail pathophysiology of meningitis.
- Write in detail pathophysiology of leprosy.
- Write in detail pathophysiology of urinary tract infections.
- Discuss the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of AIDS.
- How is HIV transmitted? Discuss the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of AIDS
- Give pathophysiology of Syphilis.
- Give pathophysiology of Gonorrhea.