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Pharmacognocy 2 Unit:- 5 (Hand written notes)


Basics of Phytochemistry
Modern methods of extraction, application of latest techniques like Spectroscopy, chromatography and electrophoresis in the isolation, purification and identification of crude drugs.

Phytochemistry involves the study of chemicals (mainly the secondary metabolites) the plants produce as a measure to protect themselves from insects, pests, pathogens, herbivores, UV exposure, and environmental hazards.
Phytochemistry includes the structural compositions, the biosynthetic pathways, functions, mechanism of actions in the living systems, and the medicinal, industrial, and commercial applications of secondary metabolites. Phytochemicals (derived from the Greek word phyto meaning plant) are naturally occurring and biologically active chemical compounds present in plants. They provide health benefits for humans in addition to those provided by the macronutrients and micronutrients.
• Extraction
The process of separating medicinally active constituents of plant and animal
tissues with the help of selective solvents and standard procedures is termed
extraction. The extracted products of plant tissues obtained in liquid or semisolid state (after removing the solvent) or in dry powdered form are complex mixtures of metabolites; these products are meant for oral or external use. The extracted preparations include decoctions, infusions, fluid extracts, tinctures, pilular (semisolid) extracts, or powdered extracts; these preparations are named as galenicals after Galen (a Greek physician of 2nd century).
The standardised extraction procedures involve treatment with a selective solvent (menstruum) to yield the therapeutically active constituents of crude drugs, removing the inactive ones. The undissolved residue left behind is termed marc. The extract obtained by this process, after standardisation is either used as a medicinal agent in the form of tinctures or fluid extracts, or is further processed for incorporation in tablet and capsule forms. The drug extraction process is divided into the following four steps:
1) The solvent penetrates the drug,
2) The drug constituents dissolve in the solvent,
3) The solution within the cells diffuses out, and
4) The dissolved portion separates from the exhausted drug.

  • Basics of Phytochemistry
  • Phytochemistry, Introduction, Extraction, Principles of Extraction Choice of Solvents, Modern Methods of Extraction, Maceration, Digestion Percolation, Continuous Hot Extraction (Soxhlet Extraction) Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE)
    Counter Current Extraction
    (CCE), Microwave Assisted
    Extraction (MAE), Ultrasonic Assisted
    Extraction (UAE), Infusion and Decoction, Pressure Cooker Extraction, Extraction by Passage
    through a Colloid Mill, Use of Surface Active, Agents in Drug Extraction, Expression and Diacolation, Techniques Used in the
    Isolation, Purification, and Identification of Crude Drugs, Spectroscopy, Chromatography, Electrophoresis
    • Cognosy 2 pdf notes download
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      • Pharmacy semester 5th cognosy hand written notes pdf
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      • Subject:– Pharmacognosy 2
      • Semester:- Fifth sem, sem 5
      • Course:- Bachelor of pharmacy, bpharm