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Pharmacognosy 2 Unit:- 2 (Hand Written Notes)

Description

General introduction and brief description about Resins. • Pharmacognostic profile of following drugs o Benzoin o Guggul o Ginger o Asafoetida o Myrrh o Colophony 7.1 INTRODUCTION Resins are amorphous mixtures of essential oils and oxygenated products of terpenes, transparent or translucent solids, semi solid or liquid substances. They have complex chemical nature and contains large no of carbon atoms. Resins are insoluble in water and heavier than water but they are soluble in non polar solvents like benzene or ether, volatile oils, fixed oils and alcohol. Resins are hard, non conductor of electricity and combustible in nature. They soften and finally melt upon heating. They are usually formed in schizogenous glands, lysigenous glands or ducts as end product of metabolism. The pharmaceutical applications of resins are local irritant, local cathartic (e.g. Jalap, Ipomoea), as anticancer (podophyllum), in bronchial asthma (Cannabis), used externally as mild antiseptic in the form of tinctures (Benzoin), ointment and plasters (Turpentine and Colophony) and used in the preparation of emulsion and sustained release formulations. 7.2 CLASSIFICATION Depending upon the type of the constituents: Resins are of three types: 1. Acid resins examples Colophony contains abietic acid, Copaiba (copaivic and oxycopaivic acid), Myrrh (Commiphoric acid) etc 2. Ester resins examples Benzoin (Coniferyl benzoate), Storax (Cinnamyl cinnamate) etc. 3. Resin alcohols examples Peru balsam (Peruresinotannol), Guaiacum resin (Guaic resinol)

QUESTIONS
1. Define resins. Write its uses in therapy.
2. Classify resins with examples.
3. What are the chemical tests for resin identification?
4. How resins are extracted and isolated?
5. Write physicochemical properties of resins.
6. Write synonym, biological source, family and geographical source of Benzoin.
7. What are the distinguish features of Sumatra and Siam benzoin? Explain.
8. Write a detailed pharmacognostic note on Styrax.
9. Write biological source, family and geographical source of Guggul.
10. What are the main constituents of Guggul? Draw it chemical structure.
11. Write chemical test and uses of Guggul.
12. Name out the adulterants of guggul.
13. Write biological source, family and geographical source of ginger.
14. What is the main constituent of Ginger? Draw it chemical structure.
15. Write chemical test and uses of Ginger.
16. How ginger is adulterated?
17. Write biological source, family and geographical source of ‘Asafoetida’.
18. Write method of cultivation and collection of Asafoetida.
19. What are the chemical constituents of Asafoetida? Draw its chemical structure.
20. Write chemical test and uses of asafoetida.
21. What are the adulterants for asafoetida?
22. Write biological source, family and geographical source of ‘Myrrh’.
23. Write method of collection of Myrrh.
24. Write chemical test and uses of Myrrh.
25. Write synonym, biological source, family and geographical source of ‘Colophony’.
26. Write method of collection and preparation of Colophony.
27. What are the chemical constituents of colophony? Draw it chemical structure.
28. Write chemical test and uses of colophony.
29. What are the adulterants for colophony?

QUESTIONS
1. Define Glycosides. Classify them with example.
2. What is the role of glycosides in plants? Write in short.
3. What are ‘C’, ‘N’, ‘O’ and ‘S’ glycosides?
4. Classify glycosides on the basis of their chemical structure.
5. Classify glycosides on the basis of their sugar moiety.
6. Classify glycosides on the basis of their glycosidic linkage.

harmacognosy and Phytochemistry – II 8.13 Glycosides
7. What is Stas-otto method? Explain in detail.
8. What is the general chemical test for glycoside?
9. Write biological source, chemical constituents and uses of Senna.
10. How will you differentiate between Tinnevelley senna and Alexandrian senna?
Explain.
11. How the Senna plant is cultivated? Write its geographical source as well.
12. Write biological source, chemical constituents and uses of Aloe.
13. What are the requirements for the cultivation and collection of Aloe barbedensis plant?
14. What are the main chemical constituents of Aloe?
15. What are the chemical tests for aloe constituents? Draw chemical structure of its constituents.
16. Write biological source, chemical constituents and uses of bitter almond.
17. What are the chemical tests for bitter almond constituents? Draw chemical structure of its constituents.
18. Write cultivation and collection method of bitter almonds.

QUESTIONS
1. Define iridoid and naphthaquinones. Write its uses in therapy.
2. What are the chemical tests for identification of Naphathaquinones?
3. How iridoid and naphthaquinones are extracted and isolated?
4. Write physicochemical properties of iridoid and naphthaquinones.

5. Write synonym, biological source, family and geographical source of Gentian.
6. What are the main constituents of Gentian? Draw its chemical structure.
7. Write chemical test and uses of Gentian.
8. Name out the adulterants of Gentian.
9. Write biological source, family and geographical source of Artemisia.
10. What is the main constituent of Artemisia? Draw its chemical structure.
11. Write chemical test and uses of Artemisia.
12. How artemisia is substituted?
13. Write biological source, family and geographical source of ‘Taxus’.
14. Write method of cultivation and collection of Taxus.
15. What are the chemical constituents of Taxus? Draw its chemical structure.
16. Write uses of Taxus.

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