## Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics (BP604TT)

### Chapter 6 Pharmacokinetics

1. The concentration of drug in plasma above which toxic effects are precipitated is known as
a. Maximum safe concentration
b. Minimum Effective Concentration
c. Intensity of Action
d. Duration of Action

2. When rate is independent of the reactant concentration, then it is called
a. zero order reaction
b. Pseudo zero order reaction
c. First order reaction
d. Second order reaction

3. Which of the following is the half life of zero order reaction?
a. t1/2 = A0 /2k
b. t1/2 = 0.693/2k
c. t1/2 = A0 /2
d. t1/2 = 2k/ A0

4. The unit of k for zero order reaction is
a. moles/litre/second
b. moles
c. moles/second
d. moles/litre

5. Which of the following is the half life of first order reaction?
a. t1/2 = A0 / 2k
b. t1/2 = 0.693 / 2k

c. tl/2 = 2k
d. tl/2 = 0.693 / k

6. Which of the following is not a pharmacokinetic parameters that describe the plasma level time curve?
a. tmax
b. cmax
c. Area under Curve
d. Minimum Effective Concentration

7. The drug concentration between Minimum Effective Concentration and Maximum Safe Concentration is called
a. Therapeutic range
b. Area under curve
c. Peak response
d. Pharmacological response

8. tmax indicates
a. drug absorption rate
b. drug elimination rate
c. drug distribution rate
d. drug metabolism rate

9. What Will be the approximate Tmax of a drug exhibiting Ka of 2 hr-1 and K of 0.2 hr-1 ?
a. 1.2 hr
b. 2.4 hr
c. 4.8 hr
d. 2.0 hr

10. A drug solution has half life of 21 days. Assuming that drug undergoes first order kinetics, how long will it take for the potency to drop to 90% of initial potency?
a. 3.2 days
b. 9.6 days
c. 16 days
d. 6.2 days

11. A suspension shows zero-order kinetic with a rate constant 2mg ml.month. The dose of suspension is
20mg/ml. The biological half life of the above dosage form is
a. 5 months
b. 1 month
c. 3 months
d. 2 months

12. Drug showing zero order kinetic of elimination
a. Are more common than those showing first order kinetic
b. Show plot of drug concentration vs time (linear Plot)
c. Decrease in concentration exponentially with time
d. Have half life independent of dose

13. Elimination after 4 half lives in first order kinetics is
a. 84%
b. 93%
c. 80%
d. 4%

14. Which one is irrational statement for first order kinetics?
a. Half life is a function of concentration of reactants
b. Reaction rate is not a function of concentration of reactants
c. Both a & b

d. All of these

15. T % (Half life time) of a drug can determine all of the following except
a. Closing interval
b. Therapeutic dose
c. Elimination time

16. The area under serum concentration time curve of drug represents
a. The biological half life of the drug
b. Amount of drug biotransformed
c. The amount of drug absorbed
d. The amount of drug excreted in urine

17. Under non compartment analysis the following formula is used for calculation
a. MRT = AUMC / AUC
b. AUMC = MRT / AUC
c. MRT = AUC / AUMC
d. AUC = AUMC / MRT

18. Under compartment modeling, Wegner-Nelson-Method involves
a. Determination of absorption rate constant (Ka) from %ARA Vs time curve
b. Determination of elimination rate constant (Ka) from % ARA Vs time curve
c. Determination of absorption rate constant (Ke) from %ARA â€¢Vs Concentration curve
d. Determination of plasma half life

19. The steady-state concentration of a drug can be double by:
a. Doubling the both rate of infusion and concentration of drug.
b. Doubling the rate of infusion only.

d. Tripling the rate of infusion.

20. In compartment modeling the term “Open” indicates
a. Unidirectional input and output b. All compartments are open
c. Body is open d. None of the above

21. Select the formula to calculate steady state concentration follows IV infusion
a. Css= Infusion Rate/ Clearance b. Css= Clearance / Infusion Rate
c. Css= Infusion Rate X Clearance d. Css = Infusion Rate – Clearance

22. IV infusion model follows
a. Zero order absorption and first order elimination kinetic
b. No absorption and first order elimination kinetic
c. No absorption and Zero order elimination kinetic
d. First order absorption and first order elimination kinetic

23. Select the formula to calculate elimination half life
a. t1/2 = 0.693 + Ke
b. t1/2 = 0.693 / Ke
c. t1/2 = 0.693 Ã— Ke
d. t1/2 = 0.693 â€“ Ke

24. The constants that represent reversible transfer of drug between compartments are called as
a. microconstants
b. macroconstant
c. Infusion
d. Lag time

25. In two compartment model, extravascular route of drug administration, there are â€¦â€¦phases
a. absorption phase,
b. Distribution phase
c. elimination phase,
d. All of the above

26. Ka is estimated by
a. Method of Residuals
b. Loo Riegelman method
c. Both a and b
d. None of the above

27. The central compartment consist of
a. Highly perfused tissues
b. Slowly equilibrate tissues
c. Both a and b
d. Reproductive organs

28. What does “pharmacokinetics” includes?
A. Mechanisms of drug action
B. Localization of drug action
C. Interaction of substances
D. Excretion of substances

29. Pharmacokinetics is:
A. The study of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs
B. The study of biological and therapeutic effects of drugs
C. The study of methods of new drug development
D. The study of mechanisms of drug action

30. What does “pharmacokinetics” includes?
A. Drug biotransformation in the organism
B. Influence of drugs on metabolism processes
C. Influence of drugs on genes
D. Complications of drug therapy

A. Is too slow for emergency use
B. Cannot be used with unconsciousness patients
C. Generally results in a less accurate dosage than oral administration
D. Usually produces a more rapid response than oral administration

32. The volume of distribution (Vd) relates:
A. The amount of a drug in the body to the concentration of a drug in plasma
B. An uncharged drug reaching the systemic circulation
C. Single to a daily dose of an administrated drug
D. An administrated dose to a body weight

33. For the calculation of the volume of distribution (Vd) one must take into account:
A. Concentration of substance in urine
B. Therapeutical width of drug action
C. A daily dose of drug
D. Concentration of a substance in plasma

34â€¦â€¦â€¦.. is a mathematical concept which describes a space in the body which a drug appears to occupy.
a) Order of reaction
b) Compartment

c) Distribution
d) Elimination

35â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦..is the manner in which a drug is taken.
a) Dosage regimen
b) Dosage volume
d) None of the above

36â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦it is the extent to which a drug will accumulate relative to the first dose can be quantified by an accumulation factor R.
a) Accumulation Index
b) Apparent volume of drug distribution
c) Accumulation factor
d) None of the above

37â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦ is an initial higher dose of a drug that may be given at the beginning of a course of treatment before dropping down to a lower maintenance dose.
a) Primary Dose
b) Initial Dose
d) None of the above

38. The compartment models provide visual representation of various rate processes involved in drug disposition. Given statement is:
a) False
b) True
c) Cannot say
d) None of the above

39………………is composed of highly perfused tissues, extracellular fluid, and blood with rapid and uniform drug distribution.
a) Central compartment
b) Peripheral compartment
c) both of the above
d) None of the above

40â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦composed of groups of tissues with lower blood perfusion and different affinity the drug with slow drug distribution.
a. Central compartment
b. Peripheral compartment
c. Both of the above
d. None of the above

41. A multicompartment model assumes that all transfer rate processes for the passage of drug into or out of individual compartments areâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦.. processes.
a. First-order
b. Second order
c. Pseudo order
d. None of the above

42. The multicompartment models are intended to provideâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦.
a. Therapeutic activity of the drug
b. Achieve maximum efficacy
c. Both of the above
d. None of the above

43. The biological half-life of drug:
(a) is a constant physical property of the drug
(b) is a constant chemical property of the drug
(c) may be increased in patients with impaired renal failure
(d) may be decreased in patients by giving the drug by rapid I.V. injection

44. The half life of a drug eliminated by first order elimination kinetics will be longer in individuals who have an:
(a) increased volume of distribution or increased clearance
(b) increased volume of distribution or decreased clearance
(c) decreased volume of distribution or increased clearance
(d) decreased volume of distribution or decreased clearance

45. Half life (t1/2) is the time required to:
(a) change the amount of a drug in plasma by half during elimination
(b) metabolize a half of an introduced drug into the active metabolite
(c) absorb a half of an introduced drug
(d) bind a half of an introduced drug to plasma proteins

46. Half life (t1/2) does not depend on:
(a) biotransformation
(b) time of drug absorption
(c) concentration of a drug in plasma
(d) rate of drug elimination

47. Elimination rate constant (Kelim) is defined by the following parameter:
(a) rate of absorption
(b) maximal concentration of a substance in plasma
(c) highest single dose
(d) half life (t1/2)

48. Systemic clearance (Cl) is related with:
(a) only the concentration of substances in plasma
(b) only the elimination rate constant
(c) volume of distribution, half life and elimination rate constant
(d) bioavailability and half life

49. Biological Half life equation for first order process is

1. (a) t1/2 = a/2K
2. (b) t1/2 = 0.693/K
3. (c) ) t1/2 = 1/aK
4. (d) ) t1/2 = 3/2 K