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Pharmacology of Drugs Acting on CVS (Short Questions)

Pharmacology of Drugs Acting on CVS Important Question For One Mark

True or False

1) The study of the dynamic behaviour of blood is termed hemokinetics.
2) Digitalis is highly toxic.
3) Route of administration of digitalis is either oral or intravenous.
4) There are four phases of the action potential of cardiac cells.
5) The β-adrenergic antagonists may cause tachyphylaxis.
6) Trimethaphan is the only ganglionic blocker used nowadays.

7) Propranolol is used in high hypertension.
8) Ranolazine reduces the number of angina episodes per week and increases exercise tolerance.
9) Statins are the most effective and best tolerated agents used to treat hypolipidaemia.

• Fill in the Blanks

10) The myocardial tissue is made up of ________ and ___________.
11) Cardiac glycosides are derived from plant derivatives and are ________ in nature.
12) Digoxin, digitoxin, and ouabain are the commonly used __________.
13) ________ improves circulationand decreases sympathetic activity.
14) The β-adrenergic agonists may cause ___________.
15) A condition in which the blood pressure of systemic artery increases beyond the normal pressure is known as ____________.
16) ___________ is a competitive antagonist of angiotensin II.
17) Reserpine is an alkaloid obtained from the roots of the plant _____________.
18) ___________ reduces the number of angina episodes per week and increases exercise tolerance.
19) _________ are the most effective and best tolerated agents used to treat hyperlipidaemia.
20) The most common side effect of fish oils is ________.

Answers

1) False 2) True 3) True 4) False 5) False 6) True 7) False 8) True 9) False 10) contracting cells, conducting cells 11) steroidal 12) Cardiac glycosides 13) Digitalis 14) tachyphylaxis 15) hypertension 16) Losartan 17) Rauwolfia serpentina 18) Ranolazine 19) Statins 20) nausea

Important Summary For one mark Question

1) Cardiovascular system comprises of the heart and an extensive ly branched structure of blood vessels that transports oxygen, nutrients, heat, and other substances throughout the body.
2) The myocardial tissue is made up of contracting cells and conducting cells.
3) The study of the dynamic behaviour of blood is termed hemodynamics.
4) There are five phases of the action potential of cardiac cells.
5) When a heart fails to pump blood in a quantity sufficient to fulfil the body requirements, a condition of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) occurs, which is also known as a Heart Failure (HF).
6) Cardiac glycosides are derived from plant derivatives and are steroidal in nature.
7) Digoxin, digitoxin, and ouabain are the commonly used cardiac glycosides.
8) Route of administration of digitalis is either oral or intravenous.
9) When administered in co mparatively small therapeutic doses, digitalis improves the ability of excitation of the myocardium and the conduction velocity.
10) Digitalis improves circulation and decreases sympathetic activity, thereby increasing the blood flow to kidneys.
11) Digitalis is highly toxic . It has a low margin of safety with a therapeutic index ranging from 1.5-3.
12) Bipyridine derivatives (e.g., amrinone and milrinone) show phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibiting activity.
13) Bipyridines increase the production of cAMP in the heart and blo od vessels, and thus exert a positive inotropic action along with vasodilator activities.
14) The β-adrenergic agonists increase the cardiac output, and decrease the ventricular filling pressure and pre-load.
15) The β-adrenergic agonists may cause tachyphylaxis.
16) Diuretics increase the excretion of salt and water.
17) The production of angiotensin II from angiotensin I is inhibited by ACE inhibitors.

18) A condition in which the blood pressure of systemic artery increases beyond the normal pressure is known as hypertension.
19) Drugs promoting urine output are known as diuretics.
20) Losartan is a competitive antagonist of angiotensin II.
21) Trimethaphan is the only ganglionic blocker used nowadays.
22) Reserpine is an alkaloid obtained from the roots of the plant Rauwolfia serpentina.
23) Propranolol is used in mild to moderate hypertension.
24) Calcium channel blockersare commonly used in the treatment of hypertension.
25) Vasodilators cause vasodilation by directly relaxing the vascular smooth muscles.
26) Angina pectoris (or chest pain) is a symptom experienced due to myocardial ischemia, wherein the blood supply to the heart decreases.
27) Organic nitrates and nitrates are used in angina pectoris.
28) Ranolazine reduces the number of angina episodes per week and increases exercise tolerance.
29) Arrhythmia is a common disorder of cardiac excitation, which may be benign but may also be fatal ( e.g., ventricular fibrillation following a heart attack).
30) Sodium channel blockers are the most widely used antiarrhythmic agents.
31) Antihyperlipidemics are the group of drugs p rescribed in adjuvant therapy to reduce elevated cholesterol levels in patients with high cholesterol and LDL levels in the blood.
32) Statins are the most effective and best tolerated agents used to treat hyperlipidemia.
33) Cholestyramineis a bile acid sequestrant which serves as ion exchange resins.
34) Fibrates are the drugs reducing the triglyceride levels more than LDL cholesterol levels.
35) Fibrates act as agonists for the nuclear transcription factor Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptor -alpha (PPAR-alpha), at the molecular level.
36) Triglyceride synthesis and lipolysis inhibitors act either by inhibiting the synthesis of triglyceride or by inhibiting the process of lipolysis.

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