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NursingpharmacyTopic wise MCQs

The Kidney and Lower Urinary Tract MCQs

1. Glomerular tuft contains capillaries forming following number of lobules:

  1. A. Four
  2. B. Six
  3. C. Eight
  4. D. Ten

2. Azotaemia results from elevation of following waste-products of protein metabolism except:

  1. A. Blood urea
  2. B. Blood urea nitrogen
  3. C. Serum uric acid
  4. D. Serum creatinine

3. In end-stage kidney disease, GFR is:

  1. A. 5% of normal
  2. B. 10% of normal
  3. C. 15% of normal
  4. D. 20% of normal

4. Infantile polycystic kidney disease has the following features except:
A. It has autosomal recessive inheritance
B. It is invariably bilateral
C. The condition often manifests in adults
D. The condition is frequently associated with multiple hepatic cysts

5. The most common features of nephritic syndrome include the following except:

  1. A. Heavy proteinuria
  2. B. Hypertension
  3. C. Microscopic haematuria
  4. D. Oliguria

6. The most common form of glomerulonephritis (GN) in adults is:

  1. A. Minimal change disease
  2. B. Membranous GN
  3. C. Membranoproliferative GN
  4. D. Focal segmental GN

7. The most frequent form of primary glomerular disease in children is:
A. Minimal change disease
B. Acute glomerulonephritis
C. Membranous GN
D. Membranoproliferative GN

8. Examples of immune complex GN include the following except:
A. Acute GN
B. Membranous GN

C. Membranoproliferative GN
D. RPGN in Goodpasture’s disease

9. Classic example of anti-GBM disease is:

  1. A. Minimal change disease
  2. B. Acute GN
  3. C. Membranous GN
  4. D. Goodpasture’s disease

10. Alternate pathway disease occurs in following forms of glome- rular disease except:
A. Membranous GN
B. Membranoproliferative GN
C. Rapidly progressive GN
D. IgA nephropathy

11. Acute post-streptococcal GN is characterised by proteinuria of:
A. Non-selective
B. Selective
C. Albuminuria only
D. Low molecular weight only

12. The serum markers for RPGN are as follows except:
A. Serum C3 levels
B. Anti-GBM antibody
C. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)
D. Anti-endothelial cell antibody (AECA)

13. In Goodpasture disease, the antigen is:
A. Collagen IV of basement membrane
C. Bacterial products
D. Cationic proteins

14. Children having minimal change disease have selective protein- uria because of:
A. Reduction of negative charge on GBM
B. Extensive damage to the GBM
C. Deposits of IgG and C3 on GBM
D. Increased mesangial matrix in the glomeruli

15. Majority of cases of membranous glomerulonephritis have following etiology:

  1. A. SLE
  2. B. Viral infections
  3. C. History of drugs
  4. D. Idiopathic

16. Basement membrane material in membranous glomerulo- nephritis appears as:
A. Dense deposits
B. Spikes protruding from GBM
C. Double-contoured
D. Tram-track

17. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis is characterised by lobular proliferation of:

  1. A. Epithelial cells
  2. B. Endothelial cells
  3. C. Mesangial cells
  4. D. Leucocytes

18. HIV infection commonly produces the following type of glomerular lesions:
A. Membranous GN
B. Membranoproliferative GN
C. Focal GN
D. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

19. The most common and most severe form of lupus nephritis shows the following lesions:
A. Mesangial lupus nephritis
B. Focal segmental lupus nephritis
C. Diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis
D. Membranous lupus nephritis

20. In diabetic nephropathy, the following lesions are specific for
juvenile-onset diabetes:
A. Diffuse glomerulosclerosis
B. Nodular glomerulosclerosis

C. Diabetic pyelonephritis
D. Armanni-Ebstein lesions

21. In ischaemic ATN, the following holds true except:
A. There is dilatation of proximal and distal convoluted tubules
B. There is disruption of tubular basement membrane
C. There is diffuse tubular necrosis
D. Tubular lumina contain casts

22. The most common mechanism in pathogenesis of chronic pyelonephritis is:
A. Ascending infection
B. Reflux nephropathy
C. Obstructive nephropathy
D. Haematogenous infection

23. Nephrocalcinosis is characterised by deposition of calcium salt at the following locations except:

  1. A. Basement membrane
  2. B. Within mitochondria
  3. C. Lysosomes
  4. D. Cytoplasm

24. The causes of renal hypertension include the following except:
A. Fibromuscular dysplasia of renal artery
B. Polyarteritis nodosa
C. Sickle cell nephropathy
D. Polycystic kidney disease

25. Causes of flea-bitten kidney include the following except:
A. Acute post-streptococcal GN
B. Rapidly progressive GN
C. Haemolytic uraemic syndrome
D. Benign nephrosclerosis

26. The following type of renal calculi are radiolucent:

  1. A. Calcium oxalate
  2. B. Struvite
  3. C. Uric acid
  4. D. Calcium phosphate

27. The following type of renal calculi are infection-induced:

  1. A. Calcium oxalate
  2. B. Struvite
  3. C. Uric acid
  4. D. Cystine

28. In hereditary renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the following syn-drome is implicated in carcinogenesis:

  1. A. von Hippel-Lindau disease
  2. B. Polycystic kidney disease
  3. C. Alport’s syndrome
  4. D. Fabry’s disease

29. Out of various histologic types of renal cell carcinoma, the following type has worst prognosis:

  1. A. Clear cell type
  2. B. Granular cell type
  3. C. Sarcomatoid type
  4. D. Papillary type

30. Malakoplakia of the urinary bladder is a form of:

  1. A. Dysplasia
  2. B. Metaplasia
  3. C. Papillary hyperplasia
  4. D. Chronic inflammation

31. Schistosomiasis of the urinary bladder is implicated in the following type of bladder tumour:
A. Transitional cell carcinoma
B. Squamous cell carcinoma
C. Adenocarcinoma
D. Adenoacanthoma

32. Collapsing sclerosis is a feature of following type of primary glomerular disease:
A. Membranoproliferative GN
B. IgA nephropathy
C. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
D. Focal glomerulonephritis

33. Genetic basis of minimal change disease consists of mutation in:

  1. A. Podocin
  2. B. Nephrin
  3. C. Alpha-3 collagen
  4. D. Fibrillin

34. Pseudo-crescent formation is seen in:
A. Membranous glomerulonephritis
B. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

C. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
D. IgA nephropathy

35. All are classes of lupus nephritis except:
A. Membranoproliferative lupus nephritis
B. Mesangial lupus nephritis
C. Focal segmental lupus nephritis
D. Minimal lesions

36. Prehypertension is defined as blood pressure between:
A. 110-120/75-80 mmHg
B. 120-139/80-89 mmHg
C. 130-149/90-95 mmHg
D. 140-159/95-99 mmHg

37. Which of the following is a congenital benign tumour of kidney?

  1. A. Angiomyolipoma
  2. B. Reninoma
  3. C. Multicystic nephroma
  4. D. Mesoblastic nephroma

38. Which of the following is the histologic hallmark for the diagnosis of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis?
A. Crescents within the glomeruli
B. Fibrinoid necrosis of the efferent arterioles
C. Fibrin thrombi in the glomerular tuft
D. Granular deposits in the subendothelium

Answers Key
1) = C, 2) = C, 3) = A, 4) = C, 5) = A, 6) = B, 7) = A, 8) = D, 9) = D, 10) = A, 11) = A, 12) = D, 13) = A, 14) = A, 15) = D, 16) = B, 17) = C, 18) = D, 19) = C, 20) = B, 21) = C, 22) = B, 23) = C, 24) = C, 25) = D, 26) = C, 27) = B, 28) = A, 29) = C, 30) = D, 31) = B, 32) = C, 33) = B, 34) = C, 35) = A, 36) = B, 37) = D, 38) = A