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Vancomycin:- PPT / PDF

Description

Vancomycin
• Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic used in the prophylaxis and treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria.
• Vancomycin is used to treat infections of the intestines that cause colitis (inflammation of the large intestine).
• Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin
• Mechanism of Action of Vancomycin
• Therapeutic Uses of Vancomycin
• ADRs of Vancomycin
• Drug Interactions of Vancomycin
• C. difficile –associated
diarrhea
• Endocarditis (staphylococcal, streptococcal, enterococcal, diphtheroid), staphylococca infections

  • Subject:- pharmacology 1
  • Course:- B.pharm (pharmacy),
  • Semester:- 4th sem , sem :- 4

VANCOMYCIN

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Vancomycin

• Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic used

in the prophylaxis and treatment of infections

caused by Gram-positive bacteria.

• Vancomycin is used to treat infections of the

intestines that cause colitis (inflammation of the

large intestine).

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Pharmacokinetics

• Absorption:

• Poorly absorbed (orally).

• When given by injection:

• T max is 1 h (injection).

• Distribution:

• 55% protein bound.

• Distributes in:

• Pleural fluid

• Pericardial fluid

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• Ascitic fluid

Pharmacokinetics

• Metabolism:

• Partially metabolized by liver.

• Elimination:

• IV: about 75% is excreted in the urine by

glomerular filtration (in the first 24 hrs).

• Oral: feces.

• Mean half-life is 4 to 6 hrs.

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Mechanism of Action

• Inhibits cell wall synthesis.

• Inhibits transglycosylase.

• Alters cell membrane permeability.

• Cell becomes susceptible to lysis.

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Therapeutic Uses

• ORAL

• Treatment of Clostridium difficile –associated

diarrhea.

• Treatment of staphylococcal enterocolitis.

• PARENTERAL

• Treatment of serious or severe infections caused

by susceptible strains of methicillin-resistant

(beta-lactam–resistant) staphylococci.

• Treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal,

enterococcal, or diphtheroid endocarditis.

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ADRs

• Cardiovascular

Hypotension.

• CNS

Headache, fatigue, dizziness, vertigo (rare).

• Dermatologic

Dermatitis, urticaria, vasculitis.

• Hematologic

Thrombocytopenia

• ENT

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Hearing loss.

ADRs

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• GI

Nausea; abdominal pain; diarrhea, vomiting;

flatulence; antibiotic-associated colitis.

• Genitourinary

Urinary tract infections.

• Local

Injection-site inflammation.

• Respiratory

Dyspnea, wheezing.

• Hypokalemia www.remixeducation.in

DRUG INTERACTIONS

• increased risk of

ANESTHETICS hypersensitivity.

• increases vancomycin toxicity

INDOMETHACIN in neonates.

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• increases methotrexate

METHOTREXATE toxicity

AMINOGLYCOSIDES, • increases risk of nephrotoxicity

AMPHOTERICIN B, and/or neurotoxicity.

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Endocarditis (staphylococcal,

streptococcal, enterococcal,

diphtheroid), staphylococcal infections

• For adults: IV 500 mg every 6 h or 1 g every 12

h at a rate no faster than 10 mg/min or over at

least 60 min, whichever is longer.

• For children: IV 10 mg/kg per dose given every

6 h over at least 60 min.

• For neonates: IV initial dose of 15 mg/kg,

followed by 10 mg/kg every 12 h in the first

week of life and every 8 h thereafter up to 1

month of age.

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C. difficile –associated

diarrhea

• For adults: PO 125 mg 4 times daily for 10 days.

• For children: PO 40 mg/kg/day in 3 or 4 divided

doses for 7 to 10 days; max dosage is 2 g/day.

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