ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY
1. What sort of space exists between the parietal and visceral pericardium?
2. Gap junctions in the intercalated discs of cardiac muscle cells allow the rapid passage of what?
A. Water B. Calcium
C. Action potentials D. Oxygen
3. The ‘p’ wave on the electrocardiogram corresponds to:
A. Atrial depolarisation
B. Atrial repolarisation
C. Ventricular depolarisation
D. Ventricular repolarisation
4. The Frank-Starling Law states:
A. The greater the heart rate the higher the blood pressure.
B. The amount of stretch the ventricle is subject to affects the force of contraction
C. The amount of afterload affects the force of ventricular contraction
D. Cardiac output equals stroke volume times heart rate.
5. Which valve prevents the backwards flow of blood in to the left atrium?
A. Aortic valve
B. Pulmonary valve
C. Mitral valve
D. Tricuspid valve
6. The cells of the cardiac conduction system have the ability to create their own action potentials, this is known as:
7. The effect of adrenaline on heart includes:
A. Increased heart rate
B. Increased systolic time
C. Increased diastolic time
D. Increased relaxation period
8. The parasympathetic nervous system innervates the heart via which cranial nerve?
A. Cranial nerve IV – Trochlear nerve
B. Cranial nerve VI – Abducens nerve
C. Cranial nerve X – Vagus nerve
D. Cranial Nerve XII – Hypoglossal nerve
9. What effect does increased activity in the parasympathetic nervous system have on the heart?
A. Increase heart rate
B. Decrease heart rate
C. Increase force of contraction
D. Decrease force of contraction
10. Which of the following hormones increases the force of contraction of the heart chambers?
B. Luteinising hormone
11. Which of the following is not found in the upper respiratory tract?
B. Palatine tonsils
12. The respiratory tract is lined with?
A. Simple squamous epithelium
B. Stratified cuboidal epithelium
C. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
D. Simple ciliated columnar epithelium
13. Which of the following statements are false?
A. The larynx is also called the voicebox
B. The respiratory tract is also referred to as the bronchial tree
C. Respiratory disease never reduces the ability to speak in complete sentences
D. The cricoid cartilage is a major landmark for a tracheotomy
14. How many lobes are there in the left lung?
15. Which of the following is not part of respiration?
A. Internal ventilation
B. External respiration
C. Pulmonary ventilation
D. Transport of gases
16. Which gas law states that the “pressure exerted by a gas in inversely proportional to its volume”?
A. Henry’s law.
B. Dalton’s law
C. Boyle’s law
D. Fick’s law
17. Which of the following muscles is also known as an accessory muscle?
C. External Intercostals
D. Internal Intercostals
18. With regards to the work of breathing, what forces must respiratory muscles overcome in order to inflate the lungs?
A. Natural elastic recall of lung tissue
B. Liquid/air surface tension
C. Airway resistance
D. All of the above
19. How is the majority of oxygen transported around the body?
A. Dissolved in plasma
B. Attached to haemoglobin
C. As bicarbonate ions
D. Attached to plasma proteins
20. Which of the following statements on gaseous exchange is true?
A. Arterial pulmonary circulation is low in carbon dioxide
B. Venous pulmonary circulation is high in carbon dioxide
C. The concentration of oxygen in the alveoli is higher than in lobular circulation
D. The concentration of carbon dioxide in lobular circulation is lower than in the alveoli
21. Which of the layers of an artery contains smooth muscles?
A. tunica interna
B. tunica externa
C. tunica media
D. all of the above
22. The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called:
A. hepatic portal circulation
B. systemic circulation
C. pulmonary circulation
D. cornnary circulation
23. Arteries that directly lead into capillaries are called:
C. muscular arteries
24. The hepatic portal vein transports:
A. blood to the brain
B. nutrient-rich blood to the liver
C. blood to the skin
D. transports blood to the heart
25. The lymph leaves the lymph node via the:
A. afferent lymphatic vessel
B. efferent lymphatic vessel
C. superior vena cava
26. Which of the following stimulates erythropoiesis?
A. decreased demand of tissue oxygen
B. increased demand of tissue oxygen
C. increased red blood cell count
D. increased white blood cell count
27. Lack of Vitamin B12 results in:
A. vascular spasm
B. vascular dilatation
28. Haemoglobin is a:
A. Carbohydrate B. Antibody
C. White blood cell D. protein
29. How many globin molecules does a polypeptide chains have?
30. The least numerous of the white blood cells are:
31. The process of taking food into the digestive system is known as:
32. Which digestive tract hormone inhibits gastric gland secretion and gastric motility?
D. Anti-diuretic Hormone
33. Which of these is NOT a constituent of saliva?
A. Salivary amylase
34. The tongue participates in which phase of swallowing?
A. Voluntary phase
B. Pharyngeal phase
C. Oesophageal phase
D. Mastication phase
35. Which artery supplies the stomach with oxygenated blood?
A. Carotid artery
B. Gastric artery
C. Celiac artery
D. Cephalic artery
36. Which cell secretes pepsinogen?
A. Mucous neck cell
B. Parietal cell
C. Chief cell
D. G cell
37. Which part of the digestive tract has small adaptations called microvilli?
A. The oesophagus
B. The stomach
C. The small intestine
D. The large intestine
38. Which cell of the small intestine secretes mucous?
A. Paneth cell
B. Enteroendocrine cell
C. Absorptive cell
D. Goblet cell
39. Which constituent of pancreatic juice helps to digest fats?
40. What happens to dietary carbohydrates?
A. They are broken down into amino acids
B. They are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids by catabolism
C. They are broken down into simple sugars by the action of pepsin
D. They are broken down into monosaccharide by the action of amylase
41. Which of the following is completely reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule?
42. Which of the following is not usually found in the urine?
C. red blood cells
D. all of the above
43. The main function of the kidney is to:
A. eliminate oxygen
B. regulate fluid balance
C. metabolise vitamins
D. eliminate carbon dioxide
44. Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidney?
A. blood pressure regulation
B. regulate acid base balance
C. production of vitamin B complex
D. excretion of waste products
45. The organs of the urinary system are: 1 – kidneys, 2 – ureters, 3 – urethra, 4 – urinary bladder, 5 – prostate gland
B. 1, 2,3,4,5
46. Urine is transported to the bladder by:
A. peristaltic contraction of the ureters
B. voluntary control
C. pumping action of the heart
D. active transport system
47. Which of the following is not part of the nephron?
A. proximal convoluted tubule
B. distal convoluted tubule
C. loop of Henle
D. peritubular capillaries
48. The functional units of the kidneys are the:
A. Vasa recta
49. If the blood pressure decreases below normal range, urine production:
C. remains the same
D. none of the above
50. The trigone is found in the: