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pharmacy

Anti-Asthamatics

All about Anti-Asthamatics

????️ Sympathomimetic ( Beta 2 agonist )

???????? Eg : Salbutamol , Salmeterol , Terbutaline , Bambuterol , Formoterol , Ephedrine

✳️ MOA ✳️

????????They act by activating cAMP pathway in bronchial muscle
???????? Thus relax the bronchial muscle due to excessive efflux of potassium which results in hyper-polarization
???????? It decrease the release of inflammatory mediators & give symptomatic relief

⚠️ ADR ⚠️

???????? Hypokalemia
???????? Palpitations
???????? Nervousness
???????? Throat irritation

????️ Methylxanthines

???????? Eg : Theophylline , Caffeine , Theobromine

Pharmacological Action

???????? CNS : Stimulation
???????? CVS : I) Increase HR by cardiac action = Raise BP
2 ) Decrease HR by stimulation of vagal nerve = lowers BP
???????? Smooth muscle : Relaxation
???????? Kidney : Mild diuresis
???????? Skeletal muscle : Contraction
???????? Stomach : Enhance acid & pepsin secretion
???????? Mast cell : Decrease histamin release

✳️ MOA ✳️

???????? Inhibit Phosphodiesterase enzyme which is responsible for degradation of cAMP
???????? Thus increase cAMP level
???????? Thus gives Bronchodilation action
???????? It also block Adenosine receptor which is responsible for Contraction of smooth muscle & by acting on this receptor it relax the smooth muscle

⚠️ ADR⚠️

???????? Headache , Nervousness , CNS toxicity , Nausea , gastric pain

Use

???????? Bronchial asthma & COPD
???????? Apnoea in premature infants

???????? Anti Asthmatics ( Part 3 )????????

♈ Leukotriene Antagonists♈

Eg : Montelukast , Zafirlukast

✳️ MOA ✳️

???????? It act by binding on cysLT1 receptor present on lungs
???????? By binding it gives antagonistic effect & block the leukotriene action
???????? Thus reduce mucosal edema & relieve bronchospasm
???????? They decrease the response of allergens & inhibit exercise induce , Aspirin induced bronchospasm

⚠️ ADR ⚠️

???????? Headache , rashes , GI disturbance

♈ Mast Cell Stabilizer ♈

❇️ Eg : Cromolyn Sodium ( Disodium Cromoglycate ) , Nedocromil , Ketotifen

✳️ MOA✳️

???????? Inhibit degranulation of mast cell & thereby inhibit release of histamin
???????? Also inhibit release of cytokines
???????? Depress the neuronal reflexes

⚠️ ADR⚠️

???????? Throat irritation
???????? Cough

✅ Uses ✅

???????? Prophylaxis of bronchial asthma
???????? Allergic rhinitis
???????? Allergic conjunctivitis

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