Autocoids and related drugs
a. Introduction to autacoids and classification
b. Histamine, 5-HT and their antagonists.
c. Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes and Leukotrienes.
d. Angiotensin, Bradykinin and Substance P.
e. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents
f. Anti-gout drugs
g. Antirheumatic drugs
Autacoid This term is derived from Greek: autos—self, akos—healing substance or remedy. These are diverse substances produced by a wide variety of cells in the body, having intense
biological activity, but generally act locally (e.g. within inflammatory pockets) at the site of synthesis and release. They have also been called ‘local hormones’. However, they differ from ‘hormones’ in two important ways—hormones are produced by specific cells, and are transported through circu-
lation to act on distant target tissues. Autacoids are involved in a number of physiological and pathological processes (especially reaction to injury and immunological insult). Some autacoids, in addition, serve as transmitters or
modulators in the nervous system, but their role at many sites is not precisely known. A number of useful drugs act by modifying their action or metabolism. The classical autacoids aAmine autacoids Histamine, 5-Hydroxytryp-
tamine (Serotonin) Lipid derived autacoids Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, Platelet activating factor Peptide autacoids Plasma kinins (Bradykinin,
Kallidin), Angiotensin In addition, cytokines (interleukins, TNFα, GM-CSF, etc.) and several peptides like gastrin, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and many others may be considered as