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Bhasma and Churna:- PDF/ PPT


Subject:- Herbal Drug Technology
Semester:- Sem :- 6
Course:- Pharmacy, Bachelor of pharmacy

Course Code: BP603T

Course Title: Herbal Drug Technology

Bhasma and Churna
• Definition of bhasma and churna

• Method of preparation of Bhasma and churna

• Characteristics of bhasma and churna
Bhasma and Churna

At the end of this lecture, student will be able to
• Define bhasma and churna
• Explain the method of preparation of Bhasma and churna
Bhasma is a powder of the substance obtained by calcination
➢ Metal, mineral and animal products are calcinied in closed crucibles
in pits with cow dung cakes by special process


Method of Preparation:


➢ Sodhana is a purification process, it is a medicinal purification

➢ Chemical purification eliminates only foreign matter, but Sodhana

– To eliminate harmful matter from the drug

– To modify undesirable physical characters of the drug

– To enhance the therapeutic activity of the drug

Types of Sodhana:
Samanya sodhana : Heating of thin sheets of metals by immersing in

taila / gomutra

Visesa sodhana : Four types

➢ Bhavana – Grinding with special decoctions

➢ Svedana – Convert drug into a poultice

➢ Nirvapana – Incinerating to red hot and dipping into taila

➢ Mardana – Triturating /rubbing with some dravyas
➢ Purified drug obtained from sodhana is placed in kalva

➢ Ground with specified quantities of kasaya/swarasa

➢ Resultant material is made into small cakes

➢ Size and thickness of the cakes – Heaviness of the drug

➢ Heavier the drug thinner are the cakes and vice versa

➢ Cakes are dried and placed in a shallow earthen plate and closed
with another
➢ Edges are sealed with a clay smeared cloth in seven consecutive
layers and again dried

➢ A pit is dug in an open space

➢ Half of the pit is filled with cow dung cakes

➢ Earthen plates holding the cakes of metal/mineral is placed on cow
dung cakes

➢ Pit is then completely filled with cow dung cakes
➢ Cow dung cakes are set fire all the four sides and also in the
middle of the pit

➢ After burning allowed to cool

➢ Earthen plates are removed and seal is opened

➢ Contents are ground again in kalva into a fine powder

Characters: Bhasma should comply the following

➢ No metallic luster

➢ Float on cold water

➢ Not revert to original state

➢ Very fine, so that it get easily to the finger lines when taken
between index finger and thumb

➢ No characteristic taste


➢ Should be stored in airtight glass/earthen containers

➢ Retain its potency indefinitely


Example Use
Svarna bhasma Hrudroga
Rajata bhasma Jvara, Buddhimandya

Churna is a fine powder of drug or drugs

Method of preparation:

➢ Drugs are cleaned and dried properly

➢ Finely powdered and sieved


➢ When more than one drug, each drug is weighed separately
according to the formula, powdered and sieved

➢ As some drugs contain more fibrous matter, separate powdering,
sieving and mixing is preferred

➢ Certain drugs like camphor, salt and sugar are to be powdered
separately and mixed at the end

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➢ Drugs like asafoetida are roasted, powdered and mixed at the end


➢ Should be a very fine powder of at least 80# sieve

➢ Should not be sticky


➢ Should be stored in airtight containers

                     Example                         Use
               Jataphaladya churna                 Atisara
                 Karpuradi churna                Svasa, ksaya

➢ Bhasma – calcination process
➢ Metal, mineral drugs
➢ Sodhana and marana
➢ Sodhana – medicinal purification, Bhavana, svedhana, nirvapana and
➢ Kalva, cakes, sealed with clay smeared cloth
➢ Pit, cow dung cakes, fire, cool, grind into a fine powder
➢ Churna – fine powder of drug/s, dried, sieved and finely powdered
➢ Conditions for preparing churna
Thank You

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