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Biotechnology 20 IMP Question list with Answers (Hand Written Notes)

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Introduction, What is biotechnology?, Biotechnology: an interdisciplinary pursuit, Biotechnology: a three-component central core, Product safety, Public perception of biotechnology  Brief introduction to Biotechnology with reference to Pharmaceutical Sciences.
 Enzyme Biotechnology – Methods of enzyme immobilization and applications.
 Biosensors- Working and applications of biosensors in Pharmaceutical Industries.
 Brief introduction to Protein Engineering.
 Use of microbes in industry. Production of Enzymes – General consideration – Amylase, Catalase, Peroxidase, Lipase, Protease,Penicillinase.
 Basic principles of genetic engineering.
 Study of cloning vectors, restriction endonucleases and DNA ligase.
 Recombinant DNA technology. Application of genetic engineering in medicine.
 Application of rDNA technology and genetic engineering in the production of: i)
 Interferon ii) Vaccines- hepatitis- B iii) Hormones-Insulin.
 Brief introduction to PCR.
 Types of immunity- humoral immunity, cellular immunity.
 Structure of Immunoglobulins.
 Structure and Function of MHC.
 Hypersensitivity reactions, Immune stimulation and Immune suppressions.
 General method of the preparation of bacterial vaccines, toxoids, viral vaccine, antitoxins, serum -immune blood derivatives and other products relative to immunity.
 Storage conditions and stability of official vaccines.
 Hybridoma technology- Production, Purification and Applications.
 Blood products and Plasma Substitutes. Immuno-Blotting Techniques
 ELISA, Western blotting, Southern blotting.
 Genetic organization of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes.
 Microbial genetics including transfo rmation, transduction, conjugation,
plasmids and transposons.
 Introduction to Microbial biotransformation and applications.
Mutation Types of mutation/mutants.
 Fermentation methods and general requiremen ts, study of media,
equipments, sterilization methods, aeration process, stirring.
 Large-scale production fermenter design and its various controls.
 Study of the production of – penicillins, citric acid, Vitamin B12, Glutamic acid, Griseofulvin.
Blood Products
 Collection, Processing an d Storage of whole human blood, dried human plasma, plasma Substituties.

Biotechnology Unit 1 Important Question Very Short Answer Type Questions
1) Write a short note on recombinant DNA technology.
2) Name the steps involved in gene cloning.
3) Write a short note on bacteriophages.
4) Briefly discuss gel electrophoresis.
5) Discuss the vectors used for preparing single-stranded DNA.
6) Discuss homopolymer tailing.
Biotechnology Unit 1 Important Question Short Answer Type Questions
1) Discuss restriction endonuclease digestion.
2) Write a short note on plasmids.
3) Write a short note on expression vectors.
4) Discuss expression of cloned gene within the host.
Biotechnology Unit 1 Important Question Long Answer Type Questions
1) Briefly discuss the steps involved in insertion of target DNA into a vector.
2) Write a note on identification and isolation of recombination genes.
3) Give the applications of rDNA technology and genetic engineering in the production of interferon.

Very Short Answer Type Questions
1) Define immunity and give its types.
2) What is active immunity? Explain.
3) Define cell-mediated immunity and give its mechanism.
4) What are immunoglobulins? Classify them.
5) Define antibody-mediated immunity.
Short Answer Type Questions
1) Briefly discuss non-specific immunity.
2) Write a short note on the types of immunoglobulins.
3) What are the functions of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC).
4) Discuss Type I and Type II hypersensitivity.
Long Answer Type Questions
1) Give the mechanism of innate immunity.
2) Classify and explain the types of immunoglobulins.
3) Write a detailed note on the types of hypersensitivity reactions

Very Short Answer Type Questions
1) Define and classify vaccines.
2) Write a short note on toxoids.
3) Write a short note on antitoxins.
4) Give the method of preparation of pertussis vaccine.
5) What is protein purification? Give its advantages and disadvantages.
Short Answer Type Questions
1) Write a short note on hybridoma technology.
2) Write a short note on BCG vaccine.
3) Briefly discuss typhoid vaccine.
Long Answer Type Questions
1) Write a note on polio vaccine.
2) Explain the production of MAbs.
3) Give a detailed note on applications of MAbs.

Very Short Answer Type Questions
1) What are biosensors? Give their principle.
2) What is protein engineering?
3) Define genetic engineering? Give its basic principle.
4) Discuss the working of biosensors.
5) Give some applications of biosensors in pharmaceutical industries.
Short Answer Type Questions
1) Briefly discuss the types of biosensors.
2) Write the process of genetic engineering.
3) Give the historical background of genetic engineering.
4) Give the applications of biosensors in pharmaceutical industries.
Long Answer Type Questions
1) Discuss the methods for increasing the biological activity of proteins.
2) Give a detailed account on the applications of protein engineering.
3) Write the applications of genetic engineering.

Very Short Answer Type Questions
1) Give the general principle of immuno-blotting techniques.
2) Define ELISA.
3) Write a short note on western blotting.
4) What is southern blotting?
5) Write the applications of ELISA.
Short Answer Type Questions
1) What is ELISA? Give its principle and procedure.
2) Define western blotting. Give its applications.
3) Discuss the genetic organisation of eukaryotes.
4) Write a short note on genetic organisation of prokaryotes.
Long Answer Type Questions
1) Write the procedure and types of ELISA.
2) What is western blotting? Give its procedure.
3) Give a detailed note on southern blotting.

Very Short Answer Type Questions
1) Write a short note on microbial genetics.
2) Write a short note on generalised transduction.
3) What are the properties of plasmids?
4) Briefly discuss transposons.
5) Write a short note on microbial transformation.
Short Answer Type Questions
1) Discuss transformation.
2) What are plasmids? Give its properties and physical nature.
3) Discuss the replication of plasmids.
4) Write a short note on the types of transposons.
Long Answer Type Questions
1) Write a detailed note on plasmids.
2) Discuss the type of reactions involved in microbial biotransformation.
3) Discuss conjugation. Write the steps involved.

Very Short Answer Type Questions
1) Write a short note on mutation.
2) Discuss insertion mutation.
3) What is deletion mutation?
4) What are mutants? Write about conditional lethal mutants.
5) How X-rays act as mutagens.
Short Answer Type Questions
1) Write a short note on type of mutants.
2) Discuss the physical agents of mutagens.
3) What are chemical mutagens? Discuss alkylating agents.
Long Answer Type Questions
1) Give a detailed account on agents of mutation.
2) Discuss types of mutation in detail.

Very Short Answer Type Questions
1) Define fermentation and name the methods of fermentation.
2) Discuss batch fermentation.
3) How fermenter is sterilised?
4) Write about isolation and purification of vitamin B12.
5) Discuss the aeration system and stirring in fermenter.
6) What are the microbial strains used for citric acid production?
Short Answer Type Questions
1) Write the factors affecting fermenter design.
2) Write about the medium used for penicillin production.
3) Explain the fermentation process for glutamic acid production.
4) Discuss the inoculation process for the production of penicillins.
5) Briefly discuss production of glutamic acid.
Long Answer Type Questions
1) Discuss the fermentation methods in detail.
2) Write about the methods used for sterilisation.
3) Explain large-scale production fermenter design.
4) Explain citric acid production.

Very Short Answer Type Questions
1) Write a short note on blood and blood transfusion.
2) Discuss about whole human blood.
3) Write a short note on the labelling of dried human plasma BP.
4) Briefly discuss dried human serum BP.
5) Discuss dextran 40 injection, I.P.
Short Answer Type Questions
1) Discuss the collection and processing of whole human blood.
2) Write a short note on plasma substitutes.
3) Give the storage, labelling, and uses of dried human plasma BP.
4) Write the ideal requirements of plasma substitutes.
Long Answer Type Questions
1) Write a detailed note on whole human blood.
2) Explain plasma substitutes.
3) Explain PVP and dextran.

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