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Biotechnology (All Unit) 30 IMP Question Wise Hand made Notes

Description

The details given in the chapter can be summarised as follows:
1) An analytical device used to change biological response into an electrical signal is called biosensor.
2) Biosensors use a transducer to couple a biological sensing el ement with a detector.
3) Electrochemical b iosensor is a simple device used to measure electronic current, ionic or conductance changes carried by bio-electrodes.
4) Amperometric b iosensor determines the movement of electrons or electronic current due to a redox reaction catalysed by enzyme.
5) Blood Glucose biosensor is employed extensively for diabetic patients.
6) Piezoelectric biosensor is also called acoustic biosensor.
7) Potentiometric biosensor measures the changes in the concentration of ionic species with the help of ion-selective electrodes present in it.
8) Optical b iosensor works on the principle of optical measurements, like fluorescence, absorbance, etc., and is utilised in fibre optics and optoelectronic transducers.
9) The process of developing proteins having desired functions by manipulating their stability and specificity is termed protein engineering.
10) The industrial applications or therapeutic uses of enzymes/proteins can be appropriately brought into use by increasing their half -lives or
thermostability.
11) The amino acids , asparagine and glutamine undergo deamidation (i.e., release ammonia) to form aspartic acid and glutamic acid, respectively at high temperature.
12) The presence of a large number of free sulfhydryl groups (contributed by cysteine residues) may lower the activity of proteins.
13) Subtilisin is a serine protease enzyme secreted by gram -positive bacteria of Bacillus species.
14) Asparaginase enzyme is used for controlling leukaemia (i.e., uncontrolled growth of WBCs).
15) Protein engineering is used for cancer treatment studies.
16) Protein engineering techniques are also used for producing therapeutic proteins.
17) Genetic engineering involves deliberate DNA manipulation in organisms to alter their genes.
18) Genetic engineering involves artificial selection and also all the interventions of biomedical techniques (artificial insemination), in vitro fertilisation (e.g., test-tube babies), cloning, and gene manipulation.
19) The techniques of recombinant DNA technology were developed with the discovery of restriction enzymes by Werner Arber (a Swiss microbiologist) in 1968.
20) Gene cloning involves inserting a specific piece of ‘desired DNA’ into a host cell in such a manner that the inserted DNA is replicated and handed onto the daughter cells during cell division.

1) An analytical device used to change biological response into an electrical signal is called biosensor.
2) Biosensors use a transducer to couple a biological sensing el ement with a detector.
3) Electrochemical b iosensor is a simple device used to measure electronic current, ionic or conductance changes carried by bio-electrodes.
4) Amperometric b iosensor determines the movement of electrons or electronic current due to a redox reaction catalysed by enzyme.
5) Blood Glucose biosensor is employed extensively for diabetic patients.
6) Piezoelectric biosensor is also called acoustic biosensor.
7) Potentiometric biosensor measures the changes in the concentration of ionic species with the help of ion-selective electrodes present in it.
8) Optical b iosensor works on the principle of optical measurements, like fluorescence, absorbance, etc., and is utilised in fibre optics and optoelectronic transducers.
9) The process of developing proteins having desired functions by manipulating their stability and specificity is termed protein engineering.
10) The industrial applications or therapeutic uses of enzymes/proteins can be appropriately brought into use by increasing their half -lives or
thermostability.
11) The amino acids , asparagine and glutamine undergo deamidation (i.e., release ammonia) to form aspartic acid and glutamic acid, respectively at high temperature.
12) The presence of a large number of free sulfhydryl groups (contributed by cysteine residues) may lower the activity of proteins.
13) Subtilisin is a serine protease enzyme secreted by gram -positive bacteria of Bacillus species.
14) Asparaginase enzyme is used for controlling leukaemia (i.e., uncontrolled growth of WBCs).
15) Protein engineering is used for cancer treatment studies.
16) Protein engineering techniques are also used for producing therapeutic proteins.
17) Genetic engineering involves deliberate DNA manipulation in organisms to alter their genes.
18) Genetic engineering involves artificial selection and also all the interventions of biomedical techniques (artificial insemination), in vitro fertilisation (e.g., test-tube babies), cloning, and gene manipulation.
19) The techniques of recombinant DNA technology were developed with the discovery of restriction enzymes by Werner Arber (a Swiss microbiologist) in 1968.
20) Gene cloning involves inserting a specific piece of ‘desired DNA’ into a host cell in such a manner that the inserted DNA is replicated and handed onto the daughter cells during cell division.

1) A clone refers to a group of cells or organisms obtained from one progenitor.
2) The very first step in rDNA technology is selecting a desired DNA segment for cloning.
3) Restriction endonuclease enzymes aid in cutting the DNA molecules at specific sites.
4) In 1970s, Meselson and Yuan isolated the first true restriction endonuclease enzyme from the bacterium E. coli.
5) Type-I Restriction Endonucleases includes complex endonucleases, and cut one strand of DNA only.
6) Type-II Restriction Endonucleases are most stable and are significant for gene cloning and rDNA technology.
7) Type-III Restriction Endonucleases are intermediate enzymes between Type-I and Type-II restriction endonuclease.
8) Expressing the DNA of a eukaryotic cell into a prokaryotic cell is difficult since both the cells vary in gene organisation and regulation.
9) Mechanical shearing forms random fragments of DNA.
10) DNA ligase (or molecular glue ) forms phosphodiester bond to join two DNA fragments.
11) Adapters are synthetic oligonucleotides of double stranded molecules.
12) Plasmids are naturally derived, extra chromosomal, double -stranded DNA molecules that replicate autonomously in bacterial cells.
13) Bacteriophages (or phages) are viruses infecting bacte rial cells and are used as cloning vectors.
14) Insertion of the cos sequence of a phage into a small plasmid vector produces cosmid vectors.
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15) Yeast artificial chromosomes are advantageous in cloning of bacterial cells as it can clone very large DNA fragments.
16) Plaque hybridisation is used for screening transformed bacteriophages.
17) The most difficult step in applying hybridisation is obtaining a suitable probe.
18) Protein synthesis is based on the encoded information in the sequence of the DNA strand bases.
19) Gel electrophoresis involves separation of charged molecules (in aqueous phase) under the influence of an electrical field.
20) Blotting is the transfer of macromolecules from the gel to t he surface of an immobilising membrane.
21) Blot transfer technique is of three basic types, i.e., Southern blotting , Northern blotting, and Western blotting.
22) Northern and Western blotting techniques are used for transferring RNA and protein bands, respectively.
23) PCR technique is employed for the amplification (or cloning) of a target DNA sequence.

1) The word immunity (Latin immunis meaning exempt) describes the protection against diseases.
2) The principle function of the immune system is to protect the body from any microbial infection or pathological conditions.
3) Non-specific immunity is present in an individual since birth.
4) Different individuals of same race and species possess variable resistance against infection known as individual immunity.
5) The type of immunity th at is exhibited by different races of same species is known as racial immunity.
6) Species immunity is found in all members of a particular species, such as many microbes are pathogenic for human but does not infect animals.
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7) Skin is a mechanical barrier to mi croorganisms and also provides a bactericidal secretion that kills the pathogens.
8) The moist mucous secretion in the nasal passages traps the inhaled foreign particles.
9) Lysozyme present in the tears has a bactericidal action that plays a major role in antibacterial activity by flushing away bacteria.
10) If the epithelial surface is crossed by a pathogen, the tissue factors play a role of next line of defence.
11) Inflammation is an important mechanism of non-specific defence system.
12) Acquired immunity is also known as adaptive immunity because the potency of immune response is adapted by experience only.
13) Active immunity is the resistance acquired or developed by an individual after effective contact with an antigen.
14) Immune system requires specific time-period known as latent period for the development of active immunity.
15) Passive immunity occurs in an individual by readymade antibodies (usually in the form of antiserum) against infective agent or toxins.
16) Cellular immune response is also called T-cell immunity as it occurs by the T-cells or T-lymphocytes.
17) Humoral immunity is also called B-cell mediated immunity since B lymphocytes are involved in this response.
18) Immunoglobulins are glycoprotein molecules.
19) Haplotypes is the term used for a group of linked MHC genes inherit ed as a unit from parents.
20) Human MHC molecules are termed as Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA).
21) An elevated activity of normal immune system that damages the body tissues is known as hypersensitivity.
22) Stimulation of the immune system by an external source is termed immune stimulation or immunostimulation.
23) A phenomenon in which an organism’s ability to form antibodies in response to an antigenic stimulus is reduced or suppressed is termed immune suppression or immunosuppression.

1) Vaccines are pharmaceutical suspensions or solutions of immunogenic substances intended to induce active immunity.
2) The process of active immunisation is known as vaccination.
3) According to British Pharmacopoeia, ‘vaccines are preparations containing antigenic substances capable of inducing a specific and active immunity in ma n’.
4) Antisera (singular antiserum) are blood serum containing antibodies and renders passive immunity to an individual against several diseases.
5) Antiserum is also known as antitoxin.
6) Vaccines are standardised by determining the number or the dry weight of microorganisms in 1ml of the product.
7) The method for the production of stable and concentrated antiserum was first given by Gracia in 1976.
8) Serum is the liquid fraction of whole blood coll ected after the blood is allowed to clot.
9) Bacillus Calmette -Guerin (BCG) vaccine provides immunisation against tuberculosis.
10) Pertussis (or whooping cough) is an acute, communicable disease, caused by Bordetella pertussis (a small, non-motile, and gram-negative bacillus).
11) Cholera vaccine is the homogeneous suspension of strains of Vibrio cholera.
12) Tetanus vaccine is a clear liquid which may appear either colourless or brownish-yellow.
13) Rabies vaccine is a fluid or a freeze -dried preparation consisting of rabie s virus.
14) Polio is an acute infectious inflammation of the anterior horns of the grey matter of the spinal cord, which results in acute systemic infectious disease and paralysis.
15) Typhoid vaccine is a mixture of suspension of killed Salmonella typhi and tetanus formol (i.e., formaldehyde solution) toxoid.
16) Hepatitis A and B are two members of a family of closely related diseases; while the others are hepatitis C, D, and E caused by a viral infection.
17) Diphtheria vaccine is prepared by adsorbing formal toxoid on a mineral carrier .
18) Hybridoma technology is used for producing hybrid cells by fusing B lymphocyte with tumour or myeloma cells.
19) The myeloma cells used in hybridoma technology should not synthesise their own antibodies.
20) Alum Precipitated Toxoid (APT) is a high quality formal toxoid which has been treated with charcoal to remove the colouring matter and other impurities.
21) Purified Toxoid Aluminium Phosphate (PTAT) is a purer form of toxoid in comparison to APT.

1) The technique of immobilisa tion of nucleic acids or proteins on a solid support like nylon or nitrocellulose membranes is referred to as blotting.
2) ELISA is a solid -phase enzyme immunobinding assay, and the most essential of the immune-enzyme assays.
3) ELISA is also referred to as a qualitative or quantitative assay for antibodies.
4) Indirect ELISA is useful in identification and quantitative determination of antibody.
5) Sandwich ELISA is useful in detection and measurement of antigen.
6) Competitive ELISA is useful in estimation of antigen quantity.
7) The method of western blot was discovered by George Stark at Stanford, and the name western blot was laid down by W. Neal Burnette.
8) Western blotting is also known as immunoblot or protein blot and detects specific proteins in a sample of tissue homogenate or extract.
9) Western blotting work on the principle of immunochromatography.
10) E.M. Southern invented the technique of southern blotting.
11) In southern blotting, hybridisation analysis is performed by transferring the DNA from a gel to a membrane.
12) Southern blotting relies on the principle of separating DNA fragments by gel electrophoresis and identifying them by labelled probe hybridisation.

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