Remix education
pharmacyTopic wise MCQs

Cell Injury, Cellular Adaptations and Cellular Ageing MCQs with Answers

1. Tissues for electron microscopy are fixed in:

  1. A. Carnoy’s fixative
  2. B. 10% buffered formalin
  3. C. Saline
  4. D. 4% glutaraldehyde

2. The DNA molecule is a double helical strand having the following nucleotide bases:
A. Cytosine, thymine, alanine, guanine
B. Adenine, guanine, valine, thymine
C. Cytosine, lysine, adenine, guanine
D. Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine

3. Actin and myosin proteins are found in:

  1. A. Microtubules
  2. B. Microfilaments
  3. C. Intermediate filaments
  4. D. Ribosomes

4. In ischaemia-reperfusion cell injury, there are:
A. Increased Ca++ ions in the extracellular fluid
B. Increased Ca++ ions in the cytosol
C. Ca++ ions are equal in the cytosol and in extracellular fluid
D. Ca++ ion equilibrium is unaffected

5. The major mechanism of damage to plasma membrane in ischaemia is:
A. Reduced intracellular pH
B. Increased intracellular accumulation of sodium
C. Increased Ca++ ions in the cytosol
D. Reduced aerobic respiration

6. Out of various free radical species, the following radical is most reactive:
A. Superoxide (O2’)
B. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
C. Hydroxyl (OH–)
D. Nitric oxide (NO)

7. In fatty liver due to chronic alcoholism, the following mechanisms are involved except:
A. Increased free fatty acid synthesis
B. Decreased triglyceride utilization
C. Increased a-glycerophosphate
D. Block in lipoprotein excretion

8. The following pigments are stainable by Prussian blue reaction except:

  1. A. Haemosiderin
  2. B. Ferritin
  3. C. Haematin
  4. D. Haemochromatosis

9. Enzymatic digestion is the predominant event in the following
type of necrosis:

  1. A. Coagulative necrosis
  2. B. Liquefactive necrosis
  3. C. Caseous necrosis
  4. D. Fat necrosis

10. Mechanism of mammalian apoptosis involves the most important role of the following protein:

  1. A. Receptor for TNF
  2. B. BCL-2
  3. C. TP53
  4. D. CED-9

11. Apoptosis has the following features except:
A. There is cell shrinkage in apoptosis
B. There are no acute inflammatory cells surrounding apoptosis
C. There may be single cell loss or affect clusters of cells
D. Apoptosis is seen in pathologic processes only

12. Diabetic foot is an example of:

  1. A. Dry gangrene
  2. B. Wet gangrene
  3. C. Gas gangrene
  4. D. Necrotising inflammation

13. Idiopathic calcinosis cutis is an example of:

  1. A. Necrotising inflammation
  2. B. Dystrophic calcification
  3. C. Metastatic calcification
  4. D. Calcified thrombi in veins

14. In atrophy, the cells are:

  1. A. Dead cells
  2. B. Shrunken cells
  3. C. Irreversibly injured cells
  4. D. Reversibly injured cells

15. For metaplasia the following holds true:
A. It is a disordered growth
B. It affects only epithelial tissues
C. It is a reversible change
D. It is an irreversible and progressive change

16. In cell cycle, signal transduction system is activated by:

  1. A. G protein receptors
  2. B. Selectins
  3. C. Cadherins
  4. D. Integrins

17. Immune system in the body is activated by:

  1. A. Cell adhesion molecules
  2. B. Cytokines
  3. C. G-protein receptors
  4. D. Ion channels

18. Which of the following genes is proapoptotic:

  1. A. p53
  2. B. Bcl-2
  3. C. RB
  4. D. Bax

19. Annexin V is used as a marker for:

  1. A. Necrosis
  2. B. Fatty change
  3. C. Apoptosis
  4. D. Gangrene

20. Enzyme which prevents ageing is:

  1. A. Catalase
  2. B. Superoxide dismutase
  3. C. Metalloproteinase
  4. D. Telomerase

Answer key
1) = D, 2) = D, 3) = B, 4) = B, 5) = C, 6) = C, 7) = C, 8) = C, 9) = B, 10) = B, 11) = D, 12) = B, 13) = B, 14) = B, 15) = C, 16) = A, 17) = B, 18) = D, 19) = C, 20) = D