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Cardiovascular system MCQs with Answers

CVS MCQs with Answers

1. Blood flow through the heart follows which of the sequences listed below?
A. from left atrium, then mitral valve, right ventricle, aorta, left ventricle
B. from right atrium, then mitral valve, right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, left ventricle.
C. from pulmonary trunk, then tricuspid valve, left atrium, aortic valve, aorta
D. from vena cava, then right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, left ventricle, aorta.

2. What feature does cardiac muscle possess that is missing in skeletal muscle?
A. striations
B. multiple nuclei
C. voluntary control
D. intercalated discs

3. What is the name of the valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle?
A. mitral valve
B. tricuspid valve
C. semi-lunar valve
D. aortic valve

4. What is meant by a diastolic blood pressure of 100 mm Hg?
A. the maximum pressure at the start of the aorta during ventricular contraction.
B. the minimum pressure at the start of the aorta before the start of a ventricular contraction.
C. the maximum pressure at the start of the aorta and pulmonary trunk during ventricular contraction.
D. The minimum blood pressure measured when resting.

5. What is the main function of mitral valve?
A. to increase the pressure inside the left atrium during systole
B. to prevent a drop in pressure in the aorta during diastole
C. to prevent backflow from left ventricle to left atrium during systole
D. to add additional blood from left atrium to left ventricle during atrial systole

8. What will cause the sinoatrial (SA) node to depolarize more frequently?
A. Acetylcholine
B. Norepinephrine
C. Parasympathetic stimulation
D. Vagus nerve

9. How are cardiac cells mechanically attached to each other? By their:
A. mitochondria
B. intercalated discs
C. gap junctions
D. sarcolemma

10. Starting at the APEX of the heart and moving superiorly, what is the correct order in which you would encounter the four anatomical structures below?
A. valves, chordae tendonae, papillary muscle, ventricle
B. ventricle, papillary muscle, chordae tendonae, valves
C. papillary muscle, chordae tendonae, ventricle, valves
D. chordae tendonae, valves, ventricle, papillary muscle

11. Which period of the heart cycle is completely occupied by the ventricles relaxing?
A. atrial systole
B. atrial diastole
C. ventricular systole
D. ventricular diastole

12. Through which valve does blood flow when it moves from the right atrium into the right ventricle?
A. the tricuspid valve
B. the mitral valve
C. the pulmonary valve
D. the bicuspid valve

13. How is the fibrous pericardium attached to the surrounding structures?
A. laterally to the pleural surfaces of the lungs.
B. posteriorly to the sternum.
C. anteriorly to trachea, main-stem bronchi and oesophagus.
D. inferiorly to the clavicles.

14. A drug, such as cocaine, which stimulates the heart but does directly inhibit the heart’s ability to relax, would be considered a:
A. Sympatholytic
B. Sympathomimetic
C. Parasympatholytic
D. Parasympathomimetic

15. Why is the myocardium of the right ventricle (RV) thinner than that of the left ventricle (LV)?
A. the RV pumps into the pulmonary circuit which has less resistance than the systemic circuit.
B. the RV pumps a smaller volume of blood than the LV.
C. the RV pumps blood out with a slower exit speed than the RV.
D. the RV chamber has a smaller volume than the LV.

16. Through which valve does blood flow when it moves from the left atrium into the left ventricle?
A. the semilunar valve
B. the mitral valve
C. the tricuspid valve
D. the bicuspid valve

17. Which period of the heart cycle is completely occupied by the ventricles contracting?
A. atrial systole
B. atrial diastole
C. ventricular systole
D. ventricular diastole

18. Which statement below describes blood flow through the mitral valve?
A. blood flows from the right atrium into the right ventricle
B. blood flows from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery
C. blood flows from the left ventricle into the aorta
D. blood flows from the left atrium into the left ventricle

19. Which structure has the thickest wall?
A. the aorta
B. the inter-atrial septum
C. the left ventricle
D. the right ventricle

20. Which tissue is supplied with blood via the coronary arteries?
A. the lungs
B. the myocardium
C. the corona
D. the aorta

21. What is the innermost layer of the heart wall known as?
A. epicardium
B. pericardium
C. visceral pericardium
D. endocardium

22. Which of the following is a difference between cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle?
A. cardiac muscle is not striated (and skeletal muscle is).
B. cardiac muscle fibres are branched (and skeletal muscle fibres are not).
C. skeletal muscle is involuntary and is uni-nucleate (and cardiac muscle is neither).
D. skeletal muscle has intercalated discs (and cardiac muscle doesn’t).

23. Where is the mitral valve of the heart located? Between the
A. left atrium and left ventricle
B. left ventricle and the aorta
C. right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk
D. right atrium and right ventricle

24. Choose the structure known as the pacemaker of the heart from the following.
A. atrio-ventricular node
B. sino-atrial node
C. atrio-ventricular bundle
D. the bundle of His

25. Where is the aortic valve located?
A. between the right atrium and right ventricle
B. between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk
C. between the left ventricle and the aorta
D. between the left atrium and left ventricle

26. By what name is the heart muscle known?
A. epicardium
B. myocardium
C. pericardium
D. endocardium

27. The heart receives its own oxygenated blood supply via the
A. coronary arteries
B. the pulmonary veins
C. the coronary sinus
D. the foramen ovale

28. Which name is NOT applied to the valve between the left ventricle and the left atrium?
A. atrioventricular valve
B. semilunar valve
C. the bicuspid valve
D. the mitral valve

29. Where does the pulmonary trunk deliver its blood to?
A. the left atrium
B. the right ventricle
C. the lungs
D. the left ventricle

30. The heart can be made to beat faster by which of the following?
A. sympathetic stimulation of the SA node
B. sympathetic stimulation of the AV node
C. parasympathetic stimulation of the SA node
D. parasympathetic stimulation of the AV node

31. What is the outermost layer of the heart wall known as?
A. epicardium
B. pericardium
C. parietal membrane
D. endocardium

32. The valve between the atrium and the ventricle that pumps oxygenated blood is called:
A. the right atrioventricular valve
B. the semilunar valve
C. the mitral valve
D. the tricuspid valve

33. What is the name given to the remnant of the opening in the foetal heart that allowed the foetal lungs to be bypassed?
A. coronary sinus
B. foramen ovale

C. interatrial septum
D. fossa ovalis

34. The mitral valve of the heart is located between the
A. right atrium and right ventricle
B. left ventricle and the aorta
C. right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk
D. left atrium and left ventricle

35. Complete the sentence correctly. The left ventricle pumps:
A. more blood than the right ventricle
B. blood at a lower pressure than the right ventricle
C. less blood than the right ventricle
D. blood at a higher pressure than the right ventricle

36. What is ventricular systole? It
A. refers to contraction of the ventricles
B. occurs at the same time as contraction of the atria
C. occurs while the bicuspid valve is open
D. refers to relaxation of the ventricles

37. Which is correct? In its passage through the heart, blood is pumped into the pulmonary trunk:
A. after leaving the left ventricle
B. after leaving the left atrium
C. after passing through the right AV valve
D. after passing through the left AV valve

38. Cardiac muscle cells differ from skeletal muscle cells in that:
A. skeletal muscle cells are voluntary but cardiac muscle cells are not.
B. skeletal muscle cells are branched but cardiac muscle cells are not.
C. cardiac muscle cells are multinucleate but skeletal muscle cells are not.
D. cardiac muscle cells are a syncytium while skeletal muscle does not.

39. Which chamber of the heart has the thickest myocardium?
A. left ventricle
B. right ventricle
C. left atrium
D. right atrium

40. Why is the myocardium of the left ventricle thicker than that of the right ventricle?
A. The left ventricle has to pump a greater volume of blood than the right ventricle.
B. The resistance of the systemic circulation is greater than that of the pulmonary circulation.
C. The left ventricle has to pump blood to the brain against gravity.
D. The right ventricle is assisted by the “respiratory pump”.

41. What supplies blood to the myocardium?
A. the coronary circulation.
B. the vena cavae.
C. the vasa recta.
D. the pulmonary circulation.

42. Which of the following heart structures are listed in the correct sequence of blood flow through them?
A. right atrium, bicuspid valve, pulmonary valve, left ventricle.
B. tricuspid valve, right ventricle, left atrium, mitral valve.
C. pulmonary valve, left atrium, tricuspid valve, left ventricle.
D. right ventricle, left atrium, aortic valve, left ventricle.

43. The tricuspid valve separates which two structures?
A. right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
B. right ventricle and right atrium
C. left ventricle and aorta
D. left ventricle and left atrium

44. Why is the myocardium of the right ventricle thinner than that of the left ventricle?
A. the left ventricle has to pump a greater volume of blood than the right ventricle.
B. it results from left ventricular hypertrophy due to increased peripheral resistance.
C. it pumps blood into the low resistance pulmonary circulation.
D. it pumps blood into the high resistance systemic circulation.

45. Which of the following events occur during late ventricular diastole?
A. the atria are relaxed, the ventricles are filling passively, the atrioventricular valves are open
B. the ventricles are starting to contract, the atrioventricular valves are closed, the semilunar valves are open
C. the atria contract, the ventricles are relaxed, the atrioventricular valves are open
D. the atria are relaxed, the ventricles are starting to relax, the atrioventricular valves are closed, the semilunar valves are closed.

46. What feature distinguishes pacemaker cardiac cells from other cardiac cells? Pacemaker cardiac cells:
A. require a stimulus from the vagus nerve in order to reach threshold; other cardiac cells do not.
B. reach threshold with much weaker stimuli than other cardiac cells
C. have gap junctions, while other cardiac cells do not
D. do not require an external stimulus to reach threshold, while other cardiac cells do.

47. In a normal ECG trace, what does a QRS wave indicate?
A. depolarisation of the atria
B. repolarisation of the atria
C. depolarisation of the ventricles
D. repolarisation of the ventricles

48. What would be a possible consequence of the SA node failing to depolarise?
A. the entire heart would not contract
B. the heart rate will decrease
C. the ventricles would not contract
D. the heart rate will increase

49. By what means does an electrical signal travel from the atria to the ventricles? Via:
A. gap junctions
B. Purkinje fibres
C. intercalated discs
D. atrioventricular bundle

50. Which one of the following descriptions or statements about an electrocardiogram (ECG) is NOT correct?
A. It is a record of the voltage changes (as measured at the body surface) due to the
depolarisation of the muscle cells of the heart as it beats.
B. The potentials measured by the ECG electrodes are combined in various ways to give 12 different ECGs.
C. The ECG consists of the electrical events that follow the depolarisation of ventricles (PQR section), the depolarisation of atria (the S section) and the repolarisation of the ventricles (the T section).
D. The value of the potential difference called “limb lead II” varies with time to produce the familiar ECG trace – a graph of voltage vs time.

51. Which of the following does limb lead II of a typical electrocardiogram represent?
A. A graph of the variation of voltage produced by the heart against time.
B. The voltage at right arm (RA) plus the voltage at left leg (LL).
C. The electrical events that precede the contraction of the ventricles.
D. The projection of the electric dipole vector of the heart on the line from left
arm (LA) to right arm (RA).

52. Which of the following events occur during early ventricular systole?
A. the atria are relaxed, the ventricles are filling passively, the atrioventricular valves are open
B. the ventricles are starting to contract, the atrioventricular valves are closed, the semilunar valves are closed
C. the atria contract, the ventricles are relaxed, the atrioventricular valves are open
D. the atria are relaxed, the ventricles are starting to relax, the atrioventricular valves are opening, the semilunar valves are closing.

53. When listening to the “lub-dup” sound of the heart with a stethoscope, what is the cause of the “dup” sound?
A. The blood flowing through the open semilunar valves
B. The blood flowing through the open atrioventricular valves
C. The turbulent blood flow through closing atrioventricular valves
D. The turbulent blood flow through closing semilunar valves

54. What feature distinguishes pacemaker cardiac cells from other myocardial cells? Pacemaker cells:
A. require a stimulus from the vagus nerve in order to reach threshold, myocardial cells do not.
B. reach threshold with much weaker stimuli than myocardial cells.
C. have gap junctions, while myocardial cells do not.
D. spontaneously generate action potentials, while myocardial cells do not.

55. What structure in the heart prevents backflow of blood into the right atrium?
A. The tricuspid valve
B. The bicuspid valve
C. The mitral valve.
D. The foramen ovale

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