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Introduction to chromatography:- Hand written notes


Introduction to chromatography
Adsorption and partition column chromatography-Methodology, advantages, disadvantages and applications
Thin layer chromatography– Introduction, Principle, Methodology, Rf values, advantages, disadvantages and applications

The following points shouldbe taken into account in paper chromatography.
Choice of Filter Paper:
Chromatography paper is a specially manufactured paper. Whatman filter papers are used extensively. In general this filter paper contains 98 – 99Vo of c-cellulose. The mineral content may vary from 0.07 – 0.0IVo. Besides this p-cellulose, ether soluble matter, ammonia ancllipophilic substances (waxes, fats, etc.) are also present. Chromatographic papers are usually’ supplied in packs of 100 or 500 sheets of 46 x 57 cm or 58 x 68 cm and are cut to required size. The rectangular or square papers are cut from the sheet for separation of substances. There are various grades and types of paper available for separation of a sample. The proper choice of paper is dependent mainly upon the sample and solvent system used. Another important factor that governs the choice of paper is, whether the paper is to be used for quantitative, qualitative or preparative chromatographic analysis. The choice of paper is also based on the thickness, flow rate, purity and net strength. To speed up chromatographic analysis, coarser and faster papers are used i.e. Whatman paper number 31 is about four times faster than Whatman paper number 1. Slow papers are used rarely but they are important for separation of substances having close Rf value.
2. Modified Filter Papers :
For efficient separation of certain substances, specially treated or modified filter papers are used i.e. Buffered or treated papers like Whatman-Phosphate, Whatman-citrate or paper treated with alumina, silicic acid etc. In case of reversed phase chromatography, paper rs impregnated in mobile phase (nonpolar solvent), dried and then used.

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