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Microbiology notes:- PDF


Part 1: Biology of Microorganisms1. Introduction to Pharmaceutical Microbiology, 3Stephen Denyer, Norman Hodges and Sean Gorman2. Fundamental Features of Microbiology, 9Norman Hodges3. Bacteria, 23David Allison and Peter Gilbert4. Fungi, 44Kevin Kavanagh and Derek Sullivan5. Viruses, 59Jean-Yves Maillard and David Stickler6. Protozoa, 82Tim Paget7. Principles of Microbial Pathogenicity andEpidemiology, 103Peter Gilbert and David AllisonPart 2: Antimicrobial Agents8. Basic Aspects of the Structure and Functioningof the Immune System, 117Mark Gumbleton and James Furr9. Vaccination and Immunization, 138Peter Gilbert and David Allison10. Types of Antibiotics and SyntheticAntimicrobial Agents, 152A Denver Russell11. Laboratory Evaluation of AntimicrobialAgents, 187JMB Smith12. Mechanisms of Action of Antibiotics andSynthetic Anti-infective Agents, 202Peter Lambert13. Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics, 220Anthony Smith14. Clinical Uses of Antimicrobial Drugs, 233Roger FinchPart 3: Microbiological Aspects ofPharmaceutical Processing15. Ecology of Microorganisms as it Affects thePharmaceutical Industry, 251Elaine Underwood16. Microbial Spoilage, Infection Risk andContamination Control, 263Rosamund Baird17. Chemical Disinfectants, Antiseptics andPreservatives, 285Sean Gorman and Eileen Scott18. Non-Antibiotic Antibacterial Agents: Modeof Action and Resistance, 306Stephen Denyer and A Denver Russell19. Sterile Pharmaceutical Products, 323James Ford20. Sterilization Procedures and SterilityAssurance, 346Stephen Denyer and Norman Hodges21. Factory and Hospital Hygiene, 376Robert Jones22. Manufacture of Antibiotics, 387Sally Varian Microorganisms and medicinesDespite continuing poverty in many parts of theworld and the devastating effects of HIV and AIDSinfection on the African continent and elsewhere,the health of the world’s population is progressivelyimproving. This is reflected in the increase in life expectancy that has been recorded for the great majority of the countries reporting statistics to theWorld Health Organization over the last 40 years.In Central America, for example, the life expectancyhas increased from 55 years in 1960 to 71 years in2000, and the increase in North (but not sub-Saharan) Africa is even greater, from 47 to 68 years.Much of this improvement is due to better nutritionand sanitation, but improved health care and thegreater availability of effective medicines withwhich to treat common diseases are also major contributing factors. Substantial inroads have beenmade in the prevention and treatment of cancer,cardiovascular disease and other major causes ofdeath in Western society, and of infections and diar-rhoeal disease that remain the big killers in develop-ing countries. Several infectious diseases have beeneradicated completely, and others from substantialparts of the world. The global eradication of small-pox in 1977 is well documented, but 2002 saw threeof the world’s continents declared free of polio, andthe prospects are good for the total elimination ofpolio, measles and Chagas disease.The development of the many vaccines and othermedicines that have been so crucial to the improve-ment in world heath has been the result of the largeinvestment in research by the major internationalpharmaceutical companies. This has led to the manufacture of pharmaceuticals becoming one ofthe most consistently successful and important in-dustries in many countries, not only in the tradi-tional strongholds of North America, WesternEurope and Japan but, increasingly, in Eastern Eu-rope, the Indian subcontinent and the Far East.Worldwide sales of medicines and medical devicesare estimated to have exceeded $US 401 billion (ap-proximately £250 billion) in 2002, and this figure isrising by 8% per annum. In the UK alone, the valueof pharmaceutical exports is currently £10.03 bil-lion each year, a figure that translates to more than£150 000 for each employee in the industry.The growth of the pharmaceutical industry in re-cent decades has been paralleled by rising standardsfor product quality and more rigorous regulation ofmanufacturing procedures. In order to receive amanufacturing licence, a modern medicine must beshown to be effective, safe and of good quality.Most medicines consist of an active ingredient thatis formulated with a variety of other materials (ex-cipients) that are necessary to ensure that the medi-cine is effective, and remains stable, palatable andsafe during storage and use. While the efficacy andsafety aspects of the active ingredient are within thedomain of the pharmacologist and toxicologist, respectively, many other disciplines contribute tothe efficacy, safety and quality of the manufacturedproduct as a whole. Analytical chemists and phar-macists take lead responsibility for ensuring thatthe components of the medicine are present in the correct physical form and concentration, butquality is not judged solely on the physicochemicalproperties of the product: microorganisms alsohave the potential to influence efficacy and safety.It is obvious that medicines contaminated withpotentially pathogenic (disease-causing) micro

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