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Pharmacognocy 2 Unit:- 1 (Hand written notes)


Metabolic pathways in higher plants and their determination
a) Brief study of basic metabolic pathways and formation of different secondary metabolites through these pathways Shikimic acid pathway, Acetate pathways and Amino acid pathway.
b) Study of utilization of radioactive isotopes in the investigation of Biogenetic studies.

• For facilitating their living, growth, and reproduction, all organisms convert and
interchange a large number of organic compounds. They obtain ATP as energy
and a supply of building block s for making up their tissue s. This requires an integrated network of enzyme -mediated and cautiously regulated chemical reactions, which are jointly termed intermediary metabolism, and the involved pathways are termed metabolic pathways . Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and nucleic acids are a few essential molecules of life.
Apart from minor variations , the general pathway s involved in the modification and synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and nucleic acids are mainly same in all organisms. These processes demonstrate the b asic unity of the living matter, and are collectively termed as primary metabolism , and the involved compounds are termed primary metabolites. An area of metabolism concerned with compounds having a limited distribution in nature also exists. These compounds are secondary metabolites, which are found in certain organisms or groups of organisms. These compounds are an expression for the distinctiveness of species. Secondary metabolites are not produced under all condi tions. In large number of cases , the function of secondary metabolites and their benefit to the organisms is still to be known.

  • Chapter 1: Metabolic Pathways in
    Higher Plants and Their
  • Metabolic Pathways
  • Introduction
  • Basic Metabolic Pathways
  • Shikimic Acid Pathway (Amino Acid Pathway)
  • Acetate-Mevalonate Pathway
  • Acetate-Malonate Pathway
  • Formation of Different
  • Secondary Metabolites
  • Biogenesis of Alkaloids
  • Biogenesis of Glycosides
  • Biogenesis of Terpenes
  • Biogenesis of Steroids
  • Biogenesis of Isoprenoid
  • Biogenesis of Carotenoids
  • Biogenesis of Flavonoids
    • Cognosy 2 pdf notes download
      • BPharmacy sem 5 Hand written notes Download pdf
      • B.pharm sem 5 Pharmacognosy 2 Hand written notes free download
      • Pharmacy semester 5th cognosy hand written notes pdf
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      • Subject:– Pharmacognosy 2
      • Semester:- Fifth sem, sem 5
      • Course:- Bachelor of pharmacy, bpharm