1. The volatile oils are complex mixtures of
A) mono- and sesquiterpenes and phenylpropane derivatives
B) mono- and diterpene alcohols and ethers
C) Sesquiterpenes and other aromatic compounds
D) Monoterpene acids and lactones
2. Which of the following are known as balsams?
A) Resins dissolved in volatile oil
B) A mixture of volatile oils with sesquiterpenes
C) Resins dissolved in water
D) Polysaccharides mixed with volatile oil
3. Alkaloids are naturally occurring compounds which contain …..in their molecules.
A) One or more N atoms
B) Two heterocyclic rings
C) A side-chain on one of the benzene rings
D) One or more N atoms originating from amino acids
4. The iridoids are…
A) Constituents of volatile oils
B) Starting units of tannin biogenesis
C) Precursors of the biosynthesis of saponins
D) Precursors of the biogenesis of certain alkaloids
5. Which of the following methods is used to get alkaloids in base form from plant material?
A) Adding ammonium hydroxide and water to the pulverized drug
B) Making an extract with mineral acid and organic solvent
C) Making an extract with base and organic solvent
D) Adding mineral acid and water to the powdered drug
6. Which of the following explanations is why morphine can be separated from its accompanying alkaloids?
A) Morphine contains a Piperidine ring.
B) Morphine contains two methoxy groups.
C) Morphine contains a phenolic hydroxyl group whereas the accompanying alkaloids have none.
D) Morphine does not contain phenolic hydroxyl group whereas the accompanying alkaloids contain one.
7. Which of the following is the skeleton of Cinchona alkaloids?
8. Which of the following is the reagent for alkaloids?
A) 2, 4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine
B) Iron (III) chloride
C) Antimony (III) chloride
9. Ergot is the………………….of the fungus Claviceps purpurea.
A) Vegetative form
B) Dried sclerotium
10. Which of the following is the difference between the chemical structures of cotton and starch?
A) Cotton consists of α-glucose molecules, whereas starch contains branched β-glucose residues
B) Cotton consists of unbranched β-glucose molecules, whereas starch contains unbranched α- and β-glucose residues
C) Cotton is built up from glucose residues linked by 1, 4-β-D-glucose bonds, whereas starch contains branched and linear chains of 1, 4-α- and 1, 6-α-D-glucose residues
D) Both consist of branched and linear 1, 4-α-Dglucose units
11. Which of the following is the structure of the flavonoids of Silybum marianum?
A) Dimeric flavan-3, 4-diol
B) Monomeric flavon-3-ol
D) A simple flavanonol-glycoside
12. Which of the following is the test for the identification of anthraquinones?
A) The Marquis test
B) The Froehde test
C) The Liebermann-Burchard test
D) The Bornträeger test
13. Which of the following is the way to detect procyanidins?
A) When heated with dilute NaOH, procyanidins give a green colour
B) Procyanidins give a yellow colour with concentrated nitric acid
C) When heated with cc. HCl, procyanidins give a red colour. On extraction of the mixture With nBuOH, the butanolic phase turns red
D) When heated with resorcinol, procyanidins give a bluish-violet colour.
14. Which of the following is the assay for determination of the volatile oil contents of herbal drugs?
A) Steam distillation
B) Extraction with light petrol
C) Distillation by Marcusson’s method
D) Determination of the loss on drying
15. Why is it not recommended to use Rheum raponticum instead of Rheum palmatum for medical purposes?
A) Because the emodin content of R. raponticum is too high
B) Because the rhein content of the R. raponticum is too low
C) Because the chrysophanol content of R. raponticum is too high
D) Because R. raponticum contains a stilbene derivative which has undesirable hormonal Activity
16. Which of the following compounds transforms to chamazulen on steam distillation?
17. Which of the following drugs contains inulin?
A) Cichorii radix
B) Symphyti radix
C) Plantaginis herba
D) Trigonellae foenugraeci semen
18. Hashish is the…….. Of Cannabis sativa.
A) Gum of the male flowers
B) Resin of the female flowers
C) Gum of the male and female flowers
D) Pressed juice of the leaves
19. Which of the following is opium?
A) The dried latex exudate of the unripe incised capsules
B) The dried aqueous extract of the ripe capsules
C) The dried alcoholic extract of the unripe capsules
D) A concentrated alcoholic extract of the poppy straw
20. Which of the following is the common skeleton of physiologically active ergoline alkaloids?
A) Isolysergic acid
C) Lysergic acid
21. Poppy straw is the industrial raw material of morphine production because
A) Poppy straw contains only morphine
B) Poppy straw does not contain other accompanying alkaloids
C) Poppy straw has the maximum morphine content
D) Poppy straw is the cheapest available raw material
22. Which of the following achievements is associated with Miklós Békéssy?
A) The industrial production of essential oils by steam distillation
B) The industrial production of poppy alkaloids
C) The cultivation of ergot
D) The isolation of morphine
23. Which of the following drugs has the highest caffeine content?
A) Mate folium
B) Theae folium
D) Coffeae semen
24. Which of the following constituents is not present in Matricariae aetheroleum?
25. Inulin is a (n)…
26. Which of the following is an alkaloid with a purine skeleton?
27. Which of the following drugs has a carminative effect?
A) Frangulae cortex
B) Centaurii herba
C) Silybi mariani fructus
D) Foeniculi fructus
28. Which of the following drugs contains ajoene?
A) Valerianae radix
B) Agrimoniae herba
C) Echinaceae radix
d) Allii sativi bulbus
29. Which of the following plant constituents can be characterized by irreversible complexation with proteins?
30. Which of the following drugs contains aucubin?
A) Marrubii herba
B) Agrimoniae herba
C) Valerianae radix
D) Plantaginis lanceolatae folium
E) Cyani flos
31. Hide powder is used in the traditional method of tannin quantitation because…
A) Hide powder gives a colour reaction with tannins
B) Hide powder reacts with polyphenols
C) hide powder reduces tannins
D) Hide powder reacts with tannins
32. Which of the following types of compound is arbutin, used in urological infections?
A) A flavonoid glycoside
B) A phenolic glycoside
C) A furanocoumarin
D) An iridoid glycoside
33. With which of the following methods can the tertiary alkaloids be extracted in salt form?
A) With organic solvents such as chloroform
B) On boiling with aqueous ammonia solution
C) With organic solvents containing alkaline solution
D) With an acidic aqueous solution
34. Which of the following drugs contains anthraquinone derivatives?
A) Betulae folium
B) Graminis rhizoma
C) Rhei radix
D) Herniariae herba
35. Which of the following reagents is suitable for identification of the Secale cornutum alkaloids?
A) The van Urk reagent
B) The Fehling I and II reagents
C) Iron (III) chloride
D) Phloroglucinol in hydrochloric acid
36. Iridoids are…:
A) Stress compounds characteristic of the Lamiaceae family
B) Sesquiterpenes with a bitter taste
C) Monoterpenes with a cyclopenta-(c)-pyrane structure
37. The bitter value is the……………….. Of an extract made of 1g of drug, which just has a bitter taste.
A) Highest dilution
B) Lowest dilution
C) Lowest concentration
D) Highest concentration
38. Which of the following drugs contains laxative compounds?
A) Sennae folium
B) Hyperici herba
C) Urticae radix
D) Equiseti herba
39. Which of the following is the toxic compound of linseed?
40. Linoleic acid is a (n)…
A) Saturated ω-6 fatty acid
B) Unsaturated ω-6 fatty acid
C) Unsaturated ω-3 fatty acid
D) ω-9 fatty acid
41. Which of the following contains a fixed oil rich in γ-linolenic acid?
A) Zea mays
B) Sesamum indicum
C) Oenothera biennis
D) Ricinus communis
E) Glycine max
42. Which of the following compounds contains an N atom?
A) Naphthoquinone Derivatives
43. Atropine is a 1:1 mixture of D and L-…
44. Which of the following “mystic” plants contains alkaloids with a tropane skeleton?
A) Betel Palm
45. Which of the following indications is not applicable for Capsici fructus?
A) Topical application in rheumatic disorders
C) Promotion of wound healing
D) Relieving neuralgias
46. The main compound of Ephedrae herba is the analogue of the synthetic molecule…
D) Ethyl morphine
47. Which of the following compounds is characteristic of Rauwolfiae radix?
48. The comfrey root is only suitable for topical application because the drug contains
A) Alkaloids with a tropane skeleton
B) Piperidine alkaloids
D) Pyrrolizidine alkaloids
49. The toxic Conii fructus can easily be confused with…
A) Fennel seed
C) Anise seed
D) Coriander seed
50. Which of the following is the main active component of betel nut?
B) Chlorogenic acid