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Raw Materials – Preservatives :- PDF/PPT

Description

Subject:- herbal drug Technology

Semester:- 6th sem

Course:- Bachelor of Pharmacy B Pharmacy

•   Subject Code: BP603T
Subject Title: Herbal Drug Technology


               Contents
             • Preservatives
             • Antioxidants
               • Perfumes




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           Raw Materials - Preservatives

• At the end of this lecture, student will be able to:
   – Identify suitable raw materials for preparing herbal
     cosmetics

   – Explain the various preservatives available for formulating
     herbal cosmetics

   – Explain the various antioxidants available for formulating
     herbal cosmetics

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                          Preservatives
• Preservative - “any substances which are exclusively or mainly

    intended to inhibit the development of microorganisms in the

    cosmetic product”.

•   Preservatives help to preserve the formula and ensure the

    durability of your cosmetic products.

• They are essential for a formula containing water. Indeed, the

    presence of water in a formula creates a favorable environment for

    microorganisms development.
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                       Preservatives
• Used in cosmetics is essential to prevent alterations caused by

  microorganisms and contamination during formulation, shipment,

  storage or consumer use.




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                  Synthetic Preservatives
                             Advantages
  Using synthetic preservatives allows you to have a good
  understanding of the safety and toxicity profile of the ingredient.
  Low concentrations of synthetic preservatives effectively preserve
  the product.

• Synthetic preservatives have a broad spectrum of activity against
  bacteria and fungi.

• They are more affordable than natural preservatives.


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                 Organohalogen compounds
Organohalogen compounds are a large class of natural and synthetic

    chemical that contain at least one following halogens: fluorine,

    chlorine, bromine, iodine.
•   Triclosan
•   Methylisothiazolinone
•   Methylchloroisothiazolinone
•   Chlorphenesin
•   Chloroxylenol



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                  Aldehyde and Glycol ethers
•   Formaldehyde
•   Benzylhemiformal
•   Diazolidinyl urea
•   Imidazolidinyl urea
•   2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol
•   DMDM hydantoin
•   MDM hydantoin

•   phenoxyethanol
•   2-butoxyethanol
•   2-(2-butoxyethoxy)-ethanol
•   2-(2-ethoxy)-ethanol
•   Benzylhemiformal
•   Diazolidinyl urea
•   Imidazolidinyl urea
•   2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol
•   DMDM hydantoin
•   MDM hydantoin

•   phenoxyethanol
•   2-butoxyethanol
•   2-(2-butoxyethoxy)-ethanol
•   2-(2-ethoxy)-ethanol

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                             Parabens

• Parabens are a series of parahydroxybenzoates or esters of
  parahydroxybenzoic acid. They are known as preservatives and
  used for their bactericidal and fungicidal properties.



• Methylparaben

• Ethylparaben

• Propylparaben

• Butylparaben

• Isobutylparaben
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                     Natural preservatives
• List of the most common natural preservatives found in cosmetic
  products

•   Benzoic Acid
•   Sorbic Acid
•   Salicylic Acid
•   Alcohol




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                 Antioxidant preservatives
• An antioxidant is a substance that inhibits oxidation or reactions
  promoted by oxygen, peroxides or free radicals.
Synthetic antioxidant
• Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)
• Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)
Natural antioxidant
• Tocopherol (Vitamin E)
• Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
• Polyphenols
• Flavonoids



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               Raw materials – Antioxidants

•   Cosmetics – prone to spoilage – oxidation of fats, fatty acids and


    other organic material by atmospheric oxygen


•   Antioxidants – keeps oils and fats from rancid


•   Concentration – 0.02% - 0.1%




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                Raw materials – Antioxidants
Ideal characters

•   Stable

•   Effective over a wide PH range

•   Colorless and odorless

•   Non toxic

•   Compatible – other ingredients and packaging material




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                Raw materials – Antioxidants
Phenolic antioxidants

1. Vitamin E

•   Natural antioxidant – topically applied –UV radiation

•   Shown to reduce – erythema, edema and sun burn

•   Increase SPF - antiageing effect

2. Gallate – Methyl, ethyl, propyl, octyl gallate

3. BHA – Butyrated hydroxy anisole

4. BHT – Butyrated hydroxy toulene

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                Raw materials – Antioxidants
BHA and BHT

•   Neutalise fee oxygen radicals

•   Prevent auto oxidation of organic materials – rancidity of fats and
    oils

•   Extend - product shelf life

•   Effective with EDTA

•   Concentration – 0.01 – 0.1%

•   Preserve and stabilize – creams, lotions, shampoos, make ups and
    sunscreen lotions
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                Raw materials – Antioxidants
Non - Phenolic antioxidants

1. Vitamin C/Ascorbic acid

•   Protects skin – oxidative damage – UV rays

•   Anti ageing property – avoids hyper pigmentation

•   Anti inflammatory

•   Effect is increased with Vitamin C and E

•   Concentration – 0.2 – 4 %

•   Used - lotions, creams, sun protection products, shampoos and
    lipsticks
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                Raw materials – Antioxidants
2. Lecithin – Synergist – phenolic antioxidant

3. Coenzyme Q 10

•   Benzoquinone compound – plant and human tissues

•   Membranes of endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, vesicles, inner
    membrane of mitochondria

•   Because of ability to transfer electron – antioxidant

•   Concentration – 2-6%

•   Anti wrinkle property


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               Raw materials – Antioxidants
4. Grape seed extract

•   Proanthocyanidins

5. Pine bark extract

•   Pyenogenol -wine, cranberries, green and black tea, black currant
    onions




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                  Raw materials – Perfumes
•   Per – through, Fumum – smoke

•   Early perfumes – pleasant smells – burning wood and grass

•   Component - impart fragrance – cosmetic products

•   Used - products – bath salt to skin lotions, face creams, sprays,
    shampoos and aromatic substances

•   Level of fragrances – varies – product to product

•   Face creams – 0.01% fragrance/weight

•   Soap – 0.5% - 3%


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                  Raw materials – Perfumes
Classified

•   Ottos – concentrated principle – natural flowers

•   Floral oils –Rose, jasmine, broom, gardenia, orchid

•   Essential oils – Eucalyptus, peppermint, mint, citrus, vetver oil,
    clove, lemon and coriander oil

•   Dipropylene glycol

•   Benzaldehyde

•   Benzophenone

•   Benzyl benzoate
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                           Summary
•   Used in cosmetics is essential to prevent alterations caused
    by microorganisms and contamination during formulation,
    shipment, storage or consumer use.

•   Antioxidants – keeps oils and fats from rancid

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