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Biotechnology important Question Answer (Hand Written Notes)

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Chapter : Introduction to Biotechnology.. Biotechnology … Introduction … Historical Background … Applications of Biotechnology in Pharmaceutical Sciences .. Enzyme Biotechnology … Introduction … Enzyme Immobilization … Methods of Enzyme Immobilization …. Adsorption Method …. Covalent Bonding …. Cross-Linking …. Entrapment …. Encapsulation … Applications of Enzyme Immobilization in Pharm acy …. Production of Antibiotics …. Production of Steroids …. Production of Amino Acids …. Production of Acids …. Other Organic Compounds …. Analytical Applications … Production of Enzymes …. Use of Microbes in Industry …. General Consideration …. Amylase …. Catalase …. Peroxidase …. Lipase …. Protease …. Penicillinase .. Summary .. Exercise Chapter : Biosensors, Protein and Genetic Engineering.. Biosensors … Introduction … Principle … Working … Types … Applications in Pharmaceutical Industries .. Protein Engineering … Introduction … Objectives – -* *… Increasing the Stability and Biological Activity of Proteins …. Addition of Disulfide Bonds …. Changing Asparagine to Other Amino Acids …. Reducing the Free Sulfhydryl Groups …. Single Amino Acid Changes …. Improving Kinetic Properties of Enzymes … Applications .. Genetic Engineering … Introduction … Historical Background … Basic Principles … Process … Applications .. Summary .. Exercise Module IIChapter : Recombinant DNA Technology.. Recombinant DNA Technology (Gene Cloning) … Introduction … Isolation of Target DNA …. Restriction Endonuclease Digestion …. cDNA Clones …. Mechanical Shearing …. Chemical Synthesis … Insertion of Target DNA Into a Vector …. Direct Ligation of Cohesive Termini (DNA Ligase) …. Blunt End Ligation …. Linkers and Adapters …. Homopolymer Tailing … Study of Cloning Vectors …. Plasmids …. Bacteriophages …. Cosmids …. Phagemids …. Vectors for Cloning Larger DNA Fragments …. Vectors for Preparing Single-Stranded DNA …. Expression Vectors … Identification and Isolation of Recombinant Genes …. Colony Hybridisation (or Nucleic Acid Hybridisation) by ReplicaPlate Method…. Hybrid Released Translation (HRT) Method …. Immunochemical Detection … Expression of Cloned Gene Within the Host … Techniques Used In Recombinant DNA Technology …. Gel Electrophoresis …. Blotting Techniques – -* *…. Dot Blot Hybridisation …. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) … Applications of rDNA T echnology and Genetic Engineering inMedicine… Application of rDNA Technology and Genetic Engineering in theProduction of Interferon… Application of rDNA Technology and Genetic Engineering in theProduction of Hepatitis Vaccine… Application of rDNA Technology and Genetic Engineering in theProduction of Insulin.. Summary .. Exercise Module IIIChapter : Immunology.. Immunity … Introduction … Types of Immunity … Non-Specific/Innate/Neutral Immunity …. Types …. Mechanisms … Specific/Acquired/Adaptive Immunity …. Active Immunity …. Passive Immunity … Cellular/Cell-Mediated/T-Cell Immunity …. Mechanism …. Importance … Humoral/Antibody-Mediated/B-Cell Immunity …. Immunoglobulins Participating in Humoral Immunity …. Mechanism .. Immunoglobulins … Introduction … Classification … Structure .. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) … Introduction … Classes … Structure … Functions .. Hypersensitivity Reactions … Introduction … Types …. Type I Hypersensitivity …. Type II Hypersensitivity …. Type III Hypersensitivity …. Type IV Hypersensitivity …. Type V Hypersensitivity … Immune Stimulation – -* *… Immune Suppression .. Summary .. Exercise Chapter : Immunisation.. Vaccines … Introduction … Classification … General Method of Preparation …. Bacterial Vaccines …. Toxoids …. Viral Vaccines …. Antitoxins …. Serum … Storage Conditions and Stability of Official Vaccin es …. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin or BCG Vaccine …. Pertussis Vaccine (Whooping Cough Vaccine) …. Cholera Vaccine …. Tetanus Toxoid …. Rabies Vaccine …. Polio Vaccine …. Typhoid Vaccine …. Hepatitis Vaccine …. AIDS Vaccine …. Diphtheria Antitoxin .. Hybridoma Technology … Introduction … Principle … Production of MAbs …. Immunisation …. Cell Fusion …. Selection of Hybridomas …. Screening the Products …. Cloning and Propagation …. Characterisation and Storage … Large Scale Production of MAbs … Purification of MAbs … Applications of MAbs …. Diagnostic Applications …. Therapeutic Applications …. Protein Purification …. Miscellaneous Applications .. Summary .. Exercise – -* *Module IVChapter : Immuno-Blotting Techniques.. Immuno-Blotting Techniques … Introduction … Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) …. Principle …. Procedure …. Types of ELISA …. Applications … Western Blotting …. Principle …. Procedure …. Applications … Southern Blotting …. Principle …. Procedure …. Applications .. Genetic Organisation of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes … Introduction … Eukaryotes … Prokaryotes .. Summary .. Exercise Chapter : Microbial Genetics and Biotransformation.. Microbial Genetics … Introduction … Transformation … Transduction …. Specialised Transduction …. Generalised Transduction … Conjugation … Plasmids …. Properties …. Physical Nature …. Types …. Replication …. Incompatibility … Transposons …. Types …. Significance .. Microbial Biotransformation … Introduction … Types of Reactions … Sources of Biocatalysts … Applications – -* *.. Summary .. Exercise Chapter : Mutation.. Mutation … Introduction … Types of Mutation … Types of Mutants … Agents of Mutation – Mutagens …. Physical Mutagens …. Chemical Mutagens .. Summary .. Exercise Module VChapter : Fermentation.. Fermentation … Introduction … Fermentation Methods …. Batch Fermentation …. Fed-Batch Fermentation …. Continuous Fermentation … General Requirements … Study of Media …. Types of Media …. Culture Media for Lactobacilli and E. coli …. Culture Media for Viruses … Study of Equipments … Sterilisation Methods …. Sterilisation of Fermenter …. Sterilisation of Media …. Sterilisation of Air … Large-Scale Production Fermenter Design …. Cooling Jacket …. Aeration System and Stirring …. Baffles …. Controlling Devices for Environmental Factors …. Use of Computer in Fermenter … Various Controls of a Fermenter … Factors Affecting Fermenter Design … Production of Penicillins …. Strain Development …. Inoculum Production …. Inoculation …. Medium …. Extraction and Purification – -* *… Production of Citric Acid …. Microbial Strains for Citric Acid Production …. Medium …. Production Processes for Citric Acid …. Surface Processes …. Submerged Processes …. Recovery of Citric Acid … Production of Vitamin B …. Fermentation of Pseudomonas denitrificans …. Fermentation of Propionibacterium shermanii …. Isolation and Purification … Production of Glutamic Acid …. Medium …. Process …. Recovery … Production of Griseofulvin …. Inoculum Development …. Extraction and Purification .. Summary .. Exercise Chapter : Blood Products and Plasma Substitutes.. Blood Products … Introduction … Whole Human Blood …. Collection …. Processing …. Storage … Plasma, Serum and Plasma Fractions …. Dried Human Plasma BP …. Fresh Frozen Plasma …. Dried Human Serum, BP … Plasma Substitutes …. Ideal Requirements of Plasma Substitutes …. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) …. Dextran .. Summary .. Exercise

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