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IR spectroscopy:- Hand written notes


IR spectroscopy
Introduction, fundamental modes of vibrations in poly atomic molecules, sample handling, factors affecting vibrations
Instrumentation – Sources of radiation, wavelength selectors, detectors – Golay Cell, Bolometer, Thermocouple, Thermister, Pyroelectric detector and applications

Applications : One of the important feature of fluorescence analysis is its sensitivity. And in this respect it is considered to be superior than absorption spectrophotometry. In absorption spectrophotometry the difference between the two final signals Ie and 11 is measured. The sensitivity is thus governed by the ability to distinguish between these two, which is dependent on the strength and nature of the instrument, besides other factors. In fluorimetry, however, we measure the difference between zero and finite number. Thus in principle the limit of
detection is governed by the intensity of source and sensitivity of detector. It is thus possible to measure fluorescence in very dilute (10-8 M) solutions. Fluorimetric analysis is possible for wide variety of drugs. Those substances which are intrinsically fluorescent are readily determined simply by dissolving in appropriate solvent or media. e.g. Aminocrine in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid, Ergometrine in lVo tartaric acid, Riboflavine in aqueous buffer of pH 6, quinine in 0.1 N sulphuric acid etc.
Substances which by themselves are nonfluorescent can be converted into fluorogenic by chemical change. Such change can be carried out both in organic and inorganic compounds
e.g. Thiarnine (vitamin Br) is oxidised to thiochrome adrenaline to adrenochrome. In other cases, fluorogenic reagent is allowed to react with organic or inorganic compounds to form fluorogenic complexes. Thus, substances like allylmorphine, para-amino salicylic acid, chloroquine, folic acid, menadione, phenobarbitone, procaine, thymol, aluminium, selenium etc. can be analysed by.coupling with suitable reagent, It is possible to estimate one drug in presence of other fluorimetrically by adopting suitable
technique. e. g. by changing pH, thus converting ionic to non-ionic and vice-versa. Morphine, codeine, atropine can be estimated by preparing derivative which are fluorogenic in nature.

  • IR spectroscopy:- Hand written notes download free

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  • Subject:– Instrumental Methods of Analysis
  • Semester:- sevenths sem, sem 7
  • Course:- Bachelor of pharmacy, bpharm

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